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Full text of "Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University."

sTKIHl TIOXS FROM THE GRAY HER 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



A New Pondweed from Tennessee . 

Pilc;i in Kastern North America. . . 

Memoranda on I {aiuincillus 

The Nomenclature of Sassafras. 



aphaliun, obti 
ml Transfers. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY— NO. CXIII. 

M. L. Fernald 

(Plates 412-434) 1 
During the studies necessary in a thorough revision of Gray's 
Manual much new or newly interpreted matter is inevitably accumu- 
lated. The following items assembled during the past two years are 
here published in the more extended form which, of course, will be 
impossible in the condensed work, when eventually finished. In a few 
cases, the new Potamogeton for instance, plants slightly outside the 
'ii-'niii.ii-range are discussed. 

I. A NEW PONDWEED FROM TENNESSEE 



Professor H. M. Jennisou. >wimming arr,>>, 



Clear 

, Tennessee, found himself dragging 
brought 
I North t 

no provision for Jennison's plant, 
listeria] was barely in flower, but 
•er spikes and had much longer- 
• floating leaves with 9-23, instead 



/>. hi, 






unknown and wholly provisional 



166 Rhodora [May 

P. Purshii Tuckerm. Am. Journ. Sci. ser. 2, vi. 228 (1848). Now, 
thanks to the activity of Dr. H. K. Svenson, we have a fine suite of 
material of Jennison's plant in fruit and some in flower showing that 
it is a species unique in many characters and as closely allied to the 
subsection Kuttalliani (P. epihydrus Raf.) as to the subsection Hybridi 
(P. bicupulatus Fern., P. capillacem Poir., etc.), in fact standing mid- 
way between those two American subsections. Its adnate stipules 
and linear-filiform, flaccid, submersed leaves without lateral nerves 
show, also, that it is not wholly unrelated to the primitive subgenus 
Coleogeton. 

As to the name Patamogeton Purshii, I expressed myself in 1932. 
The name was published as a provisional one of Tuckerman's, meant to 
clinch the naming of the species, should some one later carefully 

a J} G u ^ ot , w&s that upon Pursh's sterile and perhaps unidentifiable 
S™ e °* C erm x n , n ? ade a ,P rovN ^ the fruit 

confirm its apparent claims to be considered a specie, it , ,, i „t inap- 
propriately take the name of P. Purshii " 

and manT™ ^ £""*£* haS n ? been studied ^ subsequent authors 
fitaKShFrP as to its identity. On account of its 

been^nn^JT ZT" * ' Jt ^ often 

23T M T g ™*n <£at (P - Wihydrm, var. Nuttallii); but the 
rr^hnfr • T 6S i' M A wn ! " altogether too narrow. 

eiSfan HC " l: ' ( 190? ) * 00k U P P- P™hii of » Vir- 

RTbfn, rSw na H. Wl1 J 0Ut i qU u eSt T 10 ? for the boreal s P ecies > P- Oakesianus 
etc south t Txpw T and a ? d S ^ abr , ad0r Peninsula to the Adirondacks, 
morenorthprn V* T , "- , " , ^ K >' 'W, n cannot be the latter 
Tuckerma^ lt t; / n< ' ? of the type. 

^^P^ZZ^^^U^^ of Ms time and the 

TuttrlXTthe I'm" ^ UP " UnfortttX^SrfSS 
^"val ^v 1 ™^^,^!^^* ^b^gs to reject such 



t validly published, did 



pport it deserved. I'ntil 



sound. „„, b e „ ur ^i^zsittl:^;;;-,;i: 

is not probable that the ill- 
i recurring annoyance. 
Although these provisional names were not excluded at the Inter- 
national Congress at Cambridge (1930), they were, most happily, ruled 
our „, Amsterdam . (1935). The vague and unsatisfactorily published 

1 ""! '"..I" ' ""?' '' ^ d ^-PPears and the question whether Jenni- 

son s and b\enson s material belongs to it becomes merely an academic 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 167 

one except for the geographic interest of knowing whether Tucker- 
man's plant of "slow flowing streams of Virginia and Carolina" is 
the same. At any rate, the Tennessee plant may appropriately take 
the name 

Potamogeton teiinesseensis, sp. nov. (tab. 412), caulibus 
tcriuissitiiis ;i<1 I .."» mm. diametro 3-6 dm. longis subsimplicibus vel 
valdernmosis; folds submersis rlaecidis liin-.-iri-filit'.»rinil>n> 0.2-0.0 mm. 
latis uninerviis vel obsolete trinerviis valde lacunatis apice attenuatis 
basi stipulis hyalinis convolutis obtusis adnatis; loliis natantihiis 
laneeolatis \ el lanceolato-oblongis acutis, petiolis plerumque quam 
lamina foliorum valde longioribus. laminis 2-4 cm. b.niiis 5-F* mm. 
latis <> 2:>-nerviis, nervis subtus impressis: peduneulis crassis elavatis 
3-8 cm. longis adseendentihus; spicis cylin<lricis 1-2.2 cm. longis. 
matnris 4.5 (i mm. crassis; connectivis unguiculatis 2 mm. longis limbo 
oblatis 1.") nun. latis; fructu quadrato-orbiculato a latere compresso 
3-carinato 2.5-3 mm. longo 2-2.5 mm. lato, basi truncate 0.8-1 mm. 
lato, dorso senii-orbiculato alato-carinato, carina acuta 0.5-0.8 mm. 
lata, Integra vel remote obtnsc(|iic dentata, carinis la teralibus acutis 
intcgris. ventre eouvexo obtusanguli, lateribus inter carinis lateralibus 
latis plain's, rostro marginale erecto 0.4 mm. longo.— Tk\m.»kk: 
Clear Fork River, 1 mile north of Rugby, Morgan County, May 2S, 
1033, //. .1/. J, unison, no. 33-130 (flowering material- abundant in 
eddies of a rapid stream. Clear Fork. Clarkrange, 20 miles south of 
Jamestown. Fentress County, July II. 1935, H. K. Svmson, no. 0750 
(type in Gray Herb.; isotypes in Herb. Brooklyn Bot. Card, and 
elsewhere i- l)'ad<lv's Creek.' bv mill south of Crossville. Cumberland 
County, July 20, 'l 935, ./. K.'l'ndcrwood & A. J. Sharp, no. 2961. 

PoUnnoqrton immwnittix, known only from streams of the Cumber- 
land Plateau, at altitudes from 1400 feet (Rugby) to about 1900 feet 
(Crossville), is a remarkably interesting plant. It bridges the gap 
which has hitherto clearly separated the Hybridi, a purely American 
subsection of § . I.n/Am .v, and the subsection Xutftdlinni \l\ vpihydrm 

(tho, l dr, < l!. l d,tVd l ^C , .u , Jap : in. IM In in almost capillary, submersed 
leave-T. ki. •> -,dinte to tin' bases of the stipules I Flc;. 3) and in the 

from anion-' the dilated ones it inevitably suggests P. capilhmi.* Poir. 
and the local Mle'dicnian /'. hivupuhdus Fernald of the Hybridi; 
and the uhnte stipules and simple leaf-structure also suggest P. 
filiform]* 1,| other'memhers of subgenus Cohogrton. Its floating 
leaves too' su^'-est those of /'. mpilhuriis and P.birupu latus but they 
are larlland^uith '>"'>:{' nerves, tin- dilated leaves of P. capillacens 
having ~ »■/'/• ' hihis 5-7 nerves. In the number of nerves 



Rhodo: 



these leaves of P. tennessccnsis more nearly approach those of P 
Spmlh* Tuckerman (5-15) and of /'. die r.ifnfi,., R a f. (7-15) but 
in those species the dilated leaves are blunt or emarginate and the 



rly ribbon-like submersed leaves blunt and at base more adnate 
to the stipules. In the Hybridi all the species have few-flowered and 
subglobose, sessile or barely peduncled spikes in the axils of the sub- 
mersed leaves; these are quite wanting in P. tennesseemis. In the 
Uybndt all the species have the elongate upper spikes on peduncles 
but 0.2-3 cm. long and the sepaloid connectives 0.5-1 mm. long 
(the peduncles of P. tennesseensis 3-8 cm long the connectives 2 mm 
Jong) In all the Hybridi the fruits are strongly compressed laterally," 
Deakless or with beak a minute tooth, the form of the spiral embryo 
is clearly evident through the thin coat, and the fruits 1 -" ■> mm 
long, are usually strongly toothed on the dorsal keel- P tnnu^rnsis 
has less compressed fruits (figs. 5-7) with thick coat completely 
hiding the form of the embryo, the beak erect ,n,l stout 'rile dors-il 
and sharp lateral keels entire or essentially so and the .nature fruits 
2.5-3 mm. long. In the Alleghenian P. ^,„W„/„*. which it super- 
ficially resembles, the fruits have the sides, between the coarsely 
dentate-smuate lateral keels and the ventral margin, cup- or crater- 
low kte^tX^rt' h ° WeVer ' thC Sid6S ^ eSS6ntially "^ and the 

HvbrTlTT therefore ' can hardIy be p lawi - the ■*■**■ 

if 1 1< , n r turn to the Nummmi *• «* *** *■ -^ 

leavlnV,? T « 2^ ° f r6defining the Section. The submersed 
eaves of the i\uttalliani are ribbon-like and up to 1 cm broad with 
fee hyaline stipules; but otherwise, in dilat.,1 |,, 1V ,. S M,i,k,n,d base 

weeds Th ^ f ^" M ™ ^ «^«* else in our pond- 

fa eral U "T *** ° f the «* ■*» """"• entire dorsal and 
hort b t a " d , eSSentiall y ^t faces. M ,,,l M the stout, though 
Sit there ^ ° f *« ^ < Mt sho ™ in ^ plate) all 

ot^utli^Tr C ° nCentration - ^ Cumberland and 

ADDalaehTn i Tl Tennes ^ *»° adjacent areas of the old 

as'plt s I ^ ,° f f liC " SPeCieS ° f m ^ *™I» (--als as well 

Delt ' am mClmed t0 l0 ° k U P° n ft*~H« W»,, as a 

sSoT^ t0fthe8n ^ «*" ^ *** the Vnu-rican 
subsection iV —am and ^ other Am 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 169 

have diverged, the first toward the development of ribbon-like and 
quite free submersed blades, the second retaining the adnation of 
the leaf-bases and stipules and the slender submersed blades but 
developing the small submersed (cleistogamous?) spikes and the 

thinner-walled fruits which characterize the subsection. 

II. PILEA IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA 

Pilea pumila (L.) Gray, var. Deamii (Lunell), comb. nov. 

Adieu Deamii Lunell in Am. Midi. Nat. iii. 10 (1913). Plate 413, 

FIGS. 10-15. 

The late Dr. J. Lunell proposed to split the temperate North 
American members of the -run- Pilca Lindl. conxcnrd name), as 
Adirca Rat'., into five species. His A. foiitana and J. optica, both 
described from Pleasant Lake, Benson County, North Dakota, have 
black or blackidi fruit-, his .1. Mcuirlandii, A. Dcaiiiii and A. pumila 
(L.) Raf. having the fruits green to stramineous. The latter series 
was split on size and degree of branching of plant and size of fruit, 
both characters which, in an annual weedy group, are very unstable. 
Individuals with simple stems and low stature (1.V25 cm.) were 
called A. X iei< icltmdii, those with the stem taller and branching from 
base were treated as A. Deamii and A. pumila; but no provision was 
made for plants with low stature and branching stems and for Indi- 
an- familiar To every observant field-botanist. As typical A. pumila 
Lunell chose a series of plants from the Potomac Valley, with "Stem 
reaching a length of 6 dm., with later on spreading branches 
and with the leaves S Hi-toothed on each margin. Lunell \va> not 
much influenced by the elementary farts, that the basic Vrtim pumila 
I>. Sp. PI. ()S4 (1753) had its "Habitat in Canada" and with "Caulis 



ring material of a Plants 


L io--a cm. 


. . . dentibus 4-7 crai 


sse crenato- 


,te to describe it as a new 


species, A. 


ens that the Canadian mat 




g from a "finger's length 




)" to taller and branching. 






ieh manrin. 


-miv Vila , 


vumila (L) 



1 ~0 Rhodora [May 

Typical Pilea pumila, with leaves usually cuneate at base and with 
the largest blades with 3-11 coarse rounded teeth (figs. 1-5) is com- 
mon in southern Canada, from Prince Edward Island to southern 
xtending south to Pennsylvania (and locally to Virginia), 
, Iowa and South Dakota. In the South, from Florida to 
eastern Texas, extending northward to western New York, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kansas, P. pumila has the leaves 
(figs. 10-13) more often rounded at base, the teeth usually less 
rounded or even acute and those of the larger leaves numbering 11-17. 
It is this plant of wide southern and inland range that Lunell described 
as Adivm Deamii "Folia . . . dentibus 6-12 crasse crenato- 
serrata, basi cuneata vel rotundata," for, although Lunell gave a 
maximum of 12 serrations, an isotype in the Gray Herbarium shows 
the larger leaves (fig. 10) with 16. By its more commonly round- 
based leaves with more numerous and commonly less rounded teeth 
P. pumila, var. Deamii is well distinguished from typical P. pumila; 
but too many transitions occur to allow their separation as species. 
Their fruits (figs. 14, 15) are of similar shape and smoothness or with 
quite similar purplish markings. 

As to the black-fruited plants called by Lunell A dicea fontana and 
opaca, it is notable that they came from the same locality, the former 
found on a narrow strip along the boggy margin of a rill, in deep 
shade ... in the woodland of Pleasant Lake, Benson County, 
Wh Dakota"; the latter "in damp, but drained soil, well shaded, 
somewhat distant from the rill where the preceding species thrives." 
The plant of the boggy and unfavorable habitat grew 4-8 cm. high 
and was simple (the very reaction of P. pumila under such conditions), 
with seeds 1.5 mm. long"; while the plant of better "drained soil" 
near-by reached a height of 3 dm. and branched and its seeds were 
slightly larger; therefore two species! Rydberg has taken up both of 
them, as Pilea opaca (Lunell) Rydb. in Brittonia, i. 87 (1931) and 
1 \ fontana (Lunell) Rydb. 1. c, but in my own work I am uniting 
them ^as P. fontana (the name with page-priority), a species character- 
ized by firm and hardly lustrous opaque small leaves, with relatively 
short petioles, the black fruits (fig. 16), as pointed out to me by 
Mr. C. C. Deam, pale-margined and roughened by low knobs or 
bosses. It occurs from North Dakota to Nebraska, extending east- 
ward to western New York. Frequent immature specimens of P. 
pumrla have the young fruits darkened in drying but ri P r fruits seem 
to be always pale. ' 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 171 

III. MEMORANDA ON RANUNCULUS 

Ranunculus flabellaris Raf., forma riparius, nom. now 
R. (irlphinifolius, forma fcmstris (duck, Reihefte Hot. Central!.], 
xxxix. Abt. ii. 328 (1923), nee R. dvlphimfaUus, f. icm-vtrix (Cray) 
Blake, Rhodora, xv. 164 (1913). Plate 414, figs. 5 and 6. 

Unfortunately, the name Ranunculus drlphiuijuHus Torr. is not the 
earliest one available. One of the first definitions of the large Yellow 
Water-Crowfoot of America was by Jacob Bigelow, Fl. Bost. 139 
(1814), who gave a very detailed and accurate account of it, but sup- 
posed it to be the Old World R. fluv'uiiilis Willd. Our plant is wholly 
distinct from R. tluvintilis, as Bigelow's clear description shows, and 
the always watchful Rafinesque promptly seized his opportunity. 
In his review of Bigelow he went through the simplest motions neces- 
sary for the designation of a new species; but these were technically 
enough : 

Ranunculus fluviatilis, Big. is R. flabellaris, Raf. n. sp.— Raf. in 

Am. Mo. Mag. ii. no. v. 344 (March, 1818). 

In view of the very detailed description given by Bigelow there is no 
question of the validity of Ranunculus ftab< II iris Raf March, 1818). 
The next name, the one currently in use, is R. delphirrifolius Torrey m 
Eaton, Man. ed. 2: 395 (late Spring of 1818). This was patent by 
Amos Eaton with proper diagnosis and the explanatory note: "A new 
specie I,v Dr Torrey; though he suspects it may be a variety of 
rluviatili. " Subsequently, in Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 20 (1S3S. and m 
his ,,wn Fl N V i 14(1843), Torrey treated KflunatUts Big. and 
R <M } ,himfoUua Torr as identical; and there seems no reason to 
doubt their identity The only question is that of the dates of publica- 
tion of R. flahrllari, Raf. ami R. dclphiuijolius Tor,, both regularly 
cited M„mh ,-.- ISIS" Raliuesque's name was in the March nu.nhet 
,1- ti ' '■ \i „,l,lv Me-a/ine this preceded by a number 
li^ *™» h ? me for ApriK ]S|S: 

U Zl!* ""a!" I "T"'' 'll-Vr' 1 the formal record of copyright, so 

; t; muo;;;;: t„iay. n^^un^a^ 

the Northern District of New York, made the legal memorandum : 



frequent a . rareW Richard R. Lansing, Clerk of 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on th ; twelfth day of May, ^^\ 



Amos Eat 



year of the I. 

S,,^.:,-. ^ .;;■■:■■ " . . : . . • -,. 

therighl w] Mnldle States . 

\ Manu ..,.,d and enlarge. 



172 Rhodora IMay 

Eaton's Manual, ed. 2, was issued two months or more later than the 
March number of The American Monthly Magazine. It is probable 
that it was not actually distributed to the public until some time later. 
The copy in the library of the Gray Herbarium has this dedication 
on the title-page : 
1818 ^ JaC ° b Bigd ° W ' Presented h V his friend The Author, Albany, Aug. 4th, 

Further evidence of the date of issue of Eaton's 2d edition is found 
on his p. 502, where begin the Additions and Corrections: "After 
432 pages were struck off, I received Nuttall's genera of North Ameri- 
can plants." This is significant, for Nuttall's Genera of North Ameri- 
can Plants ... to the year 1817, was entered for copyright at 
Philadelphia on April 3d, 1818: 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That o„ . w 
second year of the Independence of the United States c 
Thomas Nuttall of the said district, has deposited in this office the title, etc. 

It is impossible not to note the discrepancy in the two registrations: 
Eaton's in the District of Northern New York in May, "in the forty- 
first year of the Independence of the United States"; Nuttall's in 
the District of Pennsylvania in April, "in the forty-second year of 
the Independence of the United States." This, surely, reflects only a 
difference in the method of calculation, not a full year's difference in 
the copyrights. That Eaton's 2d edition was still only in manuscript 
in late 1817 is shown by the letters from various dignitaries dated 
Northampton, (Mass.) Nov. 24th, 1817" and used bv Eaton in his 
Preface (p. 12). 1 

The reason for giving a new formal name instead of transferring 
Ranunculi mvMfidus, va, ,,■„, .,„;„(;„„, Man . ed . 5:41 (m7)> the 
nomenclature type of R. delphimfolins, f. terrestris (Gray) Blake, 
1. c. (1913), must be clarified. Gray, 1. c. (1867), described R. multi- 
Jidus vm tcrnstris from a collection made at Ann Arbor, Michigan 
by Miss Clark. It 

the^base^nd mnSSfP emera Y l J 0rms h * the steras ascending from 
teve^^t££$^* Ui & several-!;, it whe & re the 

eaves ifiltt 1 * ° r Hnear bracts ' no Versed dissected 
leaves. Ann Arbor, Michigan, on muddy banks, Miss Clark. 



) generally engaged t 



1936] Fernald ,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 173 

Every one has assumed that Gray had before him the common 
terrestrial form ( im.atk 414, figs. 5 and 6) of Ranunculus dclphiiii/nliu* 
Torr. (or R. flabellaris Raf.). Consequently, we have had the names 
for the terrestrial form of the latter: R. lacustris, var. terrcstris (Gray) 
MacMillan, Metasp. Minn. Val. 247 (1892); R. delphinif alius, var. 
terrcstris (Gray) Farwell, Ann. Rep. Comm. Parks & Boulev. Detroit, 
xi. 63 (1900) ; and the combination by Blake above noted. In general 
it seems to have occurred to none of these authors (nor to myself 
when I gave a new name to a similar plant) carefully to check the 
Clark material from Ann Arbor, the type of R, multifidus, var. tcrresiris 
Gray, distinctly marked by him in the Gray Herbarium. This type 
(our plate 415, figs. 1-3) does not belong to the coarse KflabeUaris 
or dclphinifolius, as has been universally assumed, but is the small- 
flowered plant which was described as R, Purshii Richardson, var. 
pwli/irvs Fern. Rhodora, xix. 135 (1917). The comparatively 
southern R. Jlubdlaris (plate 414, figs. 1-4) and the more northern 
R. Rurshii have very positive differences: 

H. flahkllakis: Submersed leaves 0.3-1.5 dm. long, ternatejy decompound 
--filiform segments; sepals 5-8 r 



s clavate filaments; fruiting heads 8-13 
' • cut ky -thickened at^base and along 



m. long; petals 0.6-1.7 cm. long; 
. long, only slightly broader than 
ture achenes prom- 



5-3.5 mm. long.— Maine to Washington, 



Nova Scotia, northern Maine, Michigan, Iowa, North Dakota, New Mexico 
The type of Ranunculus muhifidus, ^-^^ 

nil fuTtZ rn Tit h!"' 1 ' i u i' th -i- ■>' ^ «* note i [t is , ^ e 

,.]„., 1 R Purshii var. proiificus. Singularly 
I •■• ttris Gray cannot be made 



.-trial ami 



(R. 



mosus Nutt ) R Purshu, with thick and subglabrous to villous 
(1842) and this plant has been taken up as R. Purshii, t. err. 



174 Rhodora [May 

coarse, decumbent perennial of wet clay in the northeastern United 
States, the plant with lance-attenuate and very sharp-pointed leaves, 
as Ranunculus ambigens Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 289 (1879). 
The plant had formerly been confused with the western R. alismae- 
folius Benth. and with the chiefly European (but in Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia) R. Flammula L. So far as shown by the speci- 
mens in the Gray Herbarium, R. ambigens occurs from Maine to 
Illinois, south into Delaware, Maryland and Tennessee; and it is at 
once distinguished by its coarse, elongate, creeping stem rooting at 
the nodes, its upper and median leaves long-acuminate, and its 
achenes tipped by a subulate beak 0.6-1.5 mm. long. There is 
absolutely no question as to the identity of Ranunculus ambigens; 
and the name was correctly used by Watson & Coulter in Gray, Man, 
ed. (i, and by Gray in the Synoptical Flora. 

In Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 76 (1897) the plant is satisfactorily 
illustrated under the name Ranunculus obtusiusculus Raf. Med. Rep. 
ser. 2, v. 359 (1808); and under this name the species has been known 
by those who have neither had access to Rafinesque's illustration of his 
H. obfusmseulus nor appreciated the pertinent comments upon it in 
the Synoptical Flora. The latter memoranda are to the point- 



tJuin > r US 'r lL L ( ' '- anally indeterminable, even with 
Aplwl«f « • raCmg f u 0n l an ori , ginal sketch > Possessed by the N. Y. 
Academy of Sciences, wl, ., !iatl; „ r( ,, 1IVM . tiflnir 

Sowers w IT ' ft ? annual root > ^erou^ poVandrou! 

:?; a^aSST* lmear - lanceolate ^h and a long styles-Gray, 

ere1t t ?t C em g fl f T« 1 Ra | ineSqUe ^ ^^ ° f his P lant shows a slender strai S ht 
variance with Ihf /' ? ' : -lanceolate sepals, all at 

Sf^ + decumbent eon , „,„ ... , „ ,,, ,„. an S copiously 
rooting stem and ovate sepals of the present species. Gray, 1. c. 27 (1895). 

Rafinesque's original diagnosis is here given: 
leaves R nToT a f P d S uSSfSf" ° bt ^ Se ranu ™ulus; stem upright, simple; 
T^eS^^^' Semi -° btUSe ' fl0Were ^w/ter1ninal. "in 
That Rafinesque's drawing of an annual, with bluntish leaves, 
eafy-bracted peduncles, gamopetalous corolla, linear or linear- 
lanceolate sepals, and rounded obovate petals (his fig. 2), is not a 
recognizable illustration of R. ambigens, which is a coarse and obvious 
perennial, with attenuate leaves, bractless peduncles, ovate sepals and 
distinct (as in all the genus) oblong petals, should be obvious. Whether 
Rafinesque s drawing was made from actual material before him may 




X*, uuiaiimiMT Anctiitiiui station. 
K. I^urshii, forma terrestris: km;. <i, thr 



xibutions from the Gray Herbarium 175 

the drawing is so unlike anything now known 

an propositions. Except for the alternate 
e habit could as well have been made from a 

'j/.simnchia (StdroiKiiia) launvlata as from 
\t any rate, to reject the carefully described 
; up for it the wholly vague R. obtusiusculus 
i clarity into hopeless obscurity. 

(Torr."& Gray) Darby, Bot. So. States, 204 
ip in (nay's Manual, ed. 7, may or may not be 
wu description of a plant from "Ditches Car. 

it in some points but Darby's material is 

^ . II. \. Am.i. 16 (1838), the account of which 



Milledgeville, Georgia, 
c„, type of R. Fhnnimla, £. hixicaulis is not at 

um of the New York Botanical Garden. Nor 

|(T i>arium any material from the Atlantic States 

' ' ,„;\|',p land, although there is a specimen 

\Yw York said on the copied label to be from 





11 entire ' 


' not a con 


vincing 






ase), simple 


or only 


;' ii". 


.■■ 


He and uppei 


■leaves 


B. 




w EU.;atl© 


ist it is 




undoubte( 


1 R. ambigtw. 



176 Rhodora 



|Mm 



[Ontario Co., Ontario]/' is a wide-ranging prairie species which occurs 
from eastern Alberta to Colorado, thence across the prairies to Ontario, 
Michigan and Illinois. Goldie correctly showed it with characteristi- 
cally toothed leaves and it has regularly been thus correctly described 
or illustrated by later authors. In 1814 Rafinesque gave a character- 
istically inexact and unrecognizable description of 

Ranunculus ovalis. Feuilles radicales a longs petioles, ovales, entieres, 
velues, aigues, les eaulinaires rares sessiles lanceolees, fleurs terminales peu 
nombreuses. Dansle Canada et Genessee.-Rai. Precis des Decouvertes, 
36 (1814), reprinted m Desv. Journ. de Bot. iv. (or vi.), 268 (1814). 

A. P. DeCondolle, to whom Rafinesque sent many of his species, 
could make nothing of Ranunculus ovalis and placed it in his "Ranun- 
culi non satis noti"-DC. Prodr. i. 43 (1821); but, unfortunately, 
Hooker, although taking up R. rhomboideus Goldie, tried to keep apart 
from it as species two variations which subsequent experience shows 
to be mere phases of R. rhomboideus. These phases of one species, 
treated by Hooker as three species, were R. rhomboideus, R. ovalis 
"Rafin- ■ • . V and R. brevicaulis Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 13, t. 
vu. A (1829). Hooker gave a good plate of what he took to be Ra 6nes- 
que's fl. ovalis as his t. vi B, a fine representation of luxuriant R. 
rhomboideus, which looks as if it might almost have come from Goldie's 
series of specimens. Hooker, showing the regularly dentate and obtuse 
basal leaves of R. rhomboideus, made the comment: "This species is 
not at variance with the short character given in Journ. de Bot. of 
Rafinesque's R. ovalis, except that he states the cauline leaves to be 
lanceolate; by which he means, perhaps, that the segments are so." 
To render the interpretation of Rafinesque's account more thorough 
he should have added: "and except that Rafinesque said 'Feuilles 
radicales entieres, . . . aigues', by which he meant, 

perhaps, radical leaves dentate, obtuse, and except that Rafinesque's 
p ant came in part from Genessee (a county of northwestern New 
York, organised m 1802), whence no collections have ever been known 
to the botanists of the State of New York " 

The identity of Rafinesque's hmnmndu* oralis is utterly vague; but 
to take up his name of a plant with ei '■ l< } A 

lanceolate cauline ones, a plant 
well defined R. rhomboideus, se< 

inaccuracy This, however, is done in toJto^mZ where 
the plant called R. ovalis, without interrogation, is shown and described 






Fernald— Contributions from the Gray Herbari 



basal leaves 



renate or slightly lobed, obtuse, . . 
cauline leaves . . . deeply divided . . . into 3-7 
oblong obtuse lobes"; and the range given, correctly, defi- 
reasons for maintaining R. rhomboideus 



nitely excludes G< 
need no further 

Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir, var. caricetorum (Greene), 
comb. now R. caricetorum Greene, Pittonia, v. 194 (1903). R. 
sicaeformis Mackenzie & Bush in Torreya, vi. 123 (1906). 

The wide-ranging Ranunculus septentrionalis varies, like most 
members of § Euranunculus, in the degree of pubescence and the 
direction of its trichomes. It may be quite glabrous, sparingly to 
copiously appressed-pubescent or sparingly to copiously spreading- 
hirsute. In the large series from eastern Canada and the northeastern 
states westward to Manitoba and Nebraska I get no clear lines by 
which to differentiate the smoother and the more hirsute extremes. 
Either quite glabrous or very densely hirsute plants occur in Quebec, 
New England and the Great Lakes region. Var. caricetorum, confined 
so far as I have seen material, to the region from south-central Ohio 
To Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota, has the densest of hirsuteness and 
this is largely retrorse. In the great density and reflexing of its 
pubescence the variety is unique; but I find no other characters to 
separate it from the general run of hirsute nr hispid li. s r pt, nfrioua/is. 
In the effort to brace the specific claims of the retrorsely hirsute 
plant overemphasis has been given the glabrousness of some specimens 
of Ranunculus sept, ntriouulix. Thus, in his Flora of the Prairies and 
Plains, Rvdberg gives the key differences: 



H. caricetorum Greene, Pittonia, v. 194 (1903) was described from 
"the region of the Great Lakes, from perhaps Ontario to Iowa and 
Minnesota, . . . diagnosis . . . front material of my own 
gathering in southern Wisconsin in 1888, and in southern Michigan 
in 1902": "commonly very hirsute, at least as to petioles and lower 
part of stem, otherwise sparingly hirsute-pubescent." Rvdberg 
maintains R. caricetorum, correctly reducing R. sicaeformis (as R. 
"*irncfoIim") to it. The two are identical, but Greene said nothing 
of the copious retrorse pubescence on leaves and peduncles exhibited 
by his type-material, and also by the type and the other Missouri 
specimens of R. sicaeformis. Greene said of his Great Lakes plant, 



178 Rhodora [May 

" commonly very hirsute, at least as to petioles and lower part of stem, 
otherwise sparingly hirsute-pubescent," so that it is clear that he 
did not understand the true character of his type. Just such plants 
as Greene's description implies are common about the Great Lakes, 
thence north to Hudson Bay and east to New England and Quebec. 
But Mackenzie & Bush were more explicit, saying the " whole plant 
very strongly whitish or yellowish hispid-pubescent." Besides the 
type material, they cited also a specimen from Hennepin Co., Minne- 
sota. The latter is like the type of R. caricetorum, a photograph of 
which has been most generously presented to the Gray Herbarium by 
Dr. Stuart K. Harris, who secured it while visiting Greene's herbarium 
in 1935. As I view the plants, there is little significance to the degree 
of pubescence on the stems and petioles; but the plant with dense 
and rctrorsc pubescence in the southwestern edge of the specific range 
is very definite. 

As to Rydberg's characterization of Ranunculus septentrional™ as 
having "Stem glabrous or nearly so," it is significant that Poiret, in 
his original description of R. sepientrionalis said very definitely: 
"caule petiolisque basi hirsutis" and "les tiges . . . velues ou 
pubescentes a leur partie inferieure." A tracing of Poiret's type in the 
Gray Herbarium settles its specific identity. 

Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl., var. apricus (Greene), comb, 
nov. R. apricus Greene, Pittonia, iv. 145 (1900). 

Very distinct in the region from Mississippi to Oklahoma and Texas, 
Greene's Ranunculus apricus passes northward very clearly into 
R. fascicularis, the plants from Michigan to Iowa having to be some- 
what arbitrarily sorted. 

IV. THE NOMENCLATURE OE SASSAFRAS 
Enough changes have recently been made in the "proper" specific 
name of Sassafras to suggest that its nomenclature partakes of its 
nature, as reflected in the illegitimate names Laurus variifolia Salisb. 
and L. diversifolia Stokes. One of the most recent discussions of the 
names is that of Blake, Note on the pmj,, r \>n„, f„r the Sassafras, 
Rhodora, xx. 98 (1918). There Blake pointed out, correctly, that 
the name Laurus variifolia Salisb. (1796) was a mere substitute for 
L. Sassafras L. (1753) and, since there was already a valid specific 
epithet under Laurus, Salisbury's name was illegitimate. Blake, 
therefore, concluded that "The valid name to replace it is Sassafras 







"' : l, ""'" ,il, ?., m B-,|ti im.mv. Marvla.nl: 
- ",«'„„,'.,, fn.m District of 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 179 

officinale Nees & Eberm. . . . (1831)." Unfortunately, 
however, Blake's usually keen logic suffered a momentary and unpre- 
cedented lapse, for immediately after asserting that the earliest valid 
name was published in 1831, he made a varietal combination under it, 
N. officiuulr, var. albidum (Xutt.) Blake, based upon Nuttall's species, 
Laurus (Euosmus) albida, published in 1818. So far as I can yet 
determine the first valid specific epithet for the aggregate species was 
that of Nuttall and I see no way, under the International Rules, to 
avoid taking up For the variable species the combination Sassafras 
albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Syst. Laurin. 490 (1836). The bibliography 

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Syst. Laurin. 490 (1836); Raf. 
Aut. Hot. 86 (1840). Laurus (Euosmus) albida Nutt. Gen. i. 259 
(1818). Evosmus albida "Nutt." ace. to Spreng. Syst. ii. 267 (1825) 
as synonvm. Trfrauthra albida (Xutt). Spreng. Syst. ii. 267 (1825). 
Eunsm us albida "Xutt." aec. to Jackson, Ind. Kew. ii. 914 (1893). 
S. rarii folia in, var. albidum (Xutt.) Fernald in Rhodora, xv. 16 
(1913).' N. albidum, var. gluurum Xieuwl. in Am. Mid. Nat. iii. 347 
U914). .S. officinale, var.' albidum (Xutt.) Blake in Rhodora, xx. 
99 (1918). 

Var. molle (Raf ) comb, now Laurus Sassafras L. Sp. PI. 371 
(1753). L. Salsafraz Noronha in Verh. Bataw Gen. v. (1790), Art. 
iv. 19, modification in spelling. L. rurii folia SalNb. Hrodr. 344 ( 1796.1. 
substitute for L Sassafras (illegitimate). L. diirrsifolia Stoke-. Hot. 
Mat. Med. ii. -120 (1812), substitute for L. Sassafras ; illegitimate-. 
S. njliciuaruiu J. S. Bresl. Rostl. _ii. 68 (1S25.I. not seen. /'• r*ra 

Mberm Hand ^bT-H ■„ . Vr.' ii 11 s' 1S31 '> d,r» Hat 



•;moham»a u.n aiu^uo 
,.v . RvHh var pubescens (Rydb.) comb. 
Plate 416, 



1»U Khodora [May 

The indigenous plants of eastern North America stand well apart 
from the Old World and western American representatives of Aruncus. 
The wide-ranging Eurasian A. Sylvester Kostel. (1844) = Spiraea 
Aruncus L. (1753) and A. Aruncus (L.) Karst. (1882), has the brown- 
ish follicles (fig. 3) 2.5-3 mm. long, with style (deciduous) 0.3-0.5 mm. 
long; seeds (fig. 7) 2.2-2.6 mm. long, with empty tails one-third to 
one-half as long as the body, the surface coarsely reticulate. Its 
staminate flowers (fig. 6) have the calyx-lobes broadly lanceolate, 
elongate and comparatively thin, displaying the evident midrib; 
and its leaflets (fig. 13) are usually very thin, doubly sharp-serrate 
and long-caudate. The Alleghenian plant, A. allegheniensis, however, 
has the leaflets, although similar, tending to shorter-toothed margin 
and less elongate tip; but its fundamental differences are in the flower 
and fruit. The calyx-lobes (fig. 5) are firm (drying dark), broader 
and more deltoid, without evident midrib; the olivaceous follicles 
(figs. 1 and 2) 1.5-2 mm. long, with style 0.5-0.8 mm. long; the seeds 
(fig. 8) 1.5-2 mm. long, with much shorter or obsolete tails and finer 
reticulation. 

So far as I can make out, Aruncus pubescens is an interior variety of 
A. allegheniensis, differing in its heavier and dull (rather than lustrous) 
foliage, a tendency to greater pubescence on the leaflets, and follicles 
slightly more slender and elongate (subcylindric and 1.7-2.5 mm. 
long, instead of semi-ovoid and 1.5-2 mm. long). Plants with the 
lower leaf-surfaces soft-pubescent occur in the Alleghenies: Allegheny 
Co., Pennsylvania (Schafer, no. 639), Washington, D. C. (Steele et al), 
Baltimore, Maryland (P. V. LeRoy, 1867, isotype of A. allegheniensis), 
Pulaski Co., Virginia (Small) and Glasgow, Virginia (E. B. Bartram); 
but all other material seen by me from Virginia, West Virginia, North 
Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee has the lower surfaces quite 
glabrous. In the more slender-fruited var. pubescens (Illinois and 
Iowa to Arkansas and Oklahoma) the leaflets may, likewise, be either 
very pubescent, as defined by Rydberg, or quite glabrous beneath: 
Mikanda, Illinois (Gleason), St. Louis, Missouri (Sherff, no. 235); and, 
by a fatality which often pursues those who are incautious in desig- 
nating types, the MacDonald material from Peoria designated as the 
type of J. pubescens (with leaves "rather copiously hairy beneath") 
displays no more pubescence than the LeRoy material from Baltimore 
(m both cases as represented in the Gray Herbarium) which seems to 
be an isotype of A. allegheniensis (separated from A. pubescens by 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 181 

"leaflets . . . glabrous or nearly so beneath"). The really 
distinctive character of var. pvhrserus, (entering on the Ozark Plateau, 
is that its follicles are more slender than in typical A. aUegheniensis 
of the Appalachian Upland. 

The wide-ranging plant of the Pacific slope, from northern Califi >rnia 
to Alaska, is separated by Rydberg as Aruncus acuminatus (Dougl.) 
Rydb. in N. Am. Fl. xxii 3 . 255 (1908), the name coming from 1 Jouglas's 
manuscript Spiraea acuminata, which had been cited by Hooker in 
tiie synonymy of S. Aruncus (= Aruncus syhester). This Pacific 
American plant has the large follicles (fig. 9), seeds and calyces of the 
Eurasian A. spinster (or A. Aruncus), but Rydberg stated their 
"specific" differences as follows: 
Petals o 



Petals o 



Unfortunately the difference in shape of petals relied upon by 
Rydberg can be quickly reversed, fig. 11 showing flowers, X 10, from 
Vancouver Island (of A. acuminatus) with spatulate petals, fig. 10, 
flowers from Salisburia with them much broader! 

As to the acumination of the leaflets I see no difference; fig. 13 is a 
tip of a leaflet of A. syhester from Europe, fig. 12 one of A. acuminatus 
from America The calyx-lobes of the western American plant are also 
quite like those of the Eurasian (fig. 6). So are the follicles (fig. 9), 
the styles and the seeds. In other words, Aruncus spies!,,- ot Eurasia 
occurs also in western North America; while in the ancient Osark 
and Appalachian uplands a species with smaller and more olivaceous 
follicles, longer styles, smaller seeds and firmer calyx occurs. It is 
unfortunate that/in defining the latter, Rydberg ignored the signifi- 
cant calyx-lobes, styles and seeds and over-stressed the fickle characters 

01 Several 'names of early date are cited by Rydberg as synonyms under 
Aruncus, in the Xorth American Flora; consequently, by some * no 
of them, A. vulgaris Hat. 



understood the situation, 
, Tell. 152 (1838), has been i 



herbarium-label* 
'Type./ 



liagnoses i 

? Rafinesque are absolu 



ncus, Rafinesque, in 1838, published two names: xyp* 
American™." No diagnoses were given and no previous de 
s were cited; the 






omenclatural status. Rydberg c 



182 Rhodora [May 

doubt, as synonyms of his A. allegheniensis, the three following: 
Spiraea Aruncus, (J. hermaphrodita Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 294 (1803); 
S. Aruncus, <3. amerieana Pers. Syn. ii. 46 (1806); and S. americana 
Steud. Nom. Bot. 805 (1821). These all rest on one type, Persoon 
merely having substituted g. amcriennu lor Michaux's name and 
Steudel (bunglingly) resting his S. americana on the same plant. Now, 
Aruncus does not have the flowers hermaphrodite and when 
Michaux got hold of a plant in the Alleghenies which looked like the 
European Spiraea Aruncus but differed "floribus . . . herma- 
phroditis-fertilibus" he called it var. hermaphrodita. Astilbe biternata 
(Vent.) Britton, of the Saxifragaceae, does have hermaphrodite 
flowers. It grows side-by-side with Aruncus allegheniensis and so 
completely mimics it that only by detailed examination of the flowers 
and fruits can the two Ik* readily separated. Spiraea Aruncus, p. 
hermaphrodita of Michaux was, as to the defined characters. An/Hhr. 
This was the judgment of Torrey & Gray, in 1840: " The variety with 
perfect flowers, first mentioned by Michaux, is probably Astilbe 
decandra (Tiarella biternata, Vent.), which in habit strikingly resem- 
bles this plant."— Torr. & Gr. Fl. N. Am. i. 417 (1840). If Spiraea 
Aruncus, $. hermaphrodita Michx. is Astilbe, then, automatically, 

5. Aruncus, £. a,,,, ricuuu Pers. and N. americana Steud. are likewise 
Astilbe; and perhaps Aruncus americanus Raf. may, by inference, be 
also associated with Astilbe. At least, Rydberg was quite justified in 
giving the Alleghenian species a new and properly defined name. 

Very recently further confusion has been made by a Japanese 
botanist, Hara, who unjustifiably adopts Rafinesque's somen xtikm 
Aruncus vulgaris to displace A. xulrcster and then coins for the Alle- 
ghenian plant the unfortunate combination A. vulgaris, var. ameri- 
canus (Pers.) Hara, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo), xlix. 11.1 (1935), entirely 
ignoring the fact that Persoon's Spiraea Aruncus, var. americana 
and all names dependent upon it are substitutes for S. Aruncus, 

6. hermaphrodita Michx., which is Astilbe of the Saxifragaceae. 

(To be continued) 



COXTRIIU TIOXS 1 ROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY— NO. CXIII. 

M. L. Feenald 

(Continued from page 182) 
VI. STUDIES IN SOLIDAGO 
Solidago petiolaris Ait. The late K K. Mackenzie substituted 
for X prtiolari* the name X Millrrhwn Mackenz. in Small, Man. 
I :::»() 1 rm I 1933), on the first cited page giving in marks of quotation 
as a synonym of his new name " S. petiohms Ait.", on p. 1503 "Solidago 
Milleriana Mackenzie. Solidago pcthluris Authors, not Ait." The 
inference' is clear thai Mackenzie thought that X prtiolaris Ait. has 
been mi-^lent ilid l.y American authors. Aiton's species had been 



>' prtiolm-i* Ait. The character- 
scabriusculis petiolatis, racemis 



st closely short-hispid 
. . scabrous-hispu 

. : heads 7-8 mm 
vs'sed-pubescent, all except 



spidulous above, sparsely 



202 Rhodora [j UNE 

Aiton did not describe the involucre; but portions of Aiton's type, 
presented to Asa Gray in 1881 and now preserved in the Gray Herba- 
rium, show the very distinctive heads with lance-attenuate, pubescent 
bracts, and the oblong or elliptic, entire leaves with scabrous upper 
surface, minutely pilose lower surface and scabrous-ciliolate margins 
exactly as in S. Milleriana. In brief, S. petiolaris Ait., as shown by 
the original material, was well described by its author and is exactly 
the plant correctly called S. petiolaris by Gray in the Synoptical 
Flora. It is identical with S. Milleriana Mackenzie and the latter 
name is a synonym which might well have been avoided. 

Solidago multiradiata Ait., var. parviceps, var. nov. (tab. 417, 
fig. 2), forma typica recedit involucro parvo 3-4 (-5) mm. longo 
bracteis circa 15.— Quebec: damp calaremis cliff, " M.mts Appalaches, 
near Cape Rosier, Gaspe Co., July 9, 1931, G. L. Stebbins, jr. (type 
in Gray Herb.) 

Typical Solidago multiradiata (fig. 1) which abounds on the Labra- 
dor Peninsula, in northeastern, northern and western Newfoundland 
and on the outer coast and the higher mountains of the Gaspe Penin- 
sula, reaching its southern limit on St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia 
(Perry & Roscoe, no. 382), varies in stature from dwarfs of scarcely 
measurable height to luxuriant clumps 4.5 dm. high; but, whether 
dwarf or gigantic (for the species) the involucres remain large (5-7 mm. 
long) with 20-30 bracts. Var. parviceps, a local plant of Gaspe, 
reaches its most extreme development (fig. 2) on the cliffs of the 
Monts Appalaches" (the hills between Grand Greve and Cape 
Rosier) but essentially identical specimens, mixed with more typical 
6. multiradiata, were collected on Mt. Albert by Victorin, Rolland, 
Brunei & Rousseau in 1923 (no. 17,585) and transitional material 
had been secured on Mt. Albert in 1881 by John A. Allen, and in 1906 
by Fernald & Collins (no. 753). This transitional series indicates that 
var. parmceps is a variety rather than a distinct species. 

Solidago decumbens Greene, var. oreophila (Rydb.), comb. nov. 
S. oreophila Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. L 387 (1900). 

Solidago oreophila was not described by Rydberg, when he published 
it, but it is here interpreted as the common extreme of S. decumbens 
growing in the Rocky Mountains lower down than the typical S. 
decumbent. The latter has few heads in a subcorymbiform thyrse 
rnrJM f^? me extreme of the wide-ranging species, found from 
^Ji™!T ^I 5 , " 4000 "9' ° n the "^ ta» Wyoming 
nsensibly into the taller 



Mexico. At lower levels 




*5srw E 


■k. VM :-. " 


l.TYP 


from Maine; figs. 5 and 6, Ac 


specimen. 






G 7 rosette-leaf from the origin 




■ • ' i.m.inosa: ii.;. l>. involucre, X 5, from Quebec; fkj. 7 disk-corolla X 5, from 

"- N.-Im-im-, ■ M\ Iroin .suiie .s,H'nni.-n. 
ft. atjstrina: fig. 9, involucre, X 5, from North Carolina 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 203 

var. oreophila which has a longer, more racemiform thyrse, with the 
heads tending to be slightly smaller. In the States from New Mexico 
to Wyoming (the area where the alpine typical S. decumbens occurs) 
var. oreophila extends from subalpine areas into the timber ("in 
timber," "pine woods," "dry pine ridge," "subalpine slopes," "dry 
hillsides," etc.), its altitudinal range given on the labels as 6560-10,000 
feet (2000-3050 m.). Many sheets, such as Clokey nos. 2895 and 
3896 and Clements no. 300, show embarrassingly transitional series 
and such a sheet as C. F. Baker's no. 718, with the elongate thyrse and 
small heads of var. oreophila was identified by Greene as his S. decutn- 
h< us; and the names have been very frequently reversed by those who 
should rightly apply them if the series can be resolved into two real 
species. North of Wyoming var. oreophila comes down to much lower 
levels, extending out to the Saskatchewan plains and northward to 
the valleys of Yukon. My interpretation of S. oreophila is supported 
by the statement of Dr. Aven Nelson, under S. decumbens: " S. 
oreophila Hydb. ... is merely the larger form from the lower 

Greene included both extremes in his original S. decumbens, Pittonia, 
iii. 161 (1897), giving an inclusive description of the "Very common 
species of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and northward, in 
subalpine and alpine situations, but occupying dry slopes or summits; 
forming the greater part of Gray's S. humilis, var. nana." I am, 
accordingly, taking up N. demmbens in the sense of the alpine extreme 
which Gray chiefly had as his N. humilis, var. nana, this interpretation 
conforming to the later views of Rydberg and others. 

As stated, Rydberg originally gave no diagnosis, but he gave suffi- 
cient clues so that it is evident that his Solidago oreophila was intended 
for the plant of the Rocky Mountain area with slender and elongate 
thyrse. His publication was as follows: 

Solidago oreophila; S« ^ a Hook I1 ,. B 1 ° 4 r - A ™^ : ^^he 

Rooky Mou ' l>ursh - 

At an altitude of about 2000 m. 
Montana: Gap in the belt Mountains above Whites Gulch, uw, 

With no diagnosis Solidugo oreophila must go back for its typification 
to the earlier defined entities The \i >ek\ Mountain element placed 
by Gray under .s hu> ills is clear, so also is the Carlton House plant of 



204 Rhodora [j UNE 

Drummond, cited by Hooker under his inclusive S. stricta, for material 
of the latter sent by Hooker to Asa Gray was included by Gray under 
his S. humilis. Thus it is possible, with the aid of his subsequent 
descriptions, to interpret what Rydberg meant by S. oreophila; but 
such slipshod publication of new species is not to be recommended to 
others. 

Solidago roanensis Porter, var. monticola (T. & G.), comb. nov. 
N. Curtisn T. & G., $.? monticola T. & G. FI. N. Am. ii. 200 (1838). 
S. monticola T. & G. ex Chapm. FI. 209 (1860), not Jord. (1857). 
S. alleghaniensis House in Am. Midi. Nat. vii. 131 (1921). 

Typical Solidago roanensis Porter, Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xix. 130 
(1892), has the thyrse very dense, except sometimes at base; the 
involucre greenish and herbaceous to membranous and 5-5.5 mm. 
long; and the ligules deep-yellow. It is confined to the highest moun- 
tains of western North Carolina and adjacent Georgia, extending 
slightly northward into southwestern Virginia. When he described 
it as a species Porter was familiar with S. monticola, to which it has 
generally been reduced, yet he made no mention of nor comparison 
with the latter plant; and Asa Gray wrote upon a sheet of the large 
S. roanensis distributed as S. monticola from Roan Mountain (J. D. 
Smith): "Yes. I could not have thought it." Nevertheless there 
seems to be no clear line to separate it and the smaller S. monticola 
and even in Mackenzie's treatment in Small's Manual the two are 
united. Var. monticola, with a broader range, often at lower altitudes, 
from Maryland to Kentucky, southward to Georgia and Alabama, 
is smaller throughout, the slender thyrse or the slender racemiform 
branches (when a panicle is developed) more open; the involucres 
4-5 mm. long, usually paler; and the ligules paler yellow or even 
whitish. 

Solidago (§Virgaurea) Deamii, n. sp. (tab. 418, figs. 1-3), 
>. hamln • sumhs; ruule 4-5 dm. alto supra minute piloso; foliis cori- 
aceis palhdis glabns, basilaribus rosulatis obovatis apice rotundatis 
grosse serrato-dentatis basi late petiolatis, laminis 3.5-5.5 cm. longis 
2-3.5 cm. late; h,|,i raulini. .;", 10, i m i s subpetiolatis oblanceolatis 
serrate, medns supenonbusque sess lte eris acutis; 

mflorescent.a thyrsoidea densa 1 dm. longa 4 cm. diametro; pedicellis 
nullis aut 1-8 mm. longis stngoso-pilosis; involucris cylindrico- 
campanulatis 6-9 mm. longis; bracteis stramineis chartaceis obtusis, 
4-senatis, exterionbus vindicostatis, costa dilatata, interioribus 
elongate; disci flonbus circa 12, lobis corallae 2 mm. longis; ligulis 8 
luteis; anthens 2.7-3 mm. longis; achaeniis immaturis strigoso-pilosis. 



1936] Fernald, — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 205 

— Indiana: in a blow out at end of Section Line Road 2 miles east of 
Tremont, Porter Co., September 14, 1923, C. C. Beam, no. 39,707 
(type in Gray Herb.). 

Solidago Deamii (fig. 1) has the strongly coriaceous foliage of S. 
.s/icrio.s-n Xutt., but its strongly toothed and short-petioled radical 
leaves and its pubescent achenes promptly distinguish it from the 
smallest extremes of S. speciosa, which has long-petioled and entire 
or but slightly toothed radical leaves and glabrous achenes. In 
habit and in the crowded, sessile or short-pedicelled beads N. Deamii 
is suggestive of S. Randii (Porter) Britton, of northern New England, 
southern Quebec and northeastern New York; but S. Randii has 
submembranous dark-green foliage, the involucres (fig. 4) smaller 
(5-6 mm. long), with thinner and narrower bracts, the orange-yellow 
disk-corollas (figs. 5 and 6) with shorter lobes and shorter (1.5-2 mm. 
long) anthers, the corolla-lobes and anthers (fig. 3) of S. Deamii 
being much longer. S. Deamii is also related to S. racemosa Greene, 
var. (iilhnani (Gray.) Fern., but that has the leaves submembranaceous, 
the radical (fig. 7) elongate-oblanceolate and acute, the heads mostly 
long-pedieelled and the involucral bracts narrower. 

Solidago simulans, sp. nov. (tab. 419, figs. 1-5), planta S. 
uliginosam simulans; caule crasso glabro 8 dm. alto; folns subconaceis 
glaberrimis eciliatis, basilaribus late oblanceolatis acutis 3-3.5 dm. 
longis 1.5 5 cm. latis erenato-dentatis basi attenuate petioln alato; 
toli'is cauliuis circa 20, imis elongatis petiolatis mediis supenonbusque 
sessilibus minoribus lanemlati.-, intcgris acutis: inhWsccntia <ylm- 
drico-thyTaoidea densa 2 dm. longo 3 cm. diamel 

capitulis 3 10 gerentibus; pedicellis glabra :! I mm. longis: im<>lucii- 
cvlimlnro-.unpauulatis.i 7 mm. longis: hrartei* strain.ne.s chartam-. 
1-serii.tis. exterioribus lanceolato-deltoideis subacutis, u 
oblnngis vcl ohlongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel sul 
tubo2 mm. l,,nu-o'. lau.-, 2.5 mm. long... lobis 2 ..mi.; ■■- 
I - i,is lineari-cylindncis 8-10-costatis 

is Macon County, North Caro- 
I , j, ■ hi h mountains of Macon County, near 
• ;,. ,„, !>m (TYPE in 
G^vll,, \\ K L, II- la. I ( »""'' (I 1902 ; y ]} '"" 

Solidago simvlans so closely resembles N. uliaino,a Xutt. that it has 
been mistaken for it. It differs at once in its glabrous -flo^cence 
larger involucres (fig. 2), long throat and limb and short tube of the 
disk-corolla (figs. 3 and 4) and much longer definitely pubescent 
achenes (fig. 5); the branches of the thyrse and the pedmels of 
»f v ..,: , ...:..„ 1 ,;,n,ll, 111 . the involucre (fig. 6) only 4-5 mm. 



Rhodora 






long and with narrower bracts, the disk corollas (fig. 7) with relatively 
longer tube and shorter throat and limb, the achenes (fig. 8) only 
1.5-2 mm. long and usually glabrous. S. simulans, as yet known 
only from the high mountains of Macon County, North Carolina, 
' 5 to be watched for elsewhere along the Blue Ridge. It is the extreme 



southern and : 



• representative of N. uliginosa, which ■ 



eastern Canada from Labrador to Manitoba, and reaches its south- 
eastern limit in West Virginia (Gormania, alt. 2500 feet, Svenson, 
no. 4449). 

Solidago simulans might, by current treatments, be traced to S. 
austrina Small. It differs from the latter in many characters: leaves 
with quite smooth margins (in S. austrina scabrous-ciliolate), the basal 
3-3.5 dm. long and 4.5-5 cm. broad (in S. austrina 0.7-1.5 dm. long 
and only 1-2.5 cm. broad); cauline leaves about 20, attenuate-tipped, 
the median 1 dm. or more long (those of S. austrina 30-60, the middle 
and upper bluntish or with blunt callous tip, the median 3-5 cm. long) ; 
inflorescence dense, its racemes cylindric, not secund (in S austrina 
lax and open with strongly secund racemes); involucre cylindric- 
campanulate, 6-7 mm. high, with chartaceous bracts, the outer lance- 
deltoid and acutish not conspicuously continued down the pedicels 
(m S. austrina the broader campanulate involucre (fig. 9) shorter, 
with firm, green, oblong, obtuse bracts continuing indistinguishably 
down the pedicels); disk-corollas 6.5 mm. long (in S. austrina 3.7-4,5 
mm.); mature achenes 3.3-3.5 mm. long (in S. austrina 2-3 mm.). 

>HrFTixG of Names versus Accurate Identifications (Plate 
420). It is a commonplace to note that long-continued cultivation of 
plants, particularly if they be of naturally plastic groups and placed 
side-by- sl de with scores of their relations, renders them in some ways 
unhke the indigenous ancestors from which they were in part derived. 
This observation, though trite, is important in connection with the 
species of Solidago early proposed in Europe from plants which had 
long grown in the gardens. In his masterly and cautious life-long 
studies of the genus Asa Gray repeatedly commented on the impossi- 
bility of satisfactorily identifying with wild American plants most of 
the garden forms described by Willdenow, Miller and some other 



European authors. Occasionally the types of 



species described by 



xm from plants not too long grown and mixed with other spe 
Kew can be safely identified; but too many of Miller's types, from 
nts long grown in the old Chelsea Garden, are better allowed to 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 207 

sleep where they lie. Among Miller's species which Gray, with the 
most profound knowledge of the types and their proper interpretation, 
refrained from placing as an identifiable American species was S. 
conferta. 

Nevertheless, in recent years this name has been taken up with 
confident assurance to displace a perfectly valid and clearly typified 
name which had had a full century of accurate usage. One of the 
most definite species of eastern North America is S. speciosa Nutt, 
a tall (up to 2 m.) plant with coriaceous leaves and a thyrse made up 
of stiffish spiciform racemes of sessile or subsessile heads. The upper 
half of a characteristic inflorescence from Sheffield, Massachusetts 
(F. Walters) is shown, X 1, in plate 420, fig. 2. But in Rhodora, 
xxix. 17-19 (1027), the late Kenneth K. Mackenzie took up to replace 
Nuttall's perfectly familiar and unquestioned S. speciosa the name 
S. conferta Mill., asserting that 

This species has been neglected because Miller failed to refer back 
to his finely illustrated work above referred to [Miller, Figs.] ... In 
that work he . . . fully described (p. 170) under the 
nntiiinl as in his later work and wii al description 

. . . the same species. . . . his beautiful colored plat 
one of the few colored plates of Solidago ever published, makes the identi- 
fication of his species very certain. 

- 

s,.',,;;;,, v , \, } \ m t:« 11 . and we must adopt the appropriate name of 

Miller instead of Nuttall's excellent name. 

Most unfortunately many recent students have followed Mackenzie 
in discarding S. speciosa (plate 420, fig. 2) for S. conferta (fig. 1) 
and Mackenzie's characteristic positiveness would seem to justify 
such a procedure. Most of our students are not in a position to reigfa 
such matters and they accept the latest pronouncement without 
healthy skepticism. Since Miller's plate 254, fig. 2, which unquest. ■ ...- 
ably was his S. conferta, was to Mackenzie "very certain _ Iy I . 
speciosa I am reproducing the inflorescence, X !, as fig. 1, beside the 
upper half (fig. 2) of a characteristic thyrse of ^JJ^jJJ™^ 1 
•Part 
170 (italics 



of the Stalk at the Wings of the Leaves - 

mine- the reference to loose spikes overlooked, i 

by Mackent) The accuse characterization by Mil er of t e loose 

spike, and the very clear plate, lowing the small heads onjong 

filiform pedicels and the long foliaceous divergent 






208 Rhodora [j UNE 

very convincing reasons for not identifying Miller's garden plant, 
cultivated in England, with the American S. spedosa; and Mac- 
kenzie's certainty that the latter name should be thrown aside should 
serve as a caution to those who, it sometimes seems, are inclined to be 
more iconoclastic than precise in their identifications of old types. 

What American species, if any, was the primary basis of Solidago 
conferta Mill. I do not know. The decidedly non-secund branches of 
the thyrse place it in the § Virgaurea which occurs abundantly in 
Europe. S. uliginosa Nutt. sometimes has the heads on long pedicels 
but never, so far as I have seen, divergent broadly lance-attenuate 
leafy bracts; and in the American allies of the European S. Virgaurea 
L. I know none which could safely be forced into S. conferta. My own 
inclination is to leave it, along with many which were specially noted 
by Gray, as a garden plant of Europe (reputedly of American origin) 
which cannot be positively identified with any species known to us 
in the wild. 

Other cases of Mackenzie's unjustifiable abandonment of clearly 
typified and long established names for those which must always be 
open to question occur. The one here discussed and illustrated should 
suffice to put students of our flora on guard against such needless and 
-roil n< I less shifting of names. 

Solidago juncea Ait., forma scabrella (Torr. & Gray), comb nov 
•S. arguta, y. scabrella Torr. & Grav, Fl. N. Am ii 414 (1S42) N 
juncea, var. scabrella (Torr. & Gray) Gray, Syn. Fl. i 2 . 155 (1884). 

Supposed by Gray to be confined to the central states, but now 
known eastward to the limits of the specific range (Quebec and Vir- 
ginia). The smooth-leaved typical S. juncea also extends as far west 
and southwest as the scabrous form. 

S. juncea Ait., forma ramosa (Porter & Britten) comb nov S 
(1890 Var * mm ° Sa ?0rter & Britt ° n ^ Bul1, T ° rr - Bot CL ' Xviii ' 368 
Originally from western New Jersey and adjacent Pennsylvania, 
Ohio and West Virginia, this form with erect branches occurs sporadi- 
cally throughout the range of the species, at least eastward to New 
Brunswick and west to Michigan. It is a striking form but hardly 
a true geographic variety. 

grosse 
open pasture-slopes at 2100 feet alt., 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 209 

Maplecrest (Big Hollow), Green Co., August 26, 1931, H. K. Sve?u,on, 
no. 4668 (type in Gray Herb.). 

Forma tomophytta is an extraordinary departure from typical 
Solidago arguta; but I can look upon it only as a sporadic variation 
such as occurs in several other species, exaggeration of the teeth 
appearing in individuals of S. hispida Muhl., S. puberula Nutt., 
5. multiradiata Ait., S. Cutleri Fern., S. Randii (Porter) Britton and 
numerous others. In S. arguta, forma tomophylla, however, the out- 
line of the leaf is also aberrant. The sheet in the Gray Herbarium 
was collected on an excursion of the Torrey Botanical Club and the 
label says " Common on open pasture slopes, exposed to the south." 
In mid-August, I '.»;;,", Mr. E. C. Ogden and I searched the south-facing 
slopes above Maplecrest for it without success. S. juncea Ait. was 
abundant, S. arguta less so; but, if forma U> ,.., hullo -till grows there, 
it successfully evaded us. 

Solidago ludoviciana (Plate 422, figs. 2-5). In 1842, knowing 
the species only from about ten fragmentary specimens, Torrey & 
Gray treated Solidago Boottii Hook, as an all-inclusive species of five 
denned varieties. Later these varieties, originally designated without 
names, have received varietal and specific cognomens; and, with 
fuller material and understanding of their ranges, they are now prac- 
tically all recognized as definite Alleghenian, Piedmont and Coastal 
Plain species. One of the latter has been not well understood, and 
since it is one of the most definite of the complex group it seems impor- 
tant to attempt clarification of it. Torrey & Gray had from Louisiana 
and Texas plants which they doubtfully placed with S. Boottii as 

e? glabrous; stem stout; leaves rigid, oblong, less acuminate the lower 
serrate with spreading teeth; racemes dense, very numerous, forming an 
ample compound panicle.-T. & G. Fl. N. Am. ii. 214 (1842). 

In 1SS2 Gray said under N. Boottii 
Var Ludoviciana is a dubious form, with larger heads and leaves.— 

Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 195 (1882). 
but in the Synoptical Flora he was more definite: 

Var. Ludoviciana, Gray, 1. c. Perhaps a distinct spec ^, stouta,^ 
rather large-leaved: lower leaves and lower part of ^ .^em som^imes 

■ ^ • ■ ^ ' - ^ ' ' = -- -_ 

1. c— W. Louisiana, Hale.— Gray, Synop. Fl. V. lo4 (1884). 

Even as left bv Grav in 1884 his Solidago Boottii, var. ludoviciana 
consisted of a plant with "lower leaves . . • roughish-hirsute or 



210 Rhodora [jTJNE 

hispidulous with many-jointed hairs" and another with them glabrous. 
A large series accumulated in recent years shows that the plants with 
hirsute leaves and those with them glabrous are, apparently, well 
defined species: the hirsute one S. strigosa Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 1198, 
1339 (1903), correctly described with "blades strigose"; the glabrous 
one S. ludoviciana (Gray) Small, 1. c. 1199, 1339 (1903), based on 
S. Boottii, var. ludoviciana Gray. Of the Hale material from western 
Louisiana marked by Gray as S. Boottii, var. ludoviciana there are two 
sheets: the one in the Torrey Herbarium is glabrous (type of S. 
ludoviciana Small) and bears Gray's memorandum, "My specimen of 
this is hirsute"; the one in the Gray Herbarium is hirsute and bears 
Gray's memorandum, "The specimen in Hb. Torr. of var. e? is 
glabrous." Small having selected the glabrous plant of Hale to stand 
as the type of S. ludoviciana, that point is satisfactorily settled, the 
hirsute plant of Hale being S. strigosa Small. There are, as stated, 
many collections of both species now in the Herbarium of the New 
lork Botanical Garden, where I have studied them, and in the Gray 
Herbarium; but, unfortunately, the late K K. Mackenzie, rapidly 
becoming blind and suffering from a long-borne infection, apparently 
could not see them clearly, for at New York several sheets with the 
characteristic hirsuteness of S. strigosa were labelled by Mackenzie 



" X. hidveiciana." But the n 



:lmg confusion due to Mackenzie's 



distressing eye-sight in his later years arises in another connection. 
I erplexed by certain inadequate specimens of the plant of southern 
New Jersey which has there passed as possibly Solidago yadkinemis 
(Porter) Small, I appealed to Mr. Bayard Long, who stated that the 
JNew Jersey plant has remained a problem for twenty-five years a 
species readily recognizable and carefully accumulated in the local 
herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Mr. Long kindly sent for study a large series of the New Jersey plant, 
a spec.es of open sandy woods and thickets. In foliage, inflorescence, 
involucres, pappus, corollas and achenes it is a close match for S 
ludovtciana but all carefully collected New Jersey material has 
abundant filiform stolons and the autumnal rosettes have clearly 
arisen from such stolons. Otherwise the plant also superficially 
resembles S. yadhnensis, S. Boottii Hook, and S. strigosa Small. 
Jl ™™ Z1 1 S tr ,! atm f nt of SOUago in Small's Manual the three 
t. and S. Harrisii 
without long hori- 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 211 

zontal stolons," etc. The other plants of similar aspect would seem 
to constitute Mackenzie's Vernae: " Plants with long slender horizontal 
stolons," etc. The Vernae of Mackenzie are assigned two species, 
S. verna M. A. Curtis and the new S. tarda Mackenzie in Small, Man. 
1355, 1509 (1933). I have studied at New York and now have on loan 
the type of S. tarda. In every way it is matched by the freely stolon- 
iferous New Jersey material which is otherwise identical with the type 
of S. ludoviciana. Consequently, it is most significant to find that care- 
fully collected material of >'. ludoviciana displays the stolons {A. A. & 
E. 0. Heller, no. 4122 from Arkansas and E. J. Palmer's no. 31714a 
from Gumwood, Texas— distributed without identification). The 
identity of S. tarda with S. ludoviciana seems sufficiently clear. Late 
in the autumn it produces filiform stolons (fig. 2); but no material 
in the two large herbaria studied shows any such tendency in S. 
yadkinensis, the only species with which it might be confused, but 
from which S. ludoviciana differs in having the basal leaves broader 
and more abruptly contracted at base and less acuminate, the involu- 
cres (fig. 3) even larger, 5-8 mm. high (against 5-6.5), the pappus 
(figs. 4 and 5) 4-5 mm. long (in S. yadkinensis 3-4), the disk-corollas 
(fig. 4) 4.5-5.5 mm. long (in S. yadkinensis 4-4.5) and the achenes 
(fig. 5) 2-2.8 mm. long (against 1.5-2.2). Incidentally the flowering 
periods of the two are quite different. S. yadkinensis, chiefly an 
Alleghenian and Piedmont species, flowers early: July 24-31 in Vir- 
ginia, late June to early August in North Carolina, August in Georgia, 
the type, in fruit, collected at the Falls of the Yadkin on August 18th. 
8. ludoviciana is a species chiefly of the Coastal Plain, from Arkansas 
and eastern Texas to Georgia and in eastern Virginia (locally) and 
southern New Jersey (more frequently). In New Jersey the specimens 
in anthesis (rare in the woods, more frequent in the open) were col- 
lected from September 4 to October 6; the type of S. tarda, barely in 
flower, was collected in Clarke Co., Georgia on October 20th. There 
is, then, a difference of several weeks in the flowering periods of the 

Alth. .u'Ll." the production of filiform stolons seems to be a specific 
trait of Snlhlago ludoviciana and their non-production a character of 

, H u . s Ilurrmi and S. arguta. the character 

should he u^<l with caution In all the material of S. verna, including 
the type collection of M A. Curtis, at Cambridge and at New York I 
can find no Vr, ."..■ , .. t Mark, nzie certainly inferred them when he 



212 Rhodora [JuNE 

defined the Vernae "with long slender horizontal stolons." In S. 
strigosa which he placed in the Argutae "without long horizontal 
stolons," there are 16 sheets before me. Of these, 13 are either 
broken off or jerked up, showing no well collected bases; but in 
Caroline Dormon's no. 1 from Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, the 
carefully dug base shows the filiform stolons, quite like those of 
S. ludoviciana. On account of these stolons which he specially noted 
on the sheet, Mackenzie identified the collection as S. tarda, but the 
basal leaves have the characteristic pubescence of S. strigosa, not the 
glabrous surfaces of S. tarda (i. e. S. ludoviciana). Nevertheless S. 
strigosa can hardly be treated as hirsute S. ludoviciana. Its involucres 
are only 3.5-4.5 mm. high (in S. ludoviciana 5-8), its pappus only 
2.5-4 mm. long (in S. ludoviciana 4-5) and its disk-corollas only 3.5-4 
mm. long (in S. ludoviciana 4.5-5.5). 

The quick way to tell the eastern Solidago juncea Ait. from the 
western^, miwoiirinixis Xutt. is by their liases: N. missourinms (with 
narrow "triple-nerved" leaves), even when pulled up displays filiform 
stolons; S. juncea (with the broader leaves not "triple-nerved") 
practically never has such stolons. Nevertheless, in the sandy south- 
eastern section of Massachusetts (Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, etc.) 
S. juncea with characteristic foliage, involucres and achenes, frequently 
develops stolons as slender and elongate as does the regularly stolon- 
lferous 8. missouriensis. 

The character, therefore, is one to be used only after critical study 
and abundant experience. The development of filiform stolons in the 
late-flowering Solidago ludoviciana (S. tarda) seems to be a character 
of value in separating it from the early-flowering S. yadkinemis, 
which, as Messrs. Long, Fogg and I were able to check in eastern 
Virginia, bears a large rosette on a stout caudex, from which finally 
flic {lowering stem arises. 

Solidago neurolepis, sp. nov. (tab. 421 et t\b 422 fig 1) 
ni'lotTr Sl f HS; - CaUk 1_1 - 5 m " alto S labro vel suP^ne sparse 
721'? SU ^ Cori f e , ls u su P ra glabris vel minute scabridulis subtus 
ad nervos hispidis vel glabratis; foliis rosulatis longe petiolatis petiolis 
margmatis, laminis oblongo-ovatis 8-17 cm. longis 4 5-10 5 cm latia 
grosseserratis dentibus apie, „,b„l„, k ,, ; ,; n.tundatis apice acumin- 
atis; folns cauhnis 30-40 imis mediisque oblongo-ovatis vel -obovatis 
infl^f ?' S gr ° SS - a , CUteq r Serratis ' su P^ioribus reductis integris; 
mw h ?™ 1CU }'i\ k L xa ^mis remotis adscendentibus vel 

patentibusseciind.s. inl.-nonbus ; „I ,,„«■,,„ f|„rif,-ri>. .uperioribus per 
totam longitudmem florifens; pedicellis brevibus erectis- involueris 



1936] Fernald, — Contributions from the Gray Herburium 213 

cylindricis 3.5-4.5 mm. altis, bracteis stramineis valde inaequalibus, 
('Xtcrinril.il> pcrbrevilms iHiiccnlato-attcnuatk iim-nurdiis lanceolato- 
atis valde costatis costa glutinosa, interioribus linearibus sub- 
vel obtusis; disci floribus 4 vel 5, tubo 1-1.5 mm. longo, fauce 
1 mm. longo, lobis 0.6-0.8 mm. longis; ligulis 3 vel 4 ca. 0.3 mm. latis; 
pappi setis 2-2.5 mm. longis; achaeniis maturis 1.3-1.5 mm. longis 
strigosis.— Missouri: dry bank, open woods, Oronogo, Jasper Co., 
August 29, 1920, E. J. Palmer, no. 18,863, distributed as S. juncca var. 
scabrella. 

Solidago neurolepis, presumably on account of its large basal rosettes 
(plate 422, fig. 1), was mistaken by Palmer for S. juncea and later, 
by Mackenzie, for S. ludomciana. S. juncea, however, has the basal 
leaves narrower and more tapering at base, without the bristly cihation 
of the nerves beneath; its cauline leaves are narrower and more rapidly 
decreasing upward; its involucre (plate 422, fig. 6) hemispherical, 
with oblong and blunt bracts, its disk-flowers about 10 and its hgules 
8-12. N. wurokpis is sufficiently distinct from it in the rounder-based 
leaves, with characteristic pubescence (plate 421, fig. 2) beneath, 
the broad and sharply toothed median cauline leaves, the slender 
heads (fig. 3) with attenuate bracts and the few flowers. S ludo- 
mciana as shown on p. 210, has the base (plate 422, fig. 2) with 
filiform' rhizomes and stolons, the leaves quite glabrous, the cam- 
pamilate involucres (fig. 3) very large (5-8 mm high), with oblong 
and obtuse bracts, with midrib dilated upward, the disk-corollas 
(fig. 4) 8-10 and 4.5-5.5 mm. long, the ligules about as numerous and 
unusually broad, the achenes (f!G. 5) 2-3 mm. long, with pappus 4-5 
mm. long. . , . . , , • „ lt „ 

In habit and large rosette-leaves with veins lusp.d or h rsute 
beneath Solidago neuroUpi, is somewhat hke S. sngota Small but 

that speeies. like .V /->- ■ - ^ M >' f °f T^l/, ne 

1,,-m.Is are much fuller than in S. neurolepis and w,th obtuse hnear- 

"'tf; B l«l« or SoUDAGO ELUOTTU (PLATES 423-425)^ 

S„/;,W, Fllioltii Ton & Gray was originally conceived as a plant of 

, ,. ■ .. n™ heine a specimen 

mueronate-acute or somewhat acuminate . . ™ny ^ ^ .^ 

heads in crowded ^fT^^TJCy & Gray 
S. eUiptia, of Elliott, not Ait At the same 



214 Rhodora [June 

supposed a more northern plant to be S. elliptica Ait., but subsequently 
Gray cast doubt on the identity of Aiton's S. elliptica with any 
indigenous American plant: ' Cultivated from early times in European 
gardens, not identified as indigenous"; 1 and at that time he referred 
the northern plant to the southern S. Elliottii, a course which has been 
followed by most later students. The only doubt of this identity 
seems to be the comment by Mackenzie in Small's Manual in his 
treatment of S. Elliottii: " This species seems to be known only from 
the original specimen from Parris Island, S. C. Specimens ranging 
all the way from eastern Georgia to eastern Canada have been erron- 
eously referred to it." 

Material of the original Parris Island plant preserved in the Torrey 
Herbarium (with fragments in the Gray Herbarium) agrees with 
much other material from South Carolina in having elliptical short- 
tipped, not long-acuminate leaves, and a panicle with strongly diver- 
gent or recurving racemes. 

In these two characters it is quite distinct from the plant of swamps 
from Delaware to eastern Massachusetts and Nova Scotia. The 
latter has the leaves mostly narrower and long-acuminate and the 
panicle with strongly ascending to barely spreading branches and the 
foliaceous bracts are usually more developed. Some collections, 
especially from Rhode Island, strongly approach the South Carolina 
plant in habit but they have the leaves prolonged as in the usual New 
England plant. In the details of the heads I find essentially no differ- 
ence. The South Carolina material (true S. Elliottii) has the involucre 
4.5-5.5 mm. high, its median bracts 0.8-1 mm. broad, the disk- 
corollas 4.5-5.5 mm. long with lobes 1.5-2 mm. long, the pappus 
3.5-4.5 mm. long and the ripe achenes 1.5-1.8 mm. long. The northern 
series shows similar measurements, with slightly more variation (due 
to more abundant material) : involucre up to 6.5 mm. high and disk- 
corollas 4-5 mm. long. There is certainly not enough difference to 
keep the two series apart as species. 

In eastern Virginia Solidago Elliottii is represented by a plant with 
the foliage much as in the northern variety but with a pyramidal 
open panicle with spreading branches and long pedicels, the former 
character reminiscent of true S. Elliottii. But this Virginian plant 
has the involucres and flowers small for the species: involucres 3.5-4.5 
mm. high, with the median bracts only 0.5 mm. broad, disk-corollas 



1936] Fernald ,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 215 

4-4.2 mm. long, pappus only about 3-3.5 mm. long, and achenes only 
1.2 mm. long. It thus approaches S. rugosa Mill., var. sph 
Graves, but that has the small involucres (3-4 mm. long) crowded 
and short-pedicelled, the smaller disk-corollas (2.5-3.5 mm. long) 
with lobes only about 1 mm. long, and the short pappus (2-2.5 mm. 
long) of S. rugosa. I am, therefore, tentatively treating the plant of 
eastern Virginia as a variety of <S. Elliottii. 

Farther south, in Florida, Solidago Edisoniana Mackenzie has the 
aspect of the northern variety of S. Elliottii, with the foliose panicle 
with strongly ascending branches, but its leaves are firmer and more 
prominently toothed. Its involucres, disk-corollas, and pappus 
give the same measurements and proportions, except that the pappus 
may be a fraction of a millimeter longer. 

It seems to me, therefore, that Solidago Elliottii is best treated as a 
polymorphous species of the Coastal Plain and adjacent provinces, 
characterized as a species by its glabrous stems, rachis and foliage, 
and its large heads (involucre 3.5-6.5 mm. high), broadish, blunt 
bracts (the median 0.5-1 mm. wide), long disk-corollas (4-5.5 mm. 
long) with lobes 1.5-2 mm. long, long pappus (3-5 mm. long) and 
large ligules (0.5-1 mm. broad). It seems to have four geographic 

S. Elliottii Torr & Gray, var. typifca. S. Elliottii Torr. & Gray, 
Fl. N. Am. ii. 21S ,1S42): Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 2 (1884) as to southern 
plant onlv; Mackenzie in Small. Man. 1358 (1933). -Swamps of 
North and South Carolina and Georgia. Plate 423 

Var. ascendens, var. nov. (tab. 424), folus oblam 
^kl™ • •; „l m..n.l.r-m-.eei* run i s naniciilariiiii ^ i1,1 '' 

ascent en til. us: mvolucris !.■> o..> ">'"■ •" J 1 * > 1 ^ 11 " 1 \ 
bracteis medn- u7 ! nun I,k di-i -roHts 4-5 mm longis lobis 
1.5-2 mni. londs: anthers 1.5 2 mm. longis; pappi setis 
longis. — Swamps 






Delaware to eastern Massa 



Nova Scotia. Typk: 



K,lti.;l. 



u,„ Ah' I u.-ns September 21, 1!>27.J/./ 
',.!• tw liT Fernet! PL Exsicc*. Gray. no. 492 (in Gray 

^ascendens is the plant which was mistakenly called ; SvUdago 

,//,>,,, Ait. bv Gray. It has generally p:-,l a. >. ■' 
northern Manuals. Freely hybridizing with .S. r « > ami . ■ • 

t. ,-; WWnHxi '' Rh0D0RA ' 

*'" I h "«»'_ ' ( ' | s. rup#a, var. typica. 

Var. pedicellata, var. nov. (tab. 425;, 



216 Rhodora [June 

elliptico-lanceolatis acuminatis, membranaceis ; ramis panicularum 
laxe patentibus; involucris 3.5-4.5 mm. altis longe pedicellatis, 
bracteis mediis 0.5 mm. latis; disci corollis 4-4.2 mm. longis; pappi 
setis 3-3.5 mm. longis; achaeniis 1.2 mm. longis. — Eastern Virginia. 
Type: border of wet pine woods, Eastville, October 12, 1935, Fcrnald 
& Long, no. 5520 (in Gray Herb.) 

A plant in young bud only, from bushy clearings and borders of 
woods west of Hampton, Virginia (Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 5091) is 
apparently the same. 

Var. Edisoniana (Mackenzie), comb. nov. S. Edisoniana Mack- 
enzie in Small, 1358 (1933). 

The Solidago rugosa Complex (Plates 426-430). Probably no 
aggregate-species of Solidago in America, unless it be the canadensis 
group, is more baffling in its variations than S. rugosa Mill, (including 
S. aspera Ait.) Already difficult enough as a series of plants, its 
elucidation has not been helped by the interpretation of the late 
K. K. Mackenzie. 1 Wandering through the mazes of the always 
vague and often inconclusive pre-Linnean accounts and drawings 
of plants in European gardens prior to 1753, the initial date of our 
nomenclature, he concluded that the plant which Linnaeus had 
cultivated at Upsala and described as S. altissima, " Solidago panicu- 
lata-corymbosa, racemis recurvis, floribus adscendentibus, foliis ener- 
viis subintegerrimis," 2 is 8. rugosa Mill. Early botanists had identified 
our inclusive S. rugosa as S. altissima, but Asa Gray, after a life-time 
of actual study of the original specimens in Solidago, settled the matter 
for all who wish it settled by showing that S. altissima must stand for 
the relative of S. canadensis "with thicker and more obscurely triple- 
nerved leaves than ordinary S. Canadensis"; and that the specimen 
in the much altered and disturbed Linnean herbarium of today, 
bearing the name S. altissima and belonging to S. rugosa, was so 
labeled by Sir J. E. Smith after the death of Linnaeus and cannot be 
accepted as in any way the Linnean type: "A specimen ticketed 
... by Smith 'altissima', is the species which has so long [errone- 
ously] passed as 5. altissima, viz. S. rugosa:' 3 In the study referred 
to, Gray concluded that for the plant (our S. rugosa) which had 
erroneously passed as S. altissima "we must now fall back to the 



oldest a 



t appropriate name, S. rugosa. Mill. Diet." 



1936] Fernald ,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 217 

Gray's decisions were based upon a thorough and dispassionate weigh- 
ing of the complicated evidence and nothing is gained by attempts to 
overthrow his decisions merely on the basis of sophisticated biblio- 
graphic twists without fuller knowledge of the actual specimens which 
Linnaeus had before him. Incidentally it should be noted tbat the 
original Linnean account (Hortus Upsal. 259) in 1748 said of his 
S. altissima "t'oliis enerviis integerrimis," a phrase altered in 1753 
(our starting point) by changing integerrimis to subintcgerrimis. 

The original (1748) account by Linnaeus amplified the brief diagno- 
sis by a series of comparisons with the preceding species, IS. canaden- 
sis L. 

Obs. Praecedenti valde _ 

margine vix vel pant in scabris, •<<■, 

duplo altiore, seu quadrupedali. 3. Tempore florendi i 

Mackenzie's own description of S. rugosa (his " S. altissima") in 
Small's Manual reads: "leaf-blades . . . sharply-serrate, . . . 
thin, prominently veined." Surely, it is most difficult to coordinate 
Mackenzie's " S. altissima" (S. rugosa), with sharply serrate, thin, 
prominently veined leaver with the Linnean account of a plant with 
entire (or subentire), thick leaves with veins not apparent. Gray's 
wise decision should be accepted as definitely settling the specific 
identities; nothing but confusion follows by insisting that by entire, 
thick and veinless Linnaeus really meant sharply serrate, thin and 
prominently veined! 

As to Mackenzie's insistence that Solidago altissima L. is not the 
tall thick- and often entire-leaved plant with which Gray and after- 
ward I merely following Gray, identified it, it is noteworthy that the 
original Linnean account said that the plant flowers later (in October) 
than S. canadensis and that it came from Maryland. As reprint,-. 
in the Gray Herbarium N. canadensis is little shown iron, 
southward, while S. altissima of Gray's and my own 
is more abundant, being the most abundant spec.es ot ea>ten. .in- 
land and Virginia. The flowering material bears the following dates. 

S. canadensis. From Maryland, September 16; from West Virginia, 
September 5 and 10. Member 16 and 24; from West 

I and 20. 
I see no grounds for upsetting the use of S. altissima for the plant so 
treated in Gray's Manual. 



21» Rhodora 

There is, however, the necessity to settle just which oi 
variations within the complex series we call Solidago rugosa Philip 
Miller had. So long as the group was treated merely as "Poly- 
morphous, not readily sorted into definable varieties," Gray's treat- 
ment in the Synoptical Flora, the question could be passed. But now 
that we know the thin-leaved plant with elongate and acuminate, 
sharply serrate, smooth or merely villous-backed blades to have the 
involucral bracts also thin and elongate (linear-lanceolate and tapering 
to tip) and to have a broad northern range, while the plants with 
thicker, firmer and more rugose and harshly scabrous leaves have the 
involucral bracts commonly linear and round-tipped, and are prevail- 
ingly of southern range, the exact identity of Miller's plant becomes 
important. 

Probably there is no type extant for Solidago rugosa. Miller's 
description (species no. 25, Gard. Diet. ed. 8) is not wholly satisfactory, 
especially his entire leaves; but the garden plant was said to have come 
from New England, to have hairy, round stems 2^ feet high, lance- 
olate, rough leaves, "those on the lower part are two inches long, and 
half an inch broad, but are gradually smaller to the top," panicle loose, 
with long lower branches with intermixed leaves. This in view of 
Miller's lack of understanding of more technical characters in Solidago, 
is well enough and nothing will be gained by changing the interpreta- 
tion of S. rugosa as now generally understood. William Aiton (or 
presumably Solander), who was a contemporary of Miller and had 
material of his species growing at Kew, supposed S. rugosa to be 
S alhsnma L., as already sufficiently emphasized. Aiton divided the 
S. alhssima" growing then at Kew into five unnamed varieties 
his S. alhsstma « being what was then understood by Miller's con- 
temporaries as S. rugosa, a plant with the habit and narrow-based 
and acuminate leaves of northern S. rugosa but with the margins 
entire or only barely toothed. That this garden material is quite 
hke the plant which Miller had there can be little doubt. It is the 
extreme of ordinary S. rugosa, as currently understood, with the least 
developed toothing. The other plants which Aiton associated with it, 
his S. ahusrma vars. «, & Y and 8, are slight variations of the same 
thing differing m breadth of leaf, toothing of the margin and elonga- 
tion of panicle-branches. I have before me photographs of all these 
trivia variations which I took at the British Museum in 1903. They 
all belong to S. rugosa as usually interpreted. In 1814 Pursh took 




•■■•""■■".■"■•".■I • i.t ro . ^;;:! 11 ;:;;;,,;: P , l !;;;, , ;:;!: 1 ;:"f a8eofleaf ' 






1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 219 

up three of Aiton's unnamed varieties and assigned them names under 
S. altissima, with the pregnant comment: " It is a very variable species, 
and scarcely two individuals look alike." Another of Aiton's varieties, 
his N. altissima e, which Aiton had considered to be S. rugosa Mill. 
(Aiton's material closely matching Miller's description), was treated 
by Pursh unequivocally as S. rugosa; and another, X. altissima p. of 
Aiton, (said by Aiton to be S. pilosa Miller) Pursh treated as synony- 
mous with his new -N. villosa. The type of Aiton's N. altissima £ = N. 
pilosa Mill., however, is only a slight transition toward the type of 
S. villosa Pursh, photographs of both being before me. 

Typical Solidago rugosa passes into the ecological var. villosa, 
which was S. villosa Pursh. These two plants, predominantly northern 
and of damp habitats, have usually villous stems, lanceolate to 
narrowly ovate or oblanceolate, usually sharply serrate leaves which 
are narrowed to base and acuminate at tip, rather thin, only slightly 
harsh above, villous-hirsute on the loose but not prominently rugose 
veins beneath, and their involucral bracts are thin (subherbaceous), 
greenish and linear or linear-lanceolate and tapering or only subobtuse 
at tip. 

In drier, often quite dry, habitats of the South, extending into 
the warmer parts of the North, there is another series, S. aspera Ait. 
and S. celtidifolia Small, with the stems scabrous-puberulent or short- 
hirsute (rarely villous) ; the leaves from lanceolate to rounded-ovate 
and firm, harshly scabrous above, coarsely rugose-veiny and scabrous- 
hirsute beneath, the bases mostly rounded and the margins with low 
or crenate teeth. In these two plants the involucral bracts are rather 
firm, linear to linear-oblong and usually round-tipped. In their 
extreme developments they would seem to constitute a separate 
species, but, unfortunately, too many transitions in leaf-outline, 
toothing, and involucres occur to allow me to treat them as specifically 
distinct from S. rugosa. Their corollas, pappus and achenes are, 
likewise, not materially different and I am looking upon them as a 
pair of somewhat xerophytic austral varieties. This interpretation 
is strengthened by the fact that the type and a few other extreme 
specimens of S. celtidifolia have the involucral bracts as slender and 
as thin as in the more northern typical S. rugosa, but decidedly longer. 

Another series which is quite baffling is the group of glabrous plants 
which was set off as Solidago rugosa. var. ^hagmphJaby Grave, ,n 



1904 and, eleven years later, 



atarBicknell. When Bicknell 



220 Rhodora [JuNE 

described this glabrous plant as a species he correctly characterized 

closely related to S. rugosa, but having a much earlier flowering period, 
• • ■ thr ''' ' ! 1 1 (> e of S. rugosa and much of it 

past flowering at the time the latter begins to bloom. The cl or It n 
ship of S aestivalis to S. rugosa is evident enough, and examples are not 
wanting that suggest either that the two are sometimes intergradient or 



..aumig, tuaL suggest euner inai tne two are sometimes intergra 

hybridize. Nevertheless it would be little a UU u U 

anyone coming to know S. aestivalis, that it was essential^ 

d long ago it became to me an authentic and, from its early 

time of flowering a pan u , | ie go lden-rod 

group. Its smooth and purple striate-angled stem is notably at contrast 

7rJ„* m Sl G te l e -? aii ' ! r villous stem of normal 

b. rugosa although its smoothness may not be taken as a stri< 

mining character, for S. rugosa occasionally passes into glabrate forms; but 

as I have met with them on Long Island are 

l; 1 ;;-;^ - K l-.-d -nations from the type not at all to be correlated 



; uu "** normally glabrous stemmed S. aestivalis. In view of such varia- 
tions, however the charo. „ n j esg wei ht 
«S,w^i beginning and 
shnilar S rv low™** pr ° n ° Unced remove from identit y with th e broadly 
Bicknell's discussion will be seconded by all who know the smooth 
plant of the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont; its early flowering is 
very real, but the flowering season, as shown in the abundant herba- 
rium material from southern New England, overlaps that of 5 rugosa 
more than he found to be the case on Lond Island. The striate- 
angling of the stem is evident in most material, though occasionally 
not apparent, and too often in both the northern and inland villous- 
stemmed S. rugosa and in the southern scabrous-hispid S. aspera 
the pronounced angles can be seen (obscured only by the presence of 
a blanketing pubescence). In plates 426 to 429 I show such stems 
from the different plants of the group, merely to indicate the difficulty 
encountered in applying this character as a truly distinctive one 

Bicknell's characterization calls for involucral " bracts linear-oblong 
to linear, obtuse" as in S. aspera and much of S. celtidifolia, and in 
slightly more than half of the material in the Gray Herbarium that is 
the case; but in the remainder, including some of the type-collection 
ot 6. rugosa, var. sphagnophila, the bracts are as narrow and attenuate 
as in the most ideal S. rugosa. Yet it can scarcely be maintained that 
Dr. Graves s variety is different from Bicknell's species. Graves's 
original account called for "Stems . . . angulai 

1 Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. xlii kri wo n «n 



1936] Fernald, — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 221 

smooth, usually dark red or purple . . . involucre ... its 
bracts . . . linear-subulate to oblong-linear, acute or obtuse" 
and Graves gave a discus-inn very >imilar to that of Bicknell eleven 
years later! 

As to whether it should be looked upon as specifically distinct from 
S. rugnsa there might be an honest difference of opinion, but on account 
of the discovery of a " tediate characters it seems 

best to regard it as a well marked variety of that species. . . . Not 
the least interesting feature of this variety is its time of flowering. It 
is one of our i owing elose after S juncea, Ait., and 

S. odora, Ait., and antedating S. rugosa in the same neighborhood by at 
least four weeks. This past summer it began to bloom about August first, 
was well in flower a week or ten days later, and by the end of the month- 
at a time when the species was barely beginning— the variety was prac- 
ticallv out of bloom. ... 

It is readilv distinguished from the species by it- pertectlv s th. 

more striate and usuallv darker stem, and its r. 

Its early flowering season and its habitat also constitute significant points 

of distinction. 1 

There is much to say for recognizing Solidago aestivalis as a species, 
but I am so constituted that I cannot accept as true species in Solidago 
plants without definite morphological differences. I have vainly 
sought stable characters of corollas, achenes, pappus and anthers, 
such as clearly separate these plants from S. Elliottii and such as 
separate all other habitally similar but morphologically distinct 
species. I should welcome the designation of such characters by 
those who prefer to call S. aestivalis a species; but I am forced, untd 
a new light is shed on the question, to treat S. aestivalis as S. rugosa, 
var. sphagnophila Graves. 

The following brief summary gives the conclusions I reach in study- 
ing the group of Solidago rugosa. Since the group is so complex I have 
felt it important for clarity to illustrate each of the varieties I recog- 
nize. I have also added some details of involucres, etc. which may be 
of service. 

S rugosa Mill var. typica. S. rugosa Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. s. no. 
25(1768);Pursh.KI ii :V.\7 is 14 ), and later authors in part, hrja 
ercvii fie ion and to the 

rugosa; the nan , u^l ly Mill.-r pr,b...,l> - rn ed - . m 1) llemus or 
from Hermann before him. /• P^'< ^ ;• ; c . ' ' " '., ." . ; in ' r ,: r . 
interpreted by Aiton. S. mrgimana Mill., 1. c. no. 11 (1/WJ, 



222 Rhodora [J UNE 

preted by Aiton and by Pursh. S. reeurvata Mill. 1. c. no. 28 (1768), 
as interpreted by Aiton and by Pursh. N. altiwHt-a Ait. Hort. Kew. 
in. 212 j h89)/ including vars.; Pursh, 1. c. 336 (1814); Torr. & Gray, 
Fl. ii. 216 (1842), in part; Mackenzie in Rhodora, xxix. 75 (1927) 
and in Small, Man. 1358 (1933), not L. Sp. PI. ii. 878 (1753). S. 
altis.vtna, v.. vulgaris, -. nrunafn (Mill.) and y. virqiniana (Mill.) 
Pursh, 1. c. (1814). S. altissima, var. rugosa (Mill.) Torr. Fl. N. Y. i. 
363 (1843). — Stem sordid-villous, without or with decurrent lines 
running down the stem from the leaf-bases and midribs; leaves 
lanceolate to narrowly ovate or oblanceolate, acuminate, gradually 
tapering at base, commonly sharp-serrate with coarse teeth, usually 
rather thin and loosely veiny, not conspicuously rugose, more or less 
villous beneath; the median leaves 0.5-1.3 cm. long; the upper leaves 
gradually reduced in size, 1-7 cm. long, 0.5-1.5 cm. broad, much 
shorter than the long . . ■ .., ( ,f the usually broadly 

pyramidal panicle; involucres 3-4 mm. high, their bracts linear or 
linear-lanceolate, thin, greenish, attenuate to bluntish.— Damp open 
-oil. duckets and borders of woods and streams, Newfoundland to 
Ontario, south to western Virginia, West Virginia and Louisiana, 
abundant northward, less so southward. Flowering August-October. 
Passing into vars. villosa, aspera and sphagnophila. Plate 426. 

Vars. glabrata and laevicaulis Farwell, Am. Midi. Nat. ix. 277 (1925) 
have the characteristic pubescence through the panicle and on the 
lower leaf-surfaces, but their stems below the panicle are glabrous. 

Var. villosa (Pursh) Fernald in Rhodora, x. 91 (1908). S. villosa 
Pursh, Fl. n. 537 (1814). S. aUisvi ran ) Torr. Fl. 

IV. Y. i 363 (1843) at least as to source of name.— Panicle elongate- 
pyramidal to cyhndnc, the lower lateral racemes nearly equaled to 
overtopped by the large (0.5-1 dm. long, 1-3.5 cm. broad) subtending 
leaves; involucres as in var. typica, often slightly larger; pubescence 
as in var. typicaoT longer and more copious.— Low grounds, Newfound- 
land to Ontario, often the abundant form, becoming infrequent south- 
ward to \rrginia. West Virginia. Ohio and Michigan. Flowering 
from early July (northward) to October (southward). Plate 127. 
\ar si>haonop, j1la ( inm . m R n ,, r)nKA . vi | S;; (]!K)4)- ^ aesti _ 



from the bases of the leaves; leaves glabrous, 

elliptic, rather firm, appressed-serrate, the median 0.6-1.2 dm. long, 
the upper reduced; panicle much as in var. typica or more compact, 
its rachis and branches glabrous or only sparsely pubescent; involucral 
bracts linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, acute or obtuse.-Swampy, 
often boggy, habitats southern Maine to North Carolina. Flowering 
through August and September. Plate 428. 




: 5, from TYPE-collection. 






1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 223 

Var. aspera (Ait.) Fernald in Rhodora, xvii. 7 (1915). Virga 
aurea Americana aspera Dill. Hort. Elth. 411, t. cccv. fig. 392 (1732). 
S. aspera Ait. Hort. Kew. iii. 212 (1789); Willd. Sp. PI. iii\ 2057 
(1804) ; Pursh, Fl. 535 (1814), and later authors. S. altissima s, Torr. 
& Gray, Fl. ii. 217 (1842).— Stems scabrous-puberulent or short- 
hispid, rarely glabrous, terete or only occasionally angulate-striate; 
leaves oval or elliptic to lanceolate, rounded at base, subacute to 
short-acuminate, low-serrate to crenate, sometimes coarsely serrate, 
scabrous on and strongly rugose, the lower surface 

hispid; median leaves 2.5-10 cm. long, 1.2-4 cm. broad; panicle pyram- 
idal, usually longer than broad, its ascending to spreading branches 
densely floriferous throughout or the lower sometimes merely leafy- 
bracted below, the reduced rameal leaves elliptic to lanceolate and 
acute; involucres 3-4 mm. high; their principal hrai ts firm, stramin- 
eous to pale-green, linear-oblong an. 8 mm. broad. 
— Dry to damp open soil or thin woods and thickets, Florida to Texas, 
north to southern Maine, Ohio, Michigan and Missouri. Flowering 
from mid-August to October. Plate 429. 

Although var. aspera often appears quite distinct and, as already 
noted, is of generally more southern range and of drier habitats than 
var. typica, I find altogether too many transitions to justify maintain- 
ing it as a species. In view of the consistent and correct application 
of Aiton's name aspera, derived from Dillenius (1732), for more than 
two centuries, I am purposely maintaining the name in the varietal 
category, although extreme literalists, who place more weight on the 
letter of rules than their spirit, might urge my making a new combina- 
tion based upon S. aspera var. axillaris Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 
Sci. xiv. 189 (1913). Needless confusion would result by abandoning 
the bicentenarian and perfectly understood name aspera in its 
broadly inclusive sense and substituting, on a technicality, a name 
which was not so intended but which was definitely made subordinate 



aspera and meant for i 






technically literal and to make a fetish of minor rules where only 
confusion and misunderstanding would result. Others, who look 
upon nomenclature as the end, not the means, will take another view. 

Var. aspera passes into the following: 

Var. celtidifolia (Small), comb. nov. S. celtidifolia Small, Fl. 
Se. U.S. 1198, 1339 (1903), and later authors.— Similar to 
but the panicle very lax, its few distant very prolonged and divergent 
branches (up to 4.5 dm. long) floriferous chiefly above the middle, their 
bracteal leaves elliptic to oval; involucres 3.5-5.5 mm. long, the inner 
bracts often prolonged, linear, obtuse or acute often membranaceous. 
—Dry to moist open woods, clearings and thickets, Georgia to lexas, 



224 Rhodora [JuNE 

north to Virginia, southern Indiana and Arkansas. Flowering through 
September and October. Plate 430. 

Solidago aukiculata Shuttleworth ex Blake in Journ. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. xxi. 326 (1931). S. amplexkaulis Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. ii. 218 (1842), not Martens in Bull. Acad. Brux. viii. 67 (1841). 
S. auriculata Shuttleworth ex Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. I 2 . 153 (1884), 
as synonym. S. notabilis Mackenzie in Small, Man. Se. Fl. 1353, 1509 
(1933). 

Mackenzie, in publishing Solidago notabilis in 1933, must have over- 
looked the proper publication in 1931 by Blake of Shuttleworth's 
manuscript name S. auriculata. The latter, validated by Blake, is 
correct; the former is a synonym. 

The Varieties of Solidago nemoralis (Plate 431). As I under- 
stand the species, Solidago nemoralis Ait. has three strongly defined 
geographic varieties, probably all of which have been treated as 
species but which show altogether too much intergradation. Typical 
S. nemoralis, the wide-ranging plant (a New Jersey specimen in the 
Gray Herbarium matched with the type by Asa Gray and Francis 
Boott), has the basal leaves broadly oblanceolate to spatulate- 
obovate; and the principal cauline ones decrease gradually in size to 
the summit, the upper reduced ones being narrowly oblanceolate. 
The heads are crowded on the branches of the panicle and vary 
with habitat and exposure from subsessile to more definitely short- 
pedicelled. 

On the Prairies and Plains much of Solidago nemoralis has the 
leaves narrower, the basal narrowly oblanceolate to lance-linear, the 
upper cauline linear-oblanceolate or linear. This plant of the Plains 
has the heads (figs. 3-5) usually large for the species, though equally 
large heads (figs. 7-9, 11, 12) are often found in the more eastern 
plant, and the pedicels are often quite evident. This was first described 
in 1836 as S. decemflora DC. Prodr. v. 332 (1836), a sheet of the type 
number {Berlandier, no. 1924) in the Gray Herbarium being (except 
for greater discoloration) a good match for the type of S. longipt tiolaia 
Mackenzie & Bush in Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, xii 87 t xvi (1902) 
Much of the latter plant, furthermore, seems to me inseparable from 
the type-collection of S. diffusa Nelson in Bull. Torr. Bot CI xxv 378 



(1898), 

»S. pulcherrima Nelson 



. later homonym, was altered t 
Wyoming this 



s of S. nemoralis is apparently rare,, though it is now known 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 225 

to reach Montana, Utah and Arizona, for in publishing it Nelson 
said "It is seemingly quite local as nothing approaching it has been 
secured in several years' collecting in the state." Nelson also added 
the illuminating footnote: "Dr. Rydberg suggests that this is the 
S. nemoralis of most of the Western Reports and states that its range 
extends from Kansas to the Saskatchewan. It is so very different from 
the eastern S. nemoralis that I had not associated the two at all." 

The isotype of Solidago pulcherrima in the Gray Herbarium has the 
involucral bracts (fig. 5) obtuse, the isotype of S. longipetiolata has 
them also obtuse (fig. 3) but not quite so round-tipped, and the 
isotype of S. decemfiora has them (fig. 4) as in the Mackenzie & Bush 
type, or slightly acutish. In publishing S. longipetiolata Mackenzie & 
Bush specially emphasized the narrower leaves and the larger heads, 
which constitute the chief differential characters of the plant of the 
Plains, but they also said "Distinguished from S. nemoralis Ait. by 
more imbricated involucre, with sharper scales, lower height, 
more simple inflorescence and much more pubescent achenes." As 
to the "lower height," they assigned their plant a height of "3-6 dm.", 
while Nelson had given for his earlier S. diffusa "stems 6-8 dm. long." 
Specimens distributed by Bush as his and Mackenzie's S. longi- 
petiolata are 8 dm. high, and large specimens of it from Arkansas are 
1.3 m. high. Such a height as the latter for S. nemoralis would be 
unusual and plenty of eastern material from arid and wind-swept 
habitats is depressed and with stems only 1-2 dm. long. The panicle of 
the western material is commonly more slender and with less divergent 
branches than in much of the eastern, but it is altogether too easy to 
find either form of panicle east or west. As to the "sharper scales 
of the plant of the Plains it is significant that Rydberg, not averse to 
weak species, should have specially separated all the members of the 
series (S. nemoralis, S. longipetiolata and S. pulehernma) from the 
slenderly stoloniferous 8. mollis, etc. by "Bracts . . . obtuse 
Incidentally, although 8. nemoralis has the bracts most commonly 
obtuse, the futility of trying to draw too fine a distinction on tins 
character is shown by the occurrence of plenty of broad-leaved >. 
nemorafo on the Atlantic slope with acutish scales (figs. 6, 11, U). 
In pi vn 431 I am showing involucres from various areas which 
they are all of the same magnification 
(X 5). Fig. 3, as explained, 



226 Rhodora [j UNE 

fig. 4 from an isotype of S. decemflora and fig 5 from an isotype of S. 
pulcherrima. Certainly it is not easy to find fundamental differences 
to separate these involucres from nos. 7 (from Virginia), 8 (from 
Pennsylvania), 9 (from Maryland) and 10 (from Rhode Island); and, 
surely, it is difficult to make out, as Mackenzie & Bush, maintained, 
that the western has "sharper scales." Fig. 3, from the isotype of 
N. longipctiolata shows them obtuse enough; but fig. 6 is from a speci- 
men from Maine, fig. 11, from one from New York and fig. 12 from 
one from Prince Edward Island. The plants from which these were 
taken show no other points of difference to separate them from plants 
of the Atlantic slope which supply figs. 7-10. Similarly with the 
achenes; I find no appreciable difference. I am, therefore, unable to 
maintain the plant of the Plains as a species. It seems to me rightly 
called 

S. nemoralis Ait., var. decemflora (DC), comb. nov. S. decem- 
flora DC Prodr. v. 332 (1836). 8. diffusa Nelson in Bull. Torr. Bot. 
CI. xxv. 378 (1898), not Gray (1861). S. pulcherrima Nelson, 1. c. 
549 (1898). S. longipctiolata Mackenzie & Bush in Trans. Acad. Sci. 
St. Louis, xii. 87, t. xvi. (1902).— Western Ontario to northern Alberta, 
south to Kentucky, Arkansas, Texas and Arizona. 

In his earlier work Asa Gray interpreted Solidago decemflora as 8- 
radula Nutt. ("Probably what I referred to S. decemflora, in Pi 
Lindh. 2, p. 222, likewise belongs here"— Gray, PI. Wright, i. 95 
(1852)); but when he had studied the Berlandier material from Texas, 
type of 8. decemflora, he made the correction under his discussion of 
S. nemoralis: "Some of the specimens have narrowly lanceolate leaves, 
and are S. decemflora DC!" — Gray 1. c. 94. 

While botanizing on the "East Shore" of Virginia, in October, 1935, 
Messrs. Long, Fogg and I were much impressed with the woodland 
plant which, at least in Northampton County, largely replaces the 
widespread Solidago nemoralis. The latter has the leaves gradually 
decreasing in size up to the inflorescence, the upper ones being nar- 
rowly oblanceolate, and the heads are subsessile or with only very 
short pedicels and crowded nearly to the bases of the divergent 
panicle-branches. The plant of pine woods on the Cape Charles 
Peninsula has the lower cauline leaves as in typical S. nemoralis but 
about midway on the stem they are abruptly reduced in size and 
altered in form, continuing to the summit as subuniform spatulate- 
obovate bracteiform leaves. The inflorescence, too, is comparatively 
lax, with the heads mostly on obvious pedicels up to three times the 




Var. Haleana: 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 227 

length of the involucre and borne at the tips of the strongly ascending 
branches. In pubescence, basal and lower cauline leaves, involucres, 
flowers and achenes the plant is good S. nemoralis, its departures 
being in the reduction and shape of the upper leaves and the looser 
inflorescence with long ascending leafy branches. Exactly similar 
plants are in the Gray Herbarium from dry pine-barrens north of 
Leslie, Georgia {Harper, no. 1722), from Louisiana (Hale) and from 
eastern Texas (San Felipe de Austin, Drummond, no. Ill), while they 
arc strongly approached by material from the cedar glades of Tenn- 
essee (Gattinger) and from "barrens of Kentucky" (Short). The 
Texas, Louisiana and Kentucky specimens (along with one from 
Michigan which I should not place with them constituted S. nrmoralis, 
f. of Torrey & Gray, with "leaves more scabrous; the upper short, 
obovate-spatulate." Unfortunately, Torrey & Gray assigned no 
name to this remarkable southern variety and I cannot find that it 
has been named, unless it is what Elliott meant when he described 
lweinitz in Ell. Sk. ii. 375 (1824). The typification 
3 mixed between Elliott's own material from Georgia 
actually described and material, undescribed, which he had received 
from Schweinitz: "The plant I have described agrees in most respects 
with specimens sent me under this name from Salem, North-Carolina, 
by Dr. Schweinitz." In view of this confusion, the very indefinite 
condition of the Elliott plants and his characterization of the leaves as 
"long, linear-lanceolate," it is unwise to use for our variety the name 
given by Elliott to some similar plant; his "leaves . . . , the 
upper distant and small" and his "peduncles . . . longer than 
the involucrum " sound like it. but it is safer to designate a new type. 
I am calling the extreme plant of the Southeast 

S. nemoralis Ait., var. Haleana, var. nov. (tab. 431, figs. 1 et 2), 
foliis caulinis inferioribus oblanceolatis 3-15 cm. longis, supmm I .- 
valde reductis spathulatis distantibus 0.5 3 cm. longis; ramihus 
panicularum ascendentibus apice recurvatis; racemis laxis pod.n lh.> 
elongatis— Texas to Georgia, north b ■ V irgnua. 

Type- Louisiana. Dr. Josinh Hair, included under S. nemoralis, 
T . Torr. & Gray. Our Virginia material, not so extreme as the type, 
is from s.ndv pine woods at and ..-• 

5524, 5525 j dry pine woods north of Capeville, Fernald, Lang & bogg, 
no. 5526. 

In plate 431, fig. 1 is the type of var. Haleana, X %, fig. 2 an 
involucre, X 5; the other figures show involucres, X 5, as already 
explained. 



228 Rhodora [June 

Solidago radula Nutt., var. laeta (Greene), comb. nov. S. 
laeta Greene, Pittonia, v. 138 (1903). 

Although Solidago laeta is not sharply differentiated from S. radula, 
a series of plants extending from Texas into Missouri has the involucral 
bracts broader and shorter (plate 432, figs. 4 and 5) than in the 
widely distributed typical S. radula (fig. 3). Fig. 3 shows the 
involucre, X 5 of typical S. radula from Grand Tower, Illinois {Gleason, 
no. 1844), fig. 4, an involucre from an isotype of £. laeta {Tracy, no. 
8137) and fig. 5 the most extreme involucre of var. laeta {Cory, no. 
4738), more extreme than in the type, which is somewhat transitional. 
Another variation from typical and average Solidago radula, also 
in the southwestern corner of the specific range, Louisiana and eastern 
Texas to Missouri, has the panicle as broad and with as divergent 
branches as in the most extreme forms of S. radula, but the involucral 
bracts very slender. Whereas var. laeta is the extreme of the specific 
aggregate with broadest bracts, this is the tendency with the narrow- 
est. I am calling it 

S. radula Nutt., var. stenolepis, var. nov. (tab. 432, figs. 1 et 2), 
a var. fi/pira recedit bracteis involucri angustioribus, interioribus 
anguste linearibus 0.3-0.5 mm. latis.— Missouri, Louisiana and 
Texas. Missouri: rocky open woods, limestone hills, near Carthage, 
Jasper Co., October 2, 1922, E. J. Palmer, no. 22,161 (type in Herb. 
New York Botanical Garden). Louisiana: Cameron, September, 
1906, R. S. Cocks, no. 1727. Texas: prairies, Houston, September 18, 
1917, E. J. Palmer, no. 12,739. 

In its very narrow involucral bracts var. stenolepis departs from 
typical Solidago radula just as occasional aberrant plants of S. nemor- 
alis will sometimes do. In the latter cases the departure seems due to 
some outside factor; in var. stenolepis it has every appearance of being 
normal. 

The type of var. stenolepis bears an unpublished specific name 
written by the late K. K. Mackenzie. His judgment of it may even- 
tually prove correct; as yet I have been unable to find any definite 
characters of habit, foliage, flowers and fruit which seem to be specific. 
Another sheet of specimens marked by Mackenzie as belonging to 
his unpublished species is so different in many characters that I am 
unable to cite it under var. stenolepis. Other sheets sent out by 
collectors under the unpublished binomial are likewise far removed 
from the type of var. stenolepis. The name given by Mackenzie but 
not published is so similar to S. bracteata Bush (1918) that its formal 



1936] Fernald ,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 229 

publication would lead to confusion. I am, therefore, not using il 
Plate 432, fig. 1 shows the type of var. stenolcpis, X %. In fig. 2 

Solidago Jacksonii (O. Ktze.), comb. nov. S. corymbosa Kll. Sk. ii. 
378 (1822 or 1823), not Poir. Encyc. Suppl. v. 461 (1817). Aster 
Jacksonii O. Ktze., Rev. Gen. i. 316 (1891). 

VII. MEMORANDA ON ANTENNARIA 
Antennaria munda, sp. nov. (tab. 433). Plant a foemin ka ; foliis 
rosulatis spathulatis vel anguste spathulato-obovatis. apiee rotundatis, 
petiolatis, lamina 2-6 cm. longa 1.3-5 cm. lata, 3-5-nervia supra 
minute canescenti-tomentulosa; stolonibus assurgentibus vel pro- 
cumbentibus I'oliis tenniiialil.us rosulatis; caulihus floriferis erases 
1-4 dm. altis dense tomentosis; foliis caulinis 6-l. r ), unis ohlanceolatjs 
vel late lanceolatis vel anguste oblongis 4.5-8 nun. latis, mediia 
superioribusque lanceolatis attenuatis apiee subulatis. Mibulo 0.6-1.4 
mm. longo;capitulis 5-20 glomerulars vel dense corymbosis. eorymhis 
subglobosis 2-4.5 cm. diametro; involucris 8-10 mm. altis: bracteia 
3-4_ S eriatis, basi brunneis vel purpurascentibus, erterioribus anguste 
oblongis apiee obtusis erosis lacteis. hracteis interiorilius angustatis 
acutis; corollis 5.5-7 mm. longis; stylo rufescente exserto bifido; 
achaeniis maturis 1.5-1.8 mm. longis; pappi setis longioribus 8-9 mm. 
longis. Planta mascula (rarissima); parva, 1 dm. alta; corymbis 
densis 1.5-2.7 cm. latis; involucris 5 mm. altis; bracteis patentibus 
ovalibus lacteis apiee erosis; pappi setis apiee dilatatis integns vel 
undularis. Sandy, gravelly ..r sterile rocky la-Ids and open woods, 
rarely damp meadows, central Maine to the Ottawa valley, Quebec, 
west to Thunder Bay Distr., Ontario, south to Massachusetts, ( „„- 
necticut. northeastern Pennsylvania, central and western \YwWk. 
I1()| . tll , ni | n( ]iana and Minnesota. Type : sandy wooded slope, Orono, 
Maine, May 31, 1901, Fernald (in Gray Herb.) 

Antvnmtria munda, named for its neat and comparatively elegant 
appearance as well as for its nearly spherical inflorescence, is the plant 
which has erroneously passed as. I. orndmtalis Greene. The latter was 
merely the prairie specimens of A. fallax Greene, Pittoma. in. -_1 
(1898). Greene published A. fallax as occurring only in the District 
of Columbia; and he separated from it, on the next page (322) the 
plant "of the Illinois prairie region, and apparently westward to 
Kansas. ... The species, as to the typical plant of centra 
Illinois, was too hastily by me concluded to form a part . . ot 

what I have now named A. fallax" (Greene, 1. c ). Described as 
"very similar'" to A. faUax but with "cymose pamcle of large female 
heads more open than in either," Greene's A. occidentals can have 



230 Rhodora [June 

nothing to do with the more northern A. munda, which has been 
erroneously referred to it. Numerous sheets designated by Greene as 
A. occidentalis clearly demonstrate its essential identity with A.fallax, 
one of the most widely distributed species. 

Antennaria munda was early supposed to be A. FarwellU Greene, 
1. c. 347 (1898). Several specimens from Mr. Farwell and a collection 
made by Fernald & Pease (no. 3552) at the type station show it to be 
a unique species, as yet known only from Keweenaw Co., Michigan 
and from the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, a singular localization if those 
cytologists are correct who maintain that the parthogenetic species 
are modern "throw-offs" which have been rapidly spreading since 
the Wisconsin glaciation. The basal leaves (fig. 3) of A. FarwellU are 
so very characteristic in their subtruncate summits, with the sides 
abruptly narrowed to a concave curve, that I am showing them in the 
plate with A. munda. 

Antennaria fallax Greene, var. calophylla (Greene), comb, no v. 
A. calojjhylla Greene Pittonia, iii. 347 (1898). 

The southernmost representative of Antennaria fallax is striking 
in its very rounded or rounded-ovate rosette-leaves. The generally 
more northern A.fallax has the leaves rhombic-ovate to -obovate and 
tapering above to a subacute tip. The variety ranges from Georgia 
to Texas, coming north to North Carolina, Indiana, Illinois and 
Missouri, in the northern states passing insensibly into A.fallax. 

Antennaria neglecta Greene, forma simplex (Peck), comb. nov. 
A. nrglrrta, var. simplex Peck. Bull. X. V. State Mus. lxvii. Hot. vi. 
33 (1903). 

The unusual plants of Antennaria neglecta with a single terminal 
pistillate head are strikingly unlike the common plant with glomerulate 
to spiciform or racemose inflorescences, but the colonies occur sporadi- 
cally and have no definite range. 

Antennaria neodioica Greene, var. argillicola (Stebbins), comb, 
nov. A. virginira, var. nrgillimln Stebbins, Kmodoka. xxxvii. 232 
(1935). A. mrginica Stebbins, 1. c. 230 (1935). 

Var. argillicola is well marked by its combination of often low 
stature, very narrow cauline leaves, relatively small pistillate involu- 
cres and the abundant staminate plants with involucres shorter than 
in the very few and rare staminate plants which are known in A. 
neodioica and its other varieties. The herbarium-specimens sent out 
indicate that Dr. Stebbins originally treated both his A. mrginica and 



1936] Fernald— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 231 

its var. argillicola as separate species, though in his paper he treated 
them as a single species. In some characters A. virginica is the greater 
departure from A. neodioica var. attenuata I', nml.l. Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist, xxviii. 245 (1898), in having the pistillate involucres "4.5- 
6.5 mm." high (Stebbins, p. 231), though changed by Stebbins on 
p. 234 to "5-6.5," whereas his var. argillicola was described on p. 232 
with them "5.-6.5 mm." high, changed on p. 234 to "5-7." The 
change of measurements on the two pages seems to reflect the lack of 
fundamental differences in the two; and, although in his tabulation of 
characters on p. 234 Stebbins makes the involucres of the almost 
strictly pistillate and wide-ranging northern A. neodioica var. attenuata 
vary from "7-8" mm. high, it is easy to find northern tall plants of 
var. attenuata with them down to 5.5-7 mm., these too much over- 
lapping the upper measurements given by Stebbins for his A. vir- 
ginica. Furthermore, the small rosette-leaves of the bisexual Alleghen- 
ian plants are easily matched by those of the unisexual northern series. 
As a notable variety of Alleghenian range with both sexes well devel- 
oped it is definite. As a distinct species it shows altogether too much 
overlapping of characters. Phylogenetically it may be, as Stebbins 
maintains, the bisexual and fertile progenitor of the widely dispersed 
northern and parthenogenetic var. attenuata. If, however, we are to 
follow Stebbins's principle and to distinguish as species the bisexual 
and the parthenogenetic series which show no other appreciable 
differences, it should be noted that the northeastern A. Pari in ii and 
A. fallax are chiefly parthenogenetic, though southward frequently 
bisexual. 

VIII. VARIETIES OF GNAPHALIUM OBTUSIFOLIUM 
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., var. praecox, var. now (tab. 434, 
FIGS. 1-3), foliis supra dabrisluridi^Miieipauiculaeh.ngatacylindracea 
vel thynsoidea ramis va fureatis; glo - '•- - <"'■ 

diametro; involucris 6-7 mm. altis— Virginia to Georgia and Alabama. 
Virginia; without stated locality (presumably near Portsmouth), 
liuqcl. South Carolina: sandy roadside by pine woods, 2 miles east 
of Walterboro, Colleton Co., July 17. 1927. Whgand it Mnnmnn. no. 
3301 (tyi'f in Grav Herb.). Georgia: >andy field. 4 miles southwest 
of Hinesville, Liberty Co., July 23, 1927, U'iegana & Manrnj no. 
33112; <ln bank, liner lioad. Athens, August 5. 1929. ./. // iynm. 
Alabama: drv oak-pine thicket, 10 miles north of Dothan, Houston 
Co., August 11, 1927, Wiegand & Manning, no 3305. 

Var. praecox, in its elongate inflorescence and very early flowering 



232 Rhodora [June 

is a striking departure from typical d/m j>haii '<,,,, obtusifolium and, 
when better understood, may prove to be specifically separable. G. 
obtusifolium is highly variable. The typical plant (fig. 4) has a 
strongly corymbiform inflorescence, the larger plants with elongate 
and commonly forking branches; its leaves (fig. 5) are commonly, 
though not always, glandular or glandular-papillate above, and, as in 
var. praecoz (fig. 2), its stems and branches are closely white-lanate. 
In the coastal plain area from York Co., Maine and Cape Cod, 
Massachusetts to eastern Virginia, and locally in the interior in 
western New York, Kentucky, Missouri and Michigan, var. micra- 
denium Weatherby, Rhodora, xxv. 22 (1923), has the non-tomentose 
stem (fig. 6) and the narrow leaves (fig. 7) minutely glandular- 
puberulent. From the Cape Charles region to Florida var. Helleri 
(Britton) Blake, Rhodora, xx. 72 (1918), has the stem (fig. 8) 
glandular-villous, the leaves (fig. 9) very broad and thin, and the 
glomerules rather lax (often with long-pedicelled heads). 

Typical Gnaphalium obtusifolium is a late-flowering plant. The 
material in the Gray Herbarium shows the flowering period ( heads in 
anthesis) from southern New England to Florida as follows: 



August 14-November 21 
Rhode Island August 19-October 3 

Connecticut August 23-October 10 

New Jersey August 29-October 5 

Pennsylvania August 22-( >e 1 1 iber 1 

Virgim a August 2G-Octobei 1 2 

Aorth Carolina September 4-October 30 

Florida August 2-November 23 

r. micradenium is also late-flowering : 

August 29 

August 21- 

September 
Maryland September 5 < tetober - 

Virginia September 9-October 12 

The few collections at hand of var. Helleri also indicate late- 
flowering: 

South Carolin 

Contrasted with this universal late-summer and autumn flowering of 
most of the varieties of Gnaphalium obtusifolium, the material at 
hand of var. praecox clearly indicates a much earlier flowering period. 
South Carolina July 17 

Georgia July 23-August 5 




.portion of staminute plant, X 1, from Vermont. 



1936] Fernald — Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 233 

Nevertheless, search for technical characters in flowers and achenes 
has failed to reveal them. The achenes and the corollas of vars. 
Hrllcri and praecox are minutely larger than in typical C. ohtusi folium 
and var. micnuh itium , but the differences are so slight that I cannot 
yet consider them significant. Further collections and fuller 
knowledge may show them to be constant. 

IX. MINOR FORMS AND TRANSFERS 

Sarracenia purpurea L., var. venosa (Raf.) comb, now Sarazina 
mioxa Raf.. Aut. Hot. 33 ( 1S40). N. purpurea van,*,, < Kaf.) Wherry in 
Bartonia, xv. 3 (1933). 

While visiting the Gray Herbarium in January, 1931, Mrs. Agnes 
M. Ayre, familiar with the typical northern Sarracenia purpurea 
(the national flower of Newfoundland, designated by Queen Victoria,), 
called my attention to the very broad hoods and short pitchers of the 
southern material as contrasted with the northern specimens of the 
species. Afterward, knowing his interest in this spectacular group, 
I called the matter to the attention of Dr. Wherry, and in 1933 in 
Bartonia he clearly differentiated the southern and northern plants. 
Although preferring the vague trinomial to the clear designation of the 
category in his formal transfer, Wherry stated in the preceding para- 
graph that the plants "are here classed as subspecies." For those of 
us who prefer the Linnean term varietas for such geographically 
segregated but confluent extremes it becomes necessary to re-transfer 
the name. The term variety, as used by such discriminating recent 
taxonomists as the late ('. E. Moss, the late Otto Holmberg and count- 
less others of the past (Linnaeus, Willdenow, Roemer, DeCandolle, 
Kunth, Schlechtendal, Hooker, Torrey, Gray and scores of others), 
is reasonably clear. The term subspecies is used in so many ways as 
to be vague. I, therefore, consistently use varietal when I mean a 
geographically somewhal segregated extreme. 

Ptelea trifoliata L., forma pubescens (Pursh) comb, now 
/'. triuJiuta, :. i,ubesm,« Pursh. V\. Am. Sept. i. 10- (1814). 

^vxifru'v orposnmuiv L., forma albiflora (Lange), comb, now 
VaV. nlhi flora Lange, Consp. Fl. Groenl. 66 (1880). Subsp. , ., ■ « 

„ , t| J , V Irn.M-h var. / o suhvai allnflora (Lange) Engl. & 
Irmsch. in Engl. Pflanzenr. iv 117 . 624 (1919). 

10, forma albiflora seems to have been 



overweighted with terminology. 

Hamamelis virginiana L., forma parvifolia (Nu 



234 Rhodora [June 

H. virginica, y. parvifolia Nutt. Gen. i. 107 (1818) ; H. virginiana, g. 
parmfolia (Nutt.) T. & G. Fl. i. 597 (1840). 

For discussion see Fernald, Rhodora, xxiii. 265 (1921). 

Cercis canadensis L., forma glabrifolia, n. f., foliis utrinque 
glabris.— Throughout the general range of the typical form of the 
species, which has the young leaves pubescent beneath, the mature 
ones somewhat so. — Type: wooded hillsides, near Washington, D. C, 
April 20 and May 15, 1896, E. S. Steele (in Gray Herb.). 

Cercis canadensis may have the leaves white-pubescent beneath 
when expanding, only slightly pilose beneath or quite glabrous. 
There stems to be no geographic segregation of the glabrous extreme. 
As originally described by Linnaeus C. canadensis was assigned 
"foliis cordatis pubescentibus." The late E. L. Greene made much of 
I iption: 



.. .. : the outset one grave 
it of the real applicability of the Linnaean name. To the 
- 
Now the great bulk of the material existing in our largest herbaria under 
that name exhibit? foliage that at first and second view impresses one as 
being glabrous. When you examine the leaf in every part with a magnifier 
you still find the upper face glabrous, and the lower usuallv so. in the 
main, but with some hirtellous hairs along the veins, next the base of the 
leaf. In only a few instances have I found some scattered hairs between 
the veins beneath; in a greater number both faces are totally glabrous. 
Linnaeus writes the leaves of his shrub as | • : 

fication. He knew the shrub in young condition both in the garden of 
Chffort, and in that at Upsala. The seeds were reputed to have come 
from Canada or Virginia. No cercis with leaves "pubescent,- unquali- 
fiedly _ so and plainly so, is to-day known from eastern America. No 
American botj so-called C. Canadensis has ever 

reiterated, m relation to such "shrub or tree, that phrase of Linnaeus 
foliis . . . pubescentibus." 1 

Approximately half the specimens in the Gray Herbarium have the 
leaves pubescent beneath and many do not require a lens to disclose 
the hairs. As to Greene's rhetorical and thoroughly typical statement, 
"No American botanist, describing any so-called C. Canadensis has 
ever reiterated . . . that phrase of L i n n a e u s foliis . . . 
pubescentibus," it is evident that Greene made no attempt to see 
whether they had! In 1785, Humphrey Marshall (Arb. Amer. 32) 
distinctly said "a little downy underneath"; Michaux (1803) gave a 
similar account; Pursh (1814) had C. canadensis "foliis . . .' ad 



1936] Fernald— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 235 

axillas nervorum villosis" and var. (3, pubeseens, "C. foliis . . . 
subtus pubescentibus." Passing many later and accurate accounts 
we come to Sargent's Silva, iii. 95 (1892): "leaves . . . glabrous 
. . . or . . . more or less pubescent below." Enough said! 

Erigeron pulchellus Michx., var. Brauniae, n. var., paginis 
foliorum glaberriiuis inaruinibus eiliatis, foliis rosulatis imisque 
integris vel undulatis; caule glabro vel sparsissime piloso. ki:\- 
tucky: sandy open woods, Ohio-Kinniconick Divide, Lewis Co., 
May 7, 1932, E. Lucy Braun (type in Gray Herb.). 

The wide-raii gi ni: i'.rtiu m„ pulchellus Michx. has the stem and 
usually the lower surfaces of the radical and lower cauline leaves 
villous and at least the lower (sometimes the upper) blades coarsely 
dentate. Professor Braun's plant comes from a region of localized 
endemics and I find nothing like it in other collections from the Ohio- 
Kentucky-Tennessee area. 

I refrain from displacing the well established /.'//;/"'"" pulchellus 
Michx. (1803) by a doubtful name of Schoepf (1787). In his Materia 
Medica Americana, David Schoepf published diagnoses (as foot-notes) 
of several newly described plants. In no case, except possibly the 
Erigeron, did he give any specific epithet to accompany the new 
diagnosis, merely the generic name: Asclepias (p. 30), Solidago (p. 123), 
Aristolochia (p. 131). In all cases, except the Erigeron, where collo- 
quial names were given they came after the specific epithet and the 
diagnosis, thus: 

258. TANACETUM vulgare foliis bipinnatis incisis serratis. Linn. 
Sp.pl. 1184 . . . —Tansey. 
In the single exceptional case of the Erigeron we get 

261. ERIGERON.— Robert's Plantain. Bethlehemi. Erigeron. Linn. 
Amoen. acad. 4. p. 514. loc. Pensylvania — Perennis. pharm. 
Erigerontis Rad. Herba. 
and as a foot-note a detailed and very characteristic diagnosis of 
E. pulchellus. The unusual position of the latin Bethlehemi, after 
Robert's Plantain and separated by a long dash from the generic name, 
and Schoepf's modesty, in not assigning any specific epithets to his 
other newly described species, lead me to conclude that Bethlehemi 
was not intended as a specific name. I am, therefore, not disturbing 
the familiar and properly published name E. pulchellus, the type of 
which is a very full sheet in the Michaux herbarium. 

Tanacetum vulgare L., forma crispum (L.), comb, now T. 
vulgare, p. crispum L. Sp. PI. S45 (1753). 



c, Tennessee, Svenson, no. 6756, ' 

i the type; fig. 4, upper half of -iilniiciscd 1 



by transmitted light, 

the tyi'k; figs. 6 and 7, mature fruits, X 10, from the r 

Pi, aii; 413. Pilea ptjmila (L.) Gray, figs. 1-9: fig. 

from Wallingford, Vermont, July 30, 1907, Kennedy; . 

Miune.Frrtmhl, no. :;s_>; fig. ;•;, from Ironside, Quebec, 

Prince Edwa 

e, September _, _„. 

Long, no. 13,514; 



Orono, Maine, September 3, 

Abbot, Maine, Fernald & Lo „, 

setts, Emily F. Fletcher; fig. 9, from Concord, 

1896, Williams. 

Var. Dkamii (Lunellj Fernald, figs. 10-15: fig. 10, leaf-margin, X 1, from 
Lancaster, Wells Co., Indiana, August 24, 1902, Deam, isoti vv fig. 11 from 
Lake Everett, Indiana, Deo ttsville, Ohio, 

13, from ( . no. 1745: fig. 14, seed, 

15, from Sandy 

tana 'Lunel'i i _ . 'hapman Lake, 

diana, Dunn, no. 21,987. 

Plate 414. Ranunculus flabellaris Raf.: fig. 1, fruiting branch, 
5/12, from I' I 'rase, no. 11.S49: fig. 2, center of 

wer, to show stamens, X 4, from Cor 

X 4, from Grand Isle Co., Vermont, May 24, 1931, 



id. /■- <•'.',// , a L, /-,/. n. !l,il 1 . i ig. (). 

from North Guilford, Connecticut, July 13, 1904, 

lus Purshii Richardson: fig. 5, flower, to Bhow 
venture River, (Quebec, Julv 31, 1902, Williams & 
10, from Dundee, Prince Edward Island, Fernald, 

, «„. „„„.., x.w. ,-tuo; fig. 7, flowerinir hranch, 5, 12, from no. 7485; 

flowering branches, X 5/12, from Electric Peak, Montana, Rydberg & 



Bessey, no. 4106. 

R. Purshii, var. prolificus Fernald: fig. 1, type of R. multifidus, var. 

terrestris Gray, X 5/12, from Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1862, Miss Clark; fig. 2, 

flower X 4, fiom th, l,tt,..,ii<, .], hn,| < .. i „,.,„ ,i u . | a ttu 

. to show stamens, X 4, from Alpena, Michigan, July 15, 1895, 

R, 1'iK.sim, forma terrestris (Ledeb.) Gliick: three plants, X 5/12, from 
Leeds, North Dakota, June 11, 1900. Lunell. 

Plate 416. Bowers X 10; seeds, X 10; leaf-tips, X 1. 

land/ 1867, P. V. LeRoy (il 

Beaver Creek, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania, J. A. Schafer 
' a opposite Georgetow 



1936] Fernald,— Contributions from the Gray Herbarium 237 

A. allegheniensis, var. pubescens (Rydb.) Fernald: fig. 4, fruits, showing 
slender follicles and long styles, from Augusta, Illinois, S. B. Mead. 

\ s-jhestir Kostdetzsky: fig. 3, fruits, from La Grave, Haute-Alpes, 
France, Mathonnet, no. 1065; fig. 6, calyx, showing the thin lobes with evi- 
dent midrib, from near Fiume, Hungary, June 15, 1869, A. M. Smith; it,,. 7. 
seed, from the Carpathian Mts., Austria, John Ball; fig. 9, fruits, from Silver- 
ton, Oregon, J. C. Nelson, no. 1894 (A. acuminatum (Dougl.) Rydb.): in,. 10. 
.wing rounded-obovate petals, from near Juvaviam, Salisbury' 



im, balisburgia, 
owing spatulate 



f leaflet, from Asulkan Valley, Glacier, 
British Columi i*r. ki<;. 13, tip ot Kali, t 

''d 
XL 1055. 

, plant, X 1, from EtowseU 

, from "Monts Appalaches," 



. Beam, no. 39,707 (type); fig. 2, head, X 5, from type; fig. 3, disk- 
floret, X 5, from type. 

S. Randii (Porter) Britton: fig. 4, X -region, Mr. 

Desert Wand, .Maine, September 



florets, X 5, from the same material. 

S. racemosa Greene, var. Gillmani (Gray) 
riginal Gillman material. 



, plant, X -.-,, from Maci) 

re, X 5; fig. 3, 

lid back, X 5; fig. 5, aehene, 

i Magog, Quebec, Pease, no. 



S. atjstrixa Small : fig. 9, involucre, X 5, from Falls of the Yadl 
North Carolina, August 18, 1892, Small. 

Pi vtk 120. Solidago • ■■- ■> florescence, X 1, 

original colored - i Plant.-, ii. t. ecliv. hg. 2 



l Nutt.: fig. 2, upper half o 
Massachusetts, August 31, 1915, F. Walters. 

Platk 421. Solidago xkuholkpis, ii. sp. : fig. 1, plant, : 
Jasper Countv, Missouri. E. J. I'alm.r, no. 18,863 (type);: 
of leaf, X 10", from the type: fig. 3, involucre, X .5, irm 
tins and disk-corolla, X '" 
Platk 4 
the TYPE. 

. Fernald, Long &Foggi no. I 
involucre, X 5, from Louisiana, Hale (type) ; fig. 4, disk-flower, 
and pappus, X 10, from Bennett, Cape May County, ISew Jersey, Long, i 
79 S 5 juncea Ait.: fig. 6, involucre, X 5, from West Tisbury, Massachuse! 
' Plat? 423. ' Solidago Elliottii Torr. & Gray, var. typica: plants, X 
from Beaufort I champ. 



, basal rosette, X -,-, from 
) Small: fig. 2, basal rosette, X H, from northwest 



Plate 424. Solidago Ki 

, Massachusetts, M. I ' ' 






from Baddeck, Nova £ 
X 5, from no. 22,702. 
Plate 427. Solidago rugosa Mill., var. villosa (Pursh) Fernald: fig. 1 
m Riviere du Loup, Quebec, August 3, 1902, 

% t from Grindstone Island, Magdalei 

foundland, FernaU, Long, A 



< %, from Fog Plain Brook, Waterford, Connecticut, August 9, 1903, Grav 
rviMv-colk-ctiun via 2, internodi tnd >a>. o i. ,i ^inning decurrent line 

< 5, from TYPE-collection; figs. 3 and 4, involucres, X 5, from TYPE-collectio 
Plate 429. Solidago rugosa Mill., var. aspera (Ait.) Fernald : fk; 1, plan 



n ; rtl ;;. r 



September 1, 1911, It. II". Wnmhranl. 
Sunkipaug, East Lyme, Connecticut, Septembei 



Connecticut, 
■ 3, lower surface of leaf 
eptember 16, 1904, Gr 
specimen as f 






ifolia (Small Fernald: 
8181 *3 - ', ucre ' X 5 ' from Pulaski Heights, Arkansas, . 

Lotto & Fogg, no. 5522. 

Plate 431. Habit, X %; involucres, ■ .1 
fig. 6, involucre, from South Harpswell, Main 
from Peters Mountain, Virginia, Stnle A Strrle, 

Pennsylvania, September, 1S90. //. M. r„,/„. ri 

Maryland Hyacinth, no. 1717: fig. 10, from Providence, Rhode Island, 
AjJ& U <? £ b Thv f ber ' FIG - 1 1 , from Hud . September 25, 

26 1904 J Fowled "°' ^ tmm Malpeque ' Prince Edward Island ' JuI y 

Var decemflora (DC.) Fernald: fig. 4, involucre from an isotype, Texas, 
Berlandier no Mackenzie & 

5, from isotype 
of S. puXchernma Nelson, Platte Canon, Wyoming, Nelson, no. 2761. 

Var. Hale ana, n. var.: fig. 1, type from Louisiana, Joshua Hale; fig. 2, 



Plate 432 Habit X %\ mvolucres, X 5. Solidago radtjla Nutt.: fig. 
6, involucre from Grand I ower, Illinois, Gleason, no. 1844. 

Var. laeta (Greene) Fernald: fig. 4, involucre from isotype of S laeta 

^io.f AT J w ' ■ Portion of small pistillate 

plant, X 1, from Middlebury, Vermont, May 16, 1899, Brainerd, no. 29; fig. 2, 
B°rain^rd° mmate plant ' X l ' from Middlebury, Vermont, May 10, 1902, 

A. Farwellii Greene: fig. 3, characteristic basal leaves, X 1, from 
. no. 78. 

Plate 434. I ■ H ., L nQ 4 c h aracteristic inflores- 

cence, X H, from East Jafl lQ01 /.; /.-. 

Wxlhams; fig. 5, upper surface of leaf, X 10, from the same collection. 



L936] Goodman— Further Notes on Oklahoma Plants 239 

Var. praecox, n. var.: fk,. I, type, X %, from Waterboro, South Carolina, 
Wiegand & Man 2, portion of stem, X 10, from the type; 

no. 3, upper surface of leaf, X 10, from the type. 

Var. micradenium Weatherby : fig. 6, portion of stem, X 10, from Williams- 
i, Grimes, no. 4351; fig. 7, upper surface of leaf, X 10, from same 

\ ar. B ki.leri (Britton) Blake: fig. 8, portion of stem. X 10, f rom Eastville, 
"<ild & Long, no. 5550; fig. 9, upper surface of leaf, X 10, from 
iame collection. 




Y.Mr. I'HAK.OX 


: pkj. 1, rvi'i:, X 


-',-; pkj. 2, portion of stem, X 10, from tyi 


Trr:;:,:; 

' leaf, X 10, fi 
Yar. IlKU.KU 


™S 


n of stem, X 10, from Virginia ; kk;. 7, up| 
stem, X 10. from Virginia; fig. 9, upper 



Ldicea, 169; Deamii, 
fontana, 169, 170; 

lti'.); optic:), lt',9, 170: pmuila. 1 

229-231, var. calophylla, 5 

F:ir\vellii. '230, 238, pi. < 
munda, 229, 230, 238, pi. < 

simplex,' 230 '; q« 

230, var. attcnu 



:ndex 

s are printed in full-face type 

170; 166, 167; C'lavtonii, Kit,; subgenus 

Coleogeton, 166, 167; diversifolius, 
168; opihvdrus, 166-16X, var. 
Xiittallii, ltiti; filifonnis, 167; sub- 
sect. Hvbridi, 166-168; subsect. 






inica, 230, 231, var. 
, 231. 



pi. 416; 



Asclcpias, 235. 
Aster Jackson ii, 221). 

( 'crcis can 

Erigeron, 23 
Brauniae, 235. 

Euosmus albida, 179; Sas 
Evosmus albida, 17D. 



17.'.; J Kuratm 
Iruis, 17S, v 



175; 



restris, 173:1.- 

ii>, var. t*-m 
173, 236; oblongitolius, 
tusiusculus, 174, 1,5; ovalis. 
176; Purshii, 173, 236, pi. 415, 
prolificus, 173, 236, pi. 41.' 
terrestris, 173, 236, pi. 415, 
terrestris, 173; pusillus, 174; rl 
boideus, 175-177; septentrion 






j't" 
I..IUMI-., I7s; Kiinsiuu.-_ 



17'.»; Sassafras 
178, 179. 
Lysimachia 



I'cr-ca Sassafi 

Pilea, 169; for 

opaca, 170; punnia 
pi. 413, var. Dea: 

Potamogeton, 165; § 



lanceolata. 
170, 236, pi. 413 



Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
233, var. albiflora, 
euoppositifolia, var. ty 
albiflora, 233. 



21 f, -Jill. 222, 




, canadensis, 
216, 217; oeltidifolia, 219, 220, 
22:;. 238, pi. v.u 
227; conferta, 207, 
420; corvmbosa, 229;' Curtisii 
p. ? monticola, 204; Cutleri, 209 
(| Virgaurea) Deamii, 204, 206, 






. Gfflma 

pi. 418; radula, 226, 228, 238, pi. 
432, var. laeta, 228, 23S, pi. 1:;2. 
var. stenolepis, 228, 220, 23s, 
pi. 432; Randii, 204, 205, 209, 237, 
pl. Us; recurvata, 222; roanensis, 
, 204; rugosa, 



pl. 429, 



celtidifolia,' 



gnophila, 215, 219-222, 238, 
128, var. typica, 215, 221- 
238, pl. 426, 




225; monticola, 204; i 

202, 209, 237, pl. 417 

ceps, 202, 237, pl. 41' 

224-228, 238, pl. 431, r , 227, vai 

decemflora, 226, 23s, pl. 431, vai 



Urtica pumila. 

Virga aurea Americana aspera, 223. 

Virga aurea Novae Angliae, rugosis 



m% 



CXIV. 
ISSUED OCT 5 - 1936 



1. Studies in the Bromeliaceae— VII. By Lyman B. Smith 3 

2. Notes on South American Orchidaceac, — I. By Lyman B. 

Smith and Stuart K. Harris 11 

3. Two new Species from Mexico. By Lyman B. Smith 12 

4. On the Types of Desvaux's American Species of Ferns. By 

C. A. Weatherby 13 

5. A new Mexican Carex. By C. A. Weatherby 36 

6. Notes on Nomenclature in Iridacvae. By Robert C. Foster 37 



Published by 
THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF HARVARD UNIVE 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
1936. 



1. STUDIES IX THE BROMELIACEAE,- VII. 

By Lyman B. Smith. 

(Plates I-II.) 

Most of the new species here proposed are the outcome of studies 
made in preparation of a treatment of the Bromeliaccac for the North 
American Flora. Particularly noteworthy among them is a small 
but rich collection made in Mexico State 'by Mr. George B. Hinton 
and deposited at Kew. 

Studies at the great herbaria in Brussels, Liege and Paris in the 
summer of 1935 have yielded a number of critical notes the first part 
of which are published here. There are also a few notes on material 
in American herbaria. 

Billbergia macrolepis, spec, no v., metralis vel ultra (si inflo- 
re.scentia pcndula erigitur); foliis ad 12 dm. longis; vaginis magnis. 
eili])ticis; laminis lineari-triangularibus, longe acuminatis, 3 cm. latis, 
spinis subrectis ad 3 mm. longis dissite armatis, ad apicem inermibus, 
dense miniiteque albido-lepidotis, cinereo-viridibus, dorso maculis 
alius magnis ornatis; scapo pendulo, 3 4 mm. diametro, dissite 
albido-floccoso, mox glabrescenti; scapi bracteis erectis, iinbrieatis. 
lanceolatis, acuminatis, ad 24 cm. longis, meinbranaceis, rubris, 
all)idu-tloce(»sis; inrloreseeutia simj)lieissinia, cylindrica, ad 4 dm. 

; : . r ! ; ■ ■ ; : ■ ; ; _ ■■ _ '.■■■,:■ 



virentibus, per anihesin spiraliter rev 
crenatis auctis; ovario subgloboso, 15 
glabris aucto, tubo epigvno 3 mm. lonj. 
~ is. PI. I, fig. 6. 



COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, alt, 200 m., 1892, //. I'iltin 
6608 (Brux, phot. G). PANAMA: Panama: drowned forest along Rio 
Chagres, between junction with Rio IV -iio, alt. 66 m., 

1934, Steyermark & Allen 16789 (G, type; Mo); Rio Tapia, 1923-^, Standley 



;ion of BiUbrrgia in th 

■ vicinity of />'. i«iii '/,// [flora and li. mcxivuna, 

itely distinguishable by its large floral bracts. 



s easily rubbed off the ridges of the ovary it soon 

ZTbrtetf: rma M th ' S ^^ bUt ^ diffCTS '» * *«* 

ii 3«n78n h I U ^ li R JaCq - ^T S,irP ' Vindob ' 306 < 17(i2 ); Mise. 
n. 325(1781) Ic PI. Rar. ,. t. 60 (1781-6). B. Karatas L sensu HBK 

Zl' ^"'233 4m 6) ' non L - ( ; 753) - B - "« waid^R&l 

gsv2 gfeSS» 

dense patches everywhere ' a,(A »obo: forming 

1920, H. Pin, '- '■"»"■«"""• ^'""ty of El Palito, 

Barquisimeto, 1%2Z HPill' nf 8 6 (£) '" ^ "' thorn - bushes ' «"^ 

Despite the beautiful plate which Jacquin published of his Bromelia 

iinmh,; its identity has become sadh confused. Me/' 1,-,- identified 
) r " ,l,th ' ront f ,,am ''ll'istrarnl by An.oi,,.-' under the nam,. // 
l"". v . ; "" 1 ,,ien proceeded to describe the real H finmilis\m the 
-asis of Antoine's plate. Antoine's plant ha.l stmmdv recurvin.. 
iea\es and inner bracts and the ton.entun. uf its inuoreseenee u-," 
author' hTs'tinM ! ^ l "" 1 ""' Tm " H - iu '" nli * ^ ''""^rate," In its 
bracts quite straight, and the lomei'm!,! ,•' Vi , 7niluVl\'n!'e i"'!,' /;'"' 
snow-white closely appresse.l felt. [ \\ Ui£ r j„.J. <.}iji rm'tT-r-'"/^ '///i'/J/'v 
comes to the same place in Mez's kevs as the later '/y /,, „ '/ - I 

since no distinction Is found between' them, B la I 

duced to synonymy. e re ~ 

Catopsis mexicana, spec, nov., (i dm. aha si inHoresc '• ■' ' 

vix distmctis; scapo gracili, arcuato aminaque 

""•■'•'•"'li.'i rnulto superantibus, foliaei ... mfh.n '!', , .'; ' " i ,' '.'ll'T 

.subden.se .'^-pinnata, pins quain X dm 

atissime ovatis, longe acuminatis, q if niarn^ 



DC. Mon. Phan. 



Engl. Pflanz. 



M aequantibus; floribus hermaphroditis, suberectis; sepalis elliptico- 
oblongis, valde asymmetricis, 9 nun Ion-is: prtalis li-nlatis. asv.n- 
metriois. albidis, paulo exsertis; stylis 3, brevibus sod distinctis ' PI 
I, figs. 10-11. 

MEXICO: Mexico: Dist. Temascaltepec, Tejupilco alt 1340 m 1<m 
G. B. Hinton J t r,:,> K, m . K; pi|()f . ,;, F ( ' ,0 J u P llco ' alt - "40 m., 1933 

Catopsis subulata, spec, nov., ca. 3 dm. alta; foliis multis, 

psciidobulbiim ellipsoideum efformantibus, Io 20 cm. longis, obscure 
brunneo-punctulatis; vaginis amplis, cllipticis, quam laminae sub- 



spicas ;; <ii 


gitalas praeditis; spicis breve stipitati.- 




indnVU 


Hon -en's, : 


5-5 cm. longis; bracteis fl 








anthesin c 


[uam sepala distincte b 


revioribus. 1 


, mii i 


>nV m 


floribus he 


rmaphroditis, suhereetis; 


sepalis olxv 


zatis. 


valde 


inetricis. 9 


mm. longis; petalis obit 


mgis. obtusi 


S. ill( 


lusis, 


staminibus 


maequaliluis; stylo brc\ i. 


PI. I, fig. 11 






MEXICO 


: Chiapas: on oak trees, moi 


mtains near J 


'enia 


?) p w 


(US, type; p 




. . '(iCATKM 






In the I 


a," ls.il), ,v Hayes (G). 

ono of its inflorescence ( 

ed to C. compactu but dim 




tSL 




Involute lea 










Neoregelia Binoti (Ant.), comb 


. nov. Kt 


,n,Zs 


'/</„,.> 


Ph o!w IC °c n ' 


ogr. t. 34 (1884). Aregdia 


Moot; m,. z i 


D D( 


!. Mnn. 


Neoregelia Pineliana (Lem.), cc 


>mb. nov. 1 


Vididi 


iriiim 


anum Lem. 


in 111. Hort. vii. 71 (181 


10). Karatas 


Mm 




Phyto-Ieon, 


3gr. t. 35 (1884). Aregdia 


Morn niami 


MrZ 


in DC 


Phan. ix. 7: 


> (189b). Xeoregdia Morr 


eniana L. B. 


Smil 


h in C< 


Grav Herb. 


civ. 79 (1934). Aregdia P< 


'neliana Mez 


in El 


i.d. Pfb-i 


[Heft 100] i 


V. fan,. 32, 40 (1934). 








Neoregelia princeps (Hak.), coml 









Neoregelia tristis (Beer) L. B. Smith in Proc. Am. Acad. lxx. 153 
(1935). Nidtdarium elegans E. Morr. ex Bak. Brom 5 (1889) in 
synon. Aregelia elegans Mez in DC. Mon. Than. ix. 69 (1896). 

Mez separated Arrgrlin lri,f,s from .1. r/rgnn, on the basis of its 
"<>t having the leaves spotted below, yet Beer de.seribed them as 
stmngly crossharrcd ;in ,| » cultivated specimen in the herbarium it 
Berlin-Dahlem shows the same marking and is checked as Arrgrlin 
//v.v/z.v by Mez. \n other distinctions obtain lor .!. rfrgans, ]\uW\w> 
from Morren's beautiful plate at Kew. 

Pitcairnia aequatorialis, spec, now, acaulis, ultra 1 m. alta; 
foliis dimorplu's. cxterioribus e vagina suborbiculari castanca in 
liinuiuim aciculiformem pecfinatam produetis, interioribus inflo- 
resccntiam subaequantibu.s, per aetatem deciduis, base persistenti 

lata, filifonni-acuminata, supra ghdirji. subtus parcc albido-floccosa ; 
scapo erecto, gracili, glabro; scapi vaginis erectis, lanceolatis, acuini- 

iintibus; Horibus magnis, divergentibus; pcdieellis "Tacilibus '' cm 
longis; sepalis anguste triiingularihus, ionge acumina^is, .; cm.' lonm's 

longis, pallide Iuteis; staminibus exs b,'J 'i;,',,',"!' 

longis; ovario ad % supero; seminibus utroque polo caudatis. PI. {, 

ECUADOR: Rose (G, type). 

The species is described from material which flow^r^l .,t t\ v 
York Botanical Harden It is mosl n< ,rb rA; It,!/' "'' - " 

Ecuador, but differs in its u ] ; ,|, r(M] . *',"'. \' '' 

Pitcairnia flexuosa, spec. now. acaulis, 
multis, pseud. INI - ,.,,, . iwrii " ' ' ' .." M> 



que tomentoso-lepidotis, mox glabratis; scapo erec 
glabro; scapi bracteis ovatis vel lanceolatis, parvis sui 
vel mternodia solum laminis elongatis filiformibusque 
mnorcscentia simplicissima. laxe racernosa I '> dm 
axe gracili, flexuoso; bracteis florigeris lanceolatis acum 
los subaequantibu.s vel quam ci multo brevioribus- Hon 



Pitcairnia Hintoniana, 



linearibus, a< 


juminatis, 4 dm. 


longis, 13 mm. ] 


atis, supra glab 


palli.li- Hnco 






mm. diamet 


ro, glabro; scapi bracteis erecti: 


*, infimis t'oliae 


ovatis, acuti; 


i vel acuminatis 


, plerumque qua 


m internodia b] 


inflorescentia sim, 


laxo raeemosa, 




glabro; bract 


eis florigeris late 


s ovatis, apiculat 


is, pedicellos ae 




paullo brevioi 


ibus, submemb: 




floribus erec' 


tis vel divergeni 


tibus; pedicellis 


uracilibus, jjnl 


mm. longis; 


sepalis oblongo-lancenlatis. asvmmciricis, acini 


longis, 7 mn 


a. latis, glabris; 


petalis linearib 


>us, sine ligulis 


9 cm. longis, 


1 cm. latis, a 


Ibis, obtusis, apice tomentosc 










quam ' 2 supero. PI. I, figs. 


8 9. 




MEXICO: 


Mkxko: Dist. I 


emascal tepee, Ch 


orrera, alt. 123( 



Pitcairnia puyoides L. I!. Smith in Field Mn-. I'ub. Hot. \i. 147 
(1936). PL I, figs. 4-5. 

Pitcairnia secundiflora, spec, now, acaulescens, florifera 2 dm. 
alta; foliis paucis, faseiculato-rosulatis, homomorphis, persist entibus, 
23 cm. longis, bene petiolatis, integerrimis, subtus dissite tomentoso- 

3-4 cm. longis; himinis rlliptico-oblongis, late iicutis, apieulatis, 2 cm. 






etro; scapi bracteis quam intemodia brevioribus, 
nbranaceis, dissite adpresso-lepidotis ; inflorescentia 






~, ^junde florigera, 5 cm. longa, glabra; bracteis 
Bongeris eis scapi similibus, cum floribus secunde versis, pedicellos 
superantibus; floribus patentibus; pedicellis gracilibus, 1 cm. longis; 
sepalis lanceolatis, filiformi-acuminatis, uncinatis, 2 cm. longis, 4 
mm. hitis. valdc alatim c-.-i Hiimt is ct c-nrinis per pedicellum decur- 
rentibus; petalis linearibus, 35 mm. longis, basi ligula magna oblonga 
truncaTii serrata auctis; ovario subgloboso, 7 mm. longo, % supero; 
ovulis caudatis. PI. I, figs. 1-2. 

F ^t?^ 1 ? 01 ?n^ T A 4 : table land about Ocuilapa, alt. 1130-1260 m., 1895, 
.e. w. nelson 3065 (US, type; phot. G). 

Tillandsia § Platystachys, as noted in Proc. Am. Acad. Ixx 

'■'•> ' " !'■■>••>. mclndc.,§ I'iturnphiUut,,. To the evidence there noted 
should be added 7. mibrsn-HH Sehdl. as a species occasionally de- 
veloping a depauprraieK compound inflorescence. 7 T . ionunt'hu, a 
:-' In,n - vm " f / ''•'' / — , is pictured in Bot. Mag. t. 5892 with an 
Fluorescence ot 2-fiowered spikes. This picture is copied in Mez's 
latest monograph although the inflorescence is described there as 
simple. 

Tillandsia chaetophylla Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix 726 (1896) 
T Alato E. Morr. ex Bak. Brom. 170 (1889), nomen; Mez in DC.' 
Mon. Phan. ix. 726 (1896), non Veil. (1825). 

It is not possible to distinguish satisfactorily between T. chart„ P h„Ua 
and 7 . subulata on the basis of the relative thickness of the leaf-blades 
nor does any other distinction appear. Furthermore, the name T 
subulata can not stand according to the present International Rules 
of Nomenclature because of Vellozo's , ,,Hie, I,,,,,,,,,,,, m . The logs ^ 
U« name is a welcome clarification in a genus containing also a 
xiilwlijrra and a subalata. 

Tillandsia ignesiae Mez in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, iii. 143 (1903). 
^^ E ?7 I ^^^ ICO: Dist - Te mascaltepec, Nanchititla. 1935 G B Hintnn 

The Langlasse or type collection of this species in the Gray Her- 
barium shows a single flower which was obviously well past anthesis 
*hen collected and in winch the stamens are included. The much 
ampler material collected by Hinton shows the same condition in 
flowers of all stages of development. Consequently the species be- 



ship is evidently in the vicinity of T. chontale? 

scales of the leaves. 

Tillandsia paraensis Mez in Fl. Bras. iii. pt. 3, 586, t. 109 (1894). 
I'rirsn, s-nnrtur-miris S. Moore in 'IVans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, iv. 491 
(1895). Tillandsia sanrtar-rrucis S. Moore ex Mez in DC. Mon. 
Phan. ix. 710 (1896). 

BRAZIL : Para : 1826, Siber 68 (Brux, type : phot. G ) ; A mazonas : Humayta, 

' '". l" ; '-4. Krolmff i;;;> iXYi; Acre Territory: near "the 

69 W.. V.m A uknfl ~> »!> (,. \n Mvrn (i.u.ss.. , P , P h\ tip, near Santa 

< '-!/• ^ U .'1 HM ., rtiartx 

1!«»'.'. //< < ' MN l!i< ph I C Ki< lur.in,:,. Mill, llmh,,, > 

5168 (MN Bio ,,■ ,, |yi|, /,,„/„„„, 1 .;.>V<y 

(S, phot. (',). BOLIVIA: La Paz: Santa Ana, Bopi River, alt. ca 400 m 
1921, O. E. White 1087 (NY, phot, G); Indefinite: Bang ln9a e. p. (K NY 
phot. G). 

7 iljtnidsm i»rni<)isis and 7. sancinc-miris have been separated on 
the basis of the Cornier having laxer spikes and a less bulbous leaf- 
rosette, yet I fail to observe such distinctions in comparing photo- 
graphs of the types. Doubtless the great distance between the two 

since I hen several other collections have appeared as indicated above 



Tillandsia tenuispica Andre in Rev. Hort. Ix. 567 (1888). 
VENEZUELA : Merida: near Merida in moist forest, alt. ca. 1800 m 



Vriesia haplostachya (Wright), comb, now Tilh 
,turhia Wright ex Sanvalle in Anal. Acad. Habana, vii 
Wright cv Sanvalle. Cat. Fl. Cub. 169 (187:1). PL II, fu 

Since the type of this species has not been observed j 
any specialist on the Bnunrl'mmtc and since its origin;] 
failed to include most of the essential information, its 

stachya, 1 although from the name "haplostachya." n 
ranked, it might have been inferred that the flowers 
Actually the species is most closely related to J", riridijln 
and general habit of the two being practically identica 
stachya, however, has a much stouter scape, suhfolia 
1 Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 602 (1896). 



bracts and much longer and relatively narrower sepals. In view of 
the former confusion regarding the species the following demotion 
is appended: v 

Foliis 4-6 dm. longis, perobscure punctulato-lepidotis; vagina 
elliptica, ampla, laminam subdimidio aequantia; lamina ligulata, 
^•"nnnat;,, plan;,, o em lata; scapo erecto, 7-8 mm. diametro, glabroi 
< I' unus dense irnbncatis, subfoliaceis, elliptieis, acuminatis, ad 
•'P"<!M versus dense punctulatis et siccis rugulosis; inflorescentia 

^2f ;;,;';'"' -''! r \ ,M '""^ *™<^ «"••,,„•,. 

''' ''' !,,,( l|'--'ii"bus. obscure multinervis punctulatisque; floribus 

m ''^ r | "'*?" rn l Ur P ( 'dicrllafis: sepalis ciliptico-oblongis, obtusis, :C> 
,"" n '. " n ~|^ '" n;|l,,|s : I'*'t;il;- hmihiiis, verisimiliter obtusis, o cm. 

s-n-i !ir\\ ij! 1 XI ;,", ! ' ' . / V ' ,p,le - l ? 59 ? , »'">/>" i ( : > ; 

Vriesia heliconioides (HBK.) Hook, ex Walp Ann Bot iii 623 

'-;:rn^< ? t,,].„,tasrr/A;,^, / ;:;^!;' I ; 1 - m - - 304 (189S) - as to 

, ! ' K " V * th«-i. Stunrllej and hnalh Mez base taken up 

;| '■"rnl.mjition on Rmmlnnn disticha L., as including 

"; " ;"'" ' ' Although none of them explain the reason for 

, ■ '/ .""': ' "" ! " U<"'<> Hrst monograph where 



thought Renealmia 



tiistir/nt and TiUiuuhin hrlim, 
cite material and ranges for c 
of Jamaica, the type-locality 



2. NOTES ON SOUTH AMERICAN ORCHIDACEAE,— I. 

By Lyman B. Smith, 

Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 

College of Liberal Arts of Boston University. 
(Plate II.) 

worthy species of orchids which are constantly turning up in collections 
from the remoter parts of South America, particularly in the Andean 

Prof. Martin Cardenas from Bolivia. 

The authors are indebted to Prof. Oakes Ames tor the loan of 
critical material for comparison ami to Mr. Charles Schweinfurth for 
many helpful suggestions. 

Bulbophyllum Weberbauerianum Kriinzl. in Fedde Hep. Nov. 
Spec. i. 85 (1905). 

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: prov. Ayopaya, Sailapata, on dry logs, alt. 2000 



lobis lateralibus minutis, dentiformibus, erectis, triangulares, 
acutis, integris, lobo intermedio valde producto, subtereti; disco basi 
breviter unisulcato; columna brevi, dente postico minutissimo 
brachiis anticis erectis, triangulari-subulatis. 

Ayopaya, Sailapata, alt. 2000 m., 1935, 

This pretty little species with its brightly tricolored flowers is most 
nearly related to li. r.plrohn, Barb. Rodr., but its Howers are larger 
with lilac petals and deep orange fleshy subterete lip. 

Pachyphyllum Cardenasii, spec-. nov„ caulibus simplicibus vel 

ramosis, curvulis, ad 14 mi. longis; foliorum vaginis arete amplectenti- 
bus, paucinervatis; laminis patmtihus lalcalis, complicates, ad I cm 
longis, subcuspidatis, crasse earnosis, maroiuc minutissime enwi ■ 
racemis 3-4-floris, quam folia bene brevioribus; bracteis ovatis' 
acutis, 2 mm. longis; pedicellis gracilibus cum ovariis trialatis' 
floribus pallide luteis; sepalis lanceolatis, acutis, c-mnatH ;,„ ,„ ■d-'l,,,? 

3 mm. longis; pctalis lanceolatis. iiciti,. bd.cllo aiuz'iiMc ov;!,u' 

carnoso, apice calloso-incrassato, callis _> p.-n-vi* 1'cre medio in disco 
trilobato vel fere orbiculari. PI. II. fio s 



3-o. 



Cochabamba: 



. Ayopaya, Sailapata, < 



3. TWO NEW SPECIES FROM MEXICO. 
By Lyman B. Smith. 
Euphorbia (Chamaesyce) trichocardia, spec, nov 



, dense mollit 

, pauce ramosis; fc 



Apparently this species is closely related to E. M duna,b;n, t Torr 

utsde". ZT^ ^ and S P readin ^ the involucres are glabrous 

utside and the glands are green instead of black 
Asclepiodora zanthodacryon, spec, nov., 3 5 dm. alta- caudice 



ON DESVAUX'S FERNS 13 

lignoso; caulibus fasciculatis, simplicibus, gracilibus, puberulis; foliis 
oppositis, laxis, linearibus, ad 15 cm. longis, 4 mm. latis, subsessilibus, 
glabris; pedunculo communi gracili, o cm. longo, puberulo; umbellis 
in axillis solitariis, laxe 0-8-floris; bracteolis parvis, linearibus, 
deciduis; pedicellis gracillimis. 1.3 mm. longis, puberulis: Horibus 
conspicuis; sepalis anguste ianceolatis, acutis, 4 mm. longis; petalis 
per anthesin patentibus, late ovatis, acutis, 1 cm. longis, purpureis, 
anguste albo-marginatis, cucullis inagnis, crass.- ovoideis, fulgide 
aureis, cum pctalis patentibu>, g\ uostegio longe superatis; s(piamis 
staminum deltoideis, inflexis et apicern planum gynostegii obtegenti- 
bus; polliniis pendulis, anguste ovoideis. 



Tliis species dihYrs from 



By C. A. Weatherbt. 

The fundamental task of fixing accurately the application of the 
older names of American plants through examination of type-speci- 
mens in European herbaria, though begun by Asa Gray nearly a 
century ago and more than ever needed as specific lines are more and 
more closely drawn and critical groups restudied, is yet far from 
completed. Particularly is tin's the case with tropical American ferns; 
and in that field the work of Desvaux has presented especial I \ larg»- 
lacunae of inadequate knowledge. 

Desvaux was not one of the great pioneers in pteridology; his 
scheme of classification was not profound and had no great influence 
on his successors. But he set up some genera Gymnogrumnut and 
Ctjclophuni.s, for instance which have survived and, what concerns 



us more, he had access to many of the rich collecti 


ions- those of 


Dombey, Commerson, Joseph de Jussieu, de Tussac, 


etc.— already 


gathered in French herbaria in his time. Numerous 


i species, now 


familiar, but then novelties, and some still little known 


, passed under 


his eyes; many of them he described. He has a nom 




portance, if no other. 





In his two major articles relating to ferns 1 and in three short papers 
in his Journal de Botanique Appliquee Desvaux proposed about ISO 
species attributed To America. It would not be true to say that his 
work was neglected; but it was difficult to follow. His descriptions, 
though accurate as far as they go, are brief and, like so many older 
ones, omit details later deemed essential. His data of locality arc 
frequently very genera] and by no means always correct. He never 
cited collectors; authentic material, where it exists, has been, there- 
fore, hard to identify as such. Until 1896, when it was presented to 
the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris, his personal herbarium 
remained in the possession of his family, presumably more or less 
inaccessible. 

Nevertheless, a few of his species were early accepted and their 
names correctly applied by Kunze and Hooker, partly on the basis of 
specimens sent by him to Greville. Mettenius seems to have made an 
earnest attempt at interpretation; he guessed, not always happily, at 
a good many species and was able to examine authentic material of a 
few and to place them accurately. In more recent years Hicronymus, 
'hristensen and M axon have fixed the status of a few more. Hut none 
of these investigators saw more than a few types; and an unusually 
large proportion of Desvaux's species ha\e been misunderstood or 
left as frankly doubtful. In the general herbarium at the Paris Mu- 
seum, now conveniently housed in the fine and spacious new botanical 
building, 1 was able to find, in 1935, 135 of his types and to determine 
most of those seen. A more extended search than I had time to 
make, especially in the older, segregated herbaria, such as that of 
Jussieu, would, I believe, bring more of them to litffit possibly all, 



ally gi 


ve references not 


included in it. £ 


make i 


t relatively easy to 




The 


results I reached a] 


r* summarized in t 


readily 


be seen, I have 


not solved all th 


Desvai 


ix's work. But it 


has seemed worth 


now ai 


id to set down eve 


rything, both succ 


ingly, 


all of Desvaux's na 


mes for American 


betical 


ly for convenience 


of reference, are ; 


I have 


i seen the types. 


All determinate 


given, 


even if they merel; 


y repeat (and, I h 


already 


t made. To save : 


space, only dates 


except 


where new combin; 


ations are required 


readily 


accessible in the 


Index Filicum. 


name is placed first, followed by needful s\ 


The mi 


me to be accepted for the species cone* 




small capitals, exc< 






', in bold-face type 


As ii 


:i all such investig 


ations, some regrt 


have re 


suited; happily, their number is not la 


as unfortunate for Desvai 




of nom 


enelature it is a welcome cireumstai 


scribed 


a considerable nun 


tber of species aire 


now th 


e year before and 


again in 1827 a 


Kaulfu: 


ss in 1S24. The i 




Hooker 


and Kunze; even t 


here, it is not (list 



PHYLLA (Sw.) Link. .(. rhntnujjfu/lhan Sw. (ISO! I. .1. cJin/*»i>hn(l 
% inuuihtm Desv. (1827).- The type specimen, mounted on the'sa 
sheet with several other fronds of varying leaf-form, but rear 
identifiable from the description and the placing of the label, i: 
single dwarfed frond with lamina about 9 cm. long. The "aeule. 
are short, blunt projections on the stipe, appearing like stumps 
pinnae broken off with healed tissue over the fracture. Just wl 
their nature may be is not apparent, but they are plainly abnorr. 



Acruxticfium rltri/sucuiiiiim Desv. (1S2<). Pitykogkamma CHRYSO- 
conia (Desv.) Maxon. P. .//r.r/7/.v (Klotzsch) Domin?— Apparently 

P. Ornithopteris, but with yellow indument. 

Aewstichuin (UcL-yoiiiuidrif Dcs\'. (1827). POLYBOTRYA OSMUNDACEA 

H. & B. (1810).— A rather finely dissected form. Desvaux's epithet 
was printed as " diksunioidex" hut in view of the fact that there are 
a good many obvious misprints in the "Prodrome" and that the 
label reads " dicksonioides," I feel justified in restoring the more 
correct spelling. 

Acrostichum hitrum I )esv. (1827). Xofhulaena lutea (Desv.) Moore. 
—The type consists of 3 detached, badly pressed and withered fronds, 
with the stipes broken off. To Desvaux's description may be added 
that the lamina is linear in outline, 7.5-9 cm. long, with 5-8 pairs of 
distant, pinnatifid pinnae, the longest less than 1 cm., with 2-5 pairs 
of rounded obovate segments. The veins are visible above and stop a 
little short of the margin which is modified into a very narrow cartilag- 
inous band. The pinnae are decurrent in a narrow, reddish line along 
the black rachis. Moore was no doubt correct in transferrin- the 
species to Notholaena; I am, however, unable to place it more definitely. 
Acrostichum martinicense Desv. (1811). Elaphoglossum martini- 
cense (Desv.) Moore— A glabrous-fronded species of Elaphoglossum 
with thick, short-repent rhizome covered with narrowly linear, long- 
attenuate, soft, bright-brown scales, entire or with a few narrow 
teeth or fimbriae. The stipe bears similar but narrower and more 
fimbriate scales. The lamina is acute at base and apex, 7.5-11.5 cm. 
long by 2-4 cm. wide, about as long as the stipe or in fertile fronds 
l> shorter. 
Maxon 1 suggested that A. martinicense might be the same as his 
Elaphoglossum Under woodianum and, following this clue, Christensen 2 
has reduced E. Underwoodianum to E. martinicense. This is not 
correct; the two differ markedly in characters of rhizome and scales 
and in size and shape of lamina. E. martinicense belongs in the 
general group of E. pteropus; a definite determination of its status 
must await the much-needed monographic study of the genus 

Acrostichum petiolosum Desv. (1811). Elaphoglossum petiolosum 
(Desv) Moore.-Correctly applied to the Andean plant represented 
by Leh mann 4481. 

Acrostichum Plumieri Desv. (1827). Elaphoglossum petiolatum 
(Sw.) Urban. A. petiolatum Sw. (1788). -Desvaux's original de- 



scription, as published, gives no locality, merely citing a plate of 
Plunder; the type specimen, however, is labelled "habitat in Cari- 

Acrostichum tenellum Desv. (1827). Elaphoglossum horridulum 
(Kaulf.) J. Sm. A. horridulum Kaulf. (1824). 

Acrostichum tereticavlon Desv. (1811). — Type not seen. 

Adiantum acuminatum Desv. (1811).— Type not seen. 

Adiantum cus.uoidrx Desv. (1827).- Type not seen. According to 
Kunze quoted by Hooker 1 and followed by Christensen in the Index 
Filicum, this is A. serrato-dentatum Willd. with larger and thinner 
pinnules than usual — probably at least approaching the typical form 
of Willdenow's species. Desvaux himself suggests this relationship 
by his comparison with his A. obtusum ; which see). 

Adiantum datum Desv. (1811). A. latifolium Lam. (1788). 

Adiantum falrinrllum Desv. ( 1 SI 1).— Type not seen. 

Adiantum obtusum Desv. (1811). A serrato-dentatum Willd. 
(1810). — Desvaux's plant is the common form of the species; Willde- 
now's type a rather extreme state. Desvaux's original description 
gives no locality; his label reads "Habitat in Gujane?" 

Adiantum petiolatum Desv. (1811).— Type not seen, but the 
name probablv applied correctlv in the sense of A. Kaulfussii Kze. 
(1848). 

Adiantum wtundatum Desv. (1827). -Type not seen. 

AUantodia costalis Desv. (1827). — In the Prodrome Desvaux 
apparently published this as a new species, with a description and no 
synonymy. On his label, however, he cites Asplenium costale Sw. as 
a synonym. It therefore becomes doubtful whether AUantodia 
cuxtuIiH was intended as anything more than a transfer of Swartz's 
species. Desvaux's specimen is, as suspected by Christensen, 2 Dipla- 
ziuin. jjccfinatiini ( Feci ('. Chr., from Jamaica. His name, if a transfer, 
was incorrectlv applied to this species; if independent, it cannot he 
used under Dipbmum because of I), rmtal, (Sw.) Presl (1836). 

Ahuphlia Dumhri Desv. (1827). Type not seen. 

Ahophila millefolium Desv. (1S27). -Type not seen. 

Anemia obtum Desv. (1811). -Type not seen. From the de- 
scription, the plant must have been either .1. flexwua (Sav.) Sw. or 
A. imbricata Sturm. In the Prodrome Desvaux cites A. hirsuta sensu 
Raddi, Syn. Fil. Bras. 4 (1819), not Sw., as a synonym. Raddi's 
description and citations, however, seem to apply to the true A. 
hirsuta. 



Aspidium continuum- Desv. (1811). Dryopteris gongylodes 
(Schk.) O. Ktze. A. gongylodes Schk. (1809).— Desvaux's plant is 
the pubescent form. 

Aspidium cuspidatum Desv. (1827).— Type not seen. The de- 
scription might have been taken from Plumier. 

Aspidium Icpidotrichum Desv. (1811). Dryopteris xemorosa 
(Willd.) Urban. A. nemorosum Willd. (1810) —Desvaux himself, 
Prod. 261, made this reduction. His label gives the locality Santo 
Domingo. 

Aspidium longifolium Desv. (1811). Tectaria martinicexsis 
(Spreng.) Copel. A. martin mw Spreng. (1804).— A form with 
enlarged terminal pinna having two pairs of long lobes at the base 
and smaller, narrow, irregular lobes on the margins of the main 
division. The label gives the locality Hispaniola. 

Aspidium marrolcpidum Desv. (1827).- -A rather large plant of the 
group of Polystirhiim undvatum. The rhizome-scales are about 1 cm. 
long, lance-linear, entire, with narrow brown margins and dark, 
sclerotic center. They pass, on the stipe, into brown, thin scales of 
like shape and size and on the rachis into smaller ones which may be 
either all brown or with a dark center. The rachis also bears narrow, 
pale-brown scales lacerate at base which pass into fibrils on the pale 
lower surface of the pinnules. The auricles of the pinnules are blunt 
and short. The serrations are also short, cartilaginous-tipped but 
not spinescent. The veins are 2-3-forked, pale and evident on the 
upper surface but not beneath. The indusia are large, entire brown 
with a dark central spot. 

These details may aid in placing the plant; its status, however, can 
I"- finally determined only by critical study of the difficult grout, to 



I mi jo! in,,, Forst. (1786).— The 1 



Aspidium multuorum Desv. (1827). ' Tectaria martinicensis 
(Spreng.) Copel. A. marHnicense Spreng. (1804).-The type is a 
small, but otherwise quite representative, individual. 

Aspidium urbindatum Desv. (1811). PoLYSTICHUM ORBICULATUM 
(Desv.) Gay.-On his label Desvaux cites Polypodimm rigidum Hook. 



Grev. as a synonym and I am inclined to think him right. Certainly 
s specimen (a small one, best matched in the material I have seen 
I'nnicll 9808 from Colombia) belongs with an Andean group, not 
ith the plant of southern Chile and Patagonia to which Christ 1 
>plied the name P. orbicuhitum. ( 'hristenseir suspected as much, 
it had not seen Desvaux's type. 
Axpirlhnn /.arallrhnu Desv. (1827). Tectaria trifoliata (L.) 



25). — Not at all the Andine plant of the immediate group of A. 
uhitiim to which the name was applied by Mettenius. 
Isplmium brasiliemr Desv. (1827). A. kegulare Sw. (1817).— 
re again Desvaux's species was misunderstood by Mettenius, who 

isplenium confirm m 1 )esv. I 1S27). The type is a small and poorly 



Asfi.Kxir.M dareoides Desv. 
(1824). A. coneisum Desv. (1827).- 
specimen with oblong-lanceolate lamb 



s. Christensen and Skuttsbrrg and Pert 
he same form from Juan Fernandez. They 
nbles A. Adiantum-nigrum and that the u 

! li!-o;ider-t'ro >h d fun it looks more like A. Ri 
t seen Kaulfuss's type; but since he compares i 

probably belongs with the second of the ab 

m and Skottsberg also suppose. The two, hi 

: J >esvaux's earlier name must 



taken up. He himself cites A. magellanicum in synonymy ( 
label. 

Asplenium denticulosum Desv. (1811). — Type not seen fcr 
Alston, however, has seen what he believes to be the type i 
herbarium of Jussieu, and refers it to Diplazium 
(Desrouss.) Alston (D. arboreum (Willd.) Presl; D. Shepherdii (Spreng.) 
Link). 1 

Asplenivmfalx Qesv. (1827). A. erosum L. (1759).— The Linnaean 
species is here taken in the sense of Mettenius, 2 not in that of Christen- 
sen 3 and Hieronymus 4 (= A. dimidiatum Sw.). As in several other 
cases, 5 it was actually founded, not on the plate of Sloane cited in the 
Systema, ed. 10, but on specimens collected by Patrick Browne in 
Jamaica and duly referred to in the second edition of the Species 
Plantarum. The type sheet in the herbarium of Linnaeus, labelled 
" Aspl. erosum" by him and bearing the symbol "C" which indicates 
a species inserted in the Systema, is a mixture. It contains a well- 
developed, fruiting frond of A. falx and a juvenile plant of A. dimi- 
diatum Sw. with a hit of rootstock and four young and very small, 
sterile fronds. Christensen did not see this sheet and lie was mistaken 
in supposing that both specimens on the duplicate sheet which he 
studied in the Swartz herbarium were J. dimidiatum. An excellent 
full-size photograph of the Swartzian material (lent me through the 
kindness of Dr. Maxon, who arrived long ago at the conclusion here 
set forth) shows that, as in Linnaeus's own sheet, one is .1. dimidiatum, 
one A. falx. The former is a better specimen than that of Linnaeus, 
but still small and little cut for the species; the latter much poorer 
and, as Christensen notes, badly pressed. 

Linnaeus's description seems to have been drawn to include both 
elements. It would seem that, having only juvenile or stunted material 
of .1. dimidiatum, he regarded A. fair :i> the mature and fully de- 
veloped condition of the same species. The fact that he cited Sloane's 
plat.- :;:;, figure _', would indicate that he had .1. fal.r mainh in mind 




ment, Mettenius applied the Linnaean name to that element. In so 
doing (whether consciously or not makes no difference), lie avoided 
disturbing the generally accepted name, A. dimidiatum Sw. There 
was no occasion whatever for changing his perfectly correct typifica- 
tion, accepted in later standard works; Christensen would probably 
not have changed it had he seen the type sheet. Hieronymus merely 
followed Christensen as to A. crosum; what he accomplished was 
to point out, on the basis of manuscript notes by Mettenius made 
subsequent to the publication of the monograph of Asplenium, the 
correct identity of A. falx and A. coriaceum Desv. 

Asplenium macrocarpum Desv. (1827). A. moxa.xthes L. (1767). 

Asplenium, obtusihbu m 1 Vsv. (1811). A. cuneatum Lam. (1786).— 
Desvaux's plant is a form with broad segments only shallowly crenate- 
dentate above. The habitat given, with doubt, in the original publi- 
cation was the Isle of Bourbon, but on the label this is changed to 
tropical America. 

Asplenium peruvianum Desv. (1827).— The type is a wretched 
scrap; it is, however, associable with a good specimen collected by 
Dombey. This shows a small, pinnate-fronded, cespitose fern, not 
(in this individual proliferous, with relatively large (up to 4 mm. 
long), red-brown rhizome-scales, composed of thick-walled, oblong to 
linear cells with narrow lumina. The petiolules are thick and pale; 
the nerves apparently flabellately branched, the branches simple for 
some distance below the apex, not reaching the margin. The sori 
are broad-oblong; the indiisia pule brownish, thin and entire. 

This is probably a good species, but in a critical group arid as yet 
imperfectly known. 

Asplenium rhomboidale Desv. (1827).— Type not seen: perhaps 
based wholly on the cited synonyms of Lamarck and Plunder. The 
description could have been drawn from the hitter's plate. 

Asplenium sessilifolium Desv. (1811).— The type is sheet no. 
12ft.") in herb. Jussieu. The name is at present correctly applied. 

Asplenium virens Desv. (1827). A. laktum Sw. (1806). 

Athyrium Dombei Desv. (1827).— Type not seen. 

Azolla arbuscula Desv. (1827). 

Azolla (lensa Desv. (1827). — No specimens bearing this name or the 
preceding are to be found in the Desvaux herbarium. The two speci- 
mens of Azolla therein are named by Desvaux A. caroliniana and A. 
ftticuloides; the sheets bear an annotation by Kuhn affirming these 
determinations. 

Blechnum brasiliense Desv. (1811).— Type missed by me, 



though probably to be found in the herbarium of Jussieu. In all 

Blechnum pubvscnix Desv. ( 1827).— Type not seen. 

Botrychium nnimfum Desv. (1827).— Type not seen. The plate of 
Schkuhr cited is />'. <li,sxrrtu»i Spreug.. f. nbliquuw (Muhl.) Fern., B. 
ohliquvm Muhl. (1810). Desvaux gave no habitat; Schkuhr's plant 
came from Pennsylvania. 

Chcilanthes degam Desv. (1811). C. myriophylla Desv. (1811). — 

pairs of pinnules. It is mounted with the lower side glued to the sheet; 
as seen from above, with the scales forming a background to the 
segments, it looks quite like Desvaux's illustration. 1 The young 
scales are "rufescent" as described; in the older type of C. luyrinphylhi 

A frond in the herbarium of Joseph de Jussieu, two pinnae of which 
are missing, is probably of the same collection, though not labelled hv 
Desvaux. 

Cheilanthes myriophylla Desv. (1811).— Correctly understood. 
The type is a good specimen; its label gives the habitat as Peru. 

CinrimilisfrrruyiHca Desv. (1811). Xotholaexa thichomanoidks 
(L.) R. Br. Pteru tnchomanoitk'* I, (17o3). -The type is a lar-especi- 
men so densely hairy on the lower surface that the white in.lunient i, 
concealed. It is far from being .V. honariensis, with which Desvaux's 
name was so long associated. 

Chicitialis tout, ntu.su Desv. (181 1). Xotholaexa tomkxtosa Desv. 
(1813). X. hypoleuca Kze. (1834).— The type agrees with a sheet of 
Dombey's labelled " Concepcion, 1782." 



M, 



ctly interprete 



: the sea 
(I Desva 



uban element would presumably be 






Jainuicsm would 









true D. macro phjiU inn, and m simpler venation. Desvaux's type is 
excellently matched by ('<>uthtnn/ 43 from Ecuador; this represents the 
plant to which his name should be applied. 

Diplazium obtusum Desv. (1827).— Probably correctly applied by 
Hieronymus in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. xxxiv. 457 (1901). The type, 
however, a single glabrous pinnule with oblong-falcate, obtuse 
segments, 2-l'orked veins and long sori rcaeliing close to both costa 
and margin, does not agree in all details with Eggcrs 14881, cited by 
Hieronymus as representative. 

Diplazium tenue Desv. (1827). — Type not seen. 

/ )<>(>, I in blechnoides Desv. — Type not seen. 

(irammitis angustata Desv. (1827).— Type not seen; only doubtfully 
ascribed to America by Desvaux. 

(irammitis mageUanica Desv. (ISM). I'oi.vpodiim MiiawuniKKi 
(Willd.) C. Chr. G. Billardieri Willd. (1810). Desvaux cites P. 
graniineum sensu I'oir., not S\v., as a synonym, but his description is 

(Willd.) C. Chr. Ceteraeh aspiilioiiles Willd. (ISM);. Desvaux does 
not cite Willdenow and gives an original description. This appears 
to be another case where two authors have independently chosen the 
same epithet for the same species. The habitat " Brazil" is apparently 
erroneous; it may have misled Dr. Christensen when, in the Index 
Filicum, he assigned Desvaux's species to the synonymy of I), poly- 
podioides. It may be noted in this connection that the original data 
of collection accompanying Desvaux's specimens are often on small 
detached slips which are now glued to the sheets but which might 
easily have become misplaced before mounting. 

(h/mnogrammi, ehuemp/n/ila Desv. (ISM). Amhjiumm \ <n VKRo- 
phylla (Desv.) Link-Type not seen, but the current application of 

(jymnogramnia i/ip/a-:), litlcs Desv. Im_'7. DryoI'tkius Lixkiaw 
(Presl) Maxon. Not I), iliplazioii/r* (Moritz) Ktze. ( l.S'.M ). The 
species was correctly interpreted by Christensen'' but, as pointed out 
by Maxon,'- Desvaux's epithet cannot be used under Dn/optrritt. 

Cjinnogramnm peruviana Desv. (ISM). Pityko<;kam'ma tautauk.v 
(Cay.) Maxon. Acrostichmn tartar cum Cav. (1802).— Desvaux's own 
specimen consists of a single pinna, but on the label of another sheet 
from the Vaillant herbarium, determined by him as "Peruviana 
Desv." he wrote: "le type est dans I'herbier dc M. Jussieu." The 



type thus indicated is sheet no. 1009 in the Jussieu herbarium. It is 

ably elongated, giving the lamina a deltoid outline, and with their 
larger pinnules pinnatifid. It may be noted that Desvaux mis- 
understood P. tartarca, applying that epithet, as his labels show, to a 

authors have applied Desvaux's epithet, appears to lie Pitvrogramma 
Schaffneri (Fee), n. comb. Ceroptrri* Schaffnrri Fee, Mem. Fam. 
Foug. viii. 80 (1857). 

Hemionitii* brtixiliaua Desv. (|S27i. Amkopiivdi hkasii.ivmm 



is probably not American. 

Hemitelia ckuciata Desv. (1S27). Kxaini nation of the tyj 
firms Maxon's conclusion- that it helnngs with the grouj) to \vl 
applied the name H. spc-ctabilis Kze. (1S4S); but I am not altc 
clear as to specific limks therein. Desvaux's specimen a [ 
showing eight sterile pinnae, perhaps taken from near the ti 
frond — has very small and narrow pinnae for the group, 
venation, however (well repr. < w\>;\ in Honker, Sp. PI. i. t. 1< 



ave seen. Very likely a good, but neglected, species. 

Hemitelia stigmosa Desv. (1827). II. guianensis Hook: (1844). 

Humata scandens Desv. (1827). Odontosoria scandens (Desv.) C. 
•hr.— This apj a 0. tmcineUa Kze. | Fee. That 



species, however, is not known except in the West Indies; Desvaux 
plant is said to come from Peru and his references to that countr, 
generally based on I Whey's collections, are for the most pa 
correct. The chances are that there is an error here and that De 
vmux's name will have to replace Fee's; but in view of the ambiguoi 
origin of his plant, I hesitate to make the reduction. 

Hymen., pi. yi. u m imm\ i u.k.m.ii m I >. ,\ ls_>7 //. uiulnfloru 
Rosenst. (19i:i). So referred by Mr. C. V. Morton, who has made 

Hymenophyllum ukkocarim.m Desv. (1827). This has bee 
correctly interpreted. 



ft nnhrirafa Desv. <|N|h. L. stricta (Svv.) Dryand. 
2A portoricensis Desv. (181 1).— Apparently correctly 
I in current literature, as by Maxon, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
i Isl. vi. 489 (1926). 

' '"•">« IVsv. US27). Blechnum acutum (Desv.) Mett.- 
► specimen to the Desvaux herbarium, but one of the Dombey 
labelled by Desvaux, may stand as the type. Without 
Poeppig specimen on which Lomaria cuspidata Kze. i ls:U) 
, I cannot be sure whether or not Mettenins was right in 



ios. ..12N 


me as Desva 
s species will 
and 2222 in 


1 stand and is v 
the United Sti 


seems dubious. In 


I'linnirn 


ca Desv. (18 
Desv. (1811) 
Desv. (1827 


U).— Type not a 
•-Type not seer 




erbarium. 

semdnm 
ie type. 


; but its seal 


TZ7enL th l 


Dombey collection 
I it can hardly be 


Znnai, 


vruxis II UK. 


(1815). -Again, 


LOXENSE (HBK.) 



not seen; perhaps 



Dryopteris, based his t 



one else from doing the right one — unless, as mig 
own combination is illegitimate, and the right thing i 
new one. So far, I have resisted the temptation t< 
Mrrtrnsia brasiliana Desv. (1813). Gleichenia f 
Presl. Mcrtrn.ua prrfmata Willd. (1804).— Desvt 
short-pinnuled form of the species common in So 
presumably true (,. p.rtiuata. since the type came fi 



gquamulosa (Desv.) 

i australi (Termae 



UoHognnnma furrata Desv. (1811 

similar epithet already used 1 

The brief diagnosis is apparently original, hut could have been drawi 

wholly from the plate of Swartz cited. 

Monogmmn/a linrarifnlia Desv. (1811). Cochlidium lineari 
folium (Desv.) Maxon— Correctly interpreted. 

Xephrodhnt, albescens Desv. (1827). Dryopteris patens (Sw. 
O. Ktze. Polypodia™ patens Sw. (1788).— Type seen and referred a 
above by Christensen. It has glabrescent indusia, in that respec 
approaching D. patens, var. dependens C. Chr. 

Nephrodium chaerophyUoides Desv. (1827). Dryopteris spinu 
losa var. dilatata (Hoffin.) Watt. Polypodia,,,, dilatatum Hoffm 
(179b).— Desvaux's specimen is a foliose and very badly dried frond 
he seems to have been misled by its peculiar appearance. However 
he grave the habitat "Porto Rico" with doubt. 

Sephrndiii,,, clypcohitatini, Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris vi. 25£ 
(Desv.), n. comb. Aspidiwh 



Fee according to Christensen. 

Desvaux's published description gives the habitat Jamaica. Ac- 
cording to Maxon, the species is not now known from that' island. 
though Mettenius 1. c. assigns to it a Jamaican collection bv Breutel. 
On Desvaux's label the habitat appears as "in Antillis" 'a change 
which may be a correction. 

Xejdirodiu,,, crcatum Desv (18^7) Xfphroi fpis prvrruu- 
(Vahl) Mett. Polypodia,,, rhularc xl\x\ '(1807). 

Xephrodiiim (/uianense Desv. (1827). Nephrorkpis risfrr\t\ 
(Sw.) Schott. Aspidium biserratum Sw. (1801). Desvaux's speci- 
men is of the pubescent form and has unusually narrow pinnae 

nthii Desv. (1827). -Based' wholly on Aspidium 
cl. syn." Desvaux's specimen is a single pinna, 
>lant of the group of Dryopteris patens, but hardly 




Dryopteris unita (I,) 



Xephrodium Poiretii (1827).— Based on Poly podium pubescent 
sensu Poir., not L., but with an original description. Desvaux's 
specimen consists of part of a damaged pinna only and is not identi- 
fiable. It is not improbable that by search in the herbaria of Hum- 
boldt and of Poiret this fragment and that of N. Kunthii could be 
traced to the specimens from which they came and their identity 
determined. When that is done, Pesvaux may prove to have antici- 
pated some of the more recent segregates in the group of 1). patens. 

Xephrodium liaddii Pesv. (1827). Dryopteris falciculata 
(Raddi) O. Ktze. Aspidium falciculatum Raddi (1819).— Desvaux's 
epithet was published as "raddi" but is spelled on the label as here 
given. A. invisum sensu Raddi, not Sw. is cited as a synonym, Inn 
Pesvaux gives an original description with which his specimen agrees. 

Seuroptcris clcguux I>esv. ( 1 S27 ). S.u ( oloma i-.i.i:oa\s Kaulf. 
(1820).— No specimen seen, but Desvaux's illustration leaves no doubt 
as to the identity of his plant. He does not cite Kaulfuss and gives an 
apparently original description, but may possibly have been trans- 
ferring the hitter's species. 

Notholaena peruviana Pesv. (1827). A'. Bracken ridtjei Baker 
(1868, in synon.); Maxon, Sniithson. Misc. Coll. 65, no. 8. 7 (1915). 

Notholaena Tecturiu Pesv. (1827). X. sinuata (Lag.) Kaulf. 
Acrostichum sinuatum Lag. (1806).— A form with the lower pinnae 
distinctly petiolulate, the older rhizome-scales very dark brown and 
subsclerotic and those of the lamina with fewer and shorter cilia than 
usual. 

Ophioglossum pednncvlosum Pesv. (1811).— Certainly not the Old 
World relative of 0. retinduium to which Prantl applied the name. 
The specimens appear to represent a broad-leaved form of the group 
of 0. ellipticum; for its certain placing, critical study with more 
material than is at present available in America, or perhaps anywhere, 

Phorolobm domingensis Pesv. (1827).— Type not seen. The de- 
scription might have been drawn from I'luinier's plate. 

Poly-podium abrupt urn. Pesv. (1827). Dryopteris pyramidata 
(Fee) Maxon. Goniopieris pyramidata Fee (1866). Not Dryopteris 
abrupta (Kze.) O. Ktze. (1891). 

Poly podium umbiguum Pesv. (1827). — Type not seen. 

Polypodium ARTicuLATUM Pesv. (1827). P. Cuceresii Sod. (1893). 
— A good species of the group of P.fraxinifolium. characterized by its 
few, relatively broad pinnae and its lanceolate, entire, long-acuminate, 



30 WEATHERBY 

clathrate, somewhat iridescent, grayish-brown rhizome scales, which 
are 8 mm. long. 

Polypodiwu avenium Desv. (1814). P. percussum Cav. (1802).— 
Reduced by Desvaux himself in the Prodrome. 

Polypodium barbatum Desv. (1827). Dryoptebis pulverulenta 
(Poir.) C. Chr. P. pulverulentum Poir. (1804). D. Karsteniana 
» Klotzsch) Hieron. 

Polypodium cajcmense Desv. (1811). P. ciliatum Willd. (1810). 

Polypodium capillars Desv. (1811). P. graveoleus Baker (1877). 
— Desvaux's label gives the habitat as Jamaica. Maxon's suggestion 1 
that P. capillarc might be the same as P. gmrco/i us proves entirely 

Polypodium caribaeum Desv. (1811). Dryopteris subincisa 

(Will,!.) Frban. Poly podium ,ubiurisu»u Willd. (1810).— The scales 
m Desvaux's specimen are definitely not toothed; otherwise it is -ood 



label gives the habitat as "in regno chilense," not Peru, as in the 
Prodrome. 

Polypodium cordatum Desv. (1827). P. tectum Kaulf. (1824). 

Polypi urn r/augatum Desv. (1827). P. PERCUSSUM Cav. (1802).- 
A narrow-tronded form, the lamina 2(1 em. long by 2 cm. wide. 

Polypodium r.mhum Desv. (1827). DryopterYs excels v (Desv) 
C. Chr., as defined in Dansk. Vidensk. Sel.sk. Skrift. ser. 8, vi. 54 

Polypodium fuu indo.su m Desv. YJ827) P lycopodioidfs I 
(1753).-The label gives Porto Rico as habitat. 'l>c,xaux applied 
the name P. lip-upndiaidvx to P. vurrinii folium L. & F. 

Polypodium gigantrum Desv. (1827).— Type not seen. 

Polypodia:,, f/lmtduloxinu Desv. (1811). Dryopterh glandulosa 
(Desv.) C. Chr. (1913), not 0. Ktze. (1891).— Christenson's combina- 
tion is, of course, quite untenable; but I am not, at present, able to 

Phr,inpt<rixPh,n,irn.].>u - 

it was, however, very sketchilv published and seem, to l m , I,,,-.,' 

based wholly on Piumier's plate 21 , of dubious idenriu I'n'til it ran 

he ascertained whether there exist r i ' t 



1866) from Guadeloupe. Th 



described, well illustrated and based on a cited specimen; and, though 
Desvaux gave no locality for his type except " Antilles." it is likely to 
have come, like Fee's, from the French islands. Fee's name should 
probably be taken up; but the group is somewhat critical and actual 
comparison of authentic material is desirable. 

Poly podium hcfcroclitum Desv. (181 J). Dryopteris heteroclita 
(Desv.) C. Chr.— The label gives Jamaica as habitat. The type 
sheet contains two fronds, the larger and more pubescent of which is, 
from the description, the type of P. heteroclitum; the other, though 
not directly so labelled, almost certainly represents P. ivTolufum 
Desv. Desvaux himself (Prod. 239) reduced the latter to P. hiero- 
clitum. 

Polypodium hirsutmn Desv. Gesell. Xatnrf. Fretinde Berlin Mag. v. 
317 (1811). Hemitelia hirsuta (Desv.), n. comb. //. Parhri Hook. 
(1844). 

Polypodium hirtisorum Desv. (1811). P. piloselloides L. (1753). 

Polypodium hi, volutin* Desv. (1811). Dryopteris heteroclita 
(Desv.) C. Chr., which see. 

Poll/podium juniuicrii.s, Desv. llSlh. DliYol'TERl.s C'ONCINNA 
(Willd.) O. Ktze. Poln podium cmicimunn Willd. (1810). 

Polypodium Kuuthii Desv. (1827). -The tvpe consists of a bit of 



inn scales among the sporangia. 
nn HBK, to which species it is : 



setose sporangia. Desvaux correctly describes his plant as having a 
linear lamina 18 inches long; and the sporangia are not setose. It 
seems, therefore, doubtful if Mettenius interpreted the species 
correctly. It certainly is not his P. concinmm, which is given as a 



Donibey has a rhizome. Among the specimens I have seen, one in 
the United States National Herbarium collected by Sodiro at Pichin- 
eha in August, 1901, and distributed as P. dependens, best matches 
Desvaux's type. 

Polypodium megalophyllum Desv. (1827).— Desvaux's sheet 
contains only a drawing and a manuscript diagnosis; another sheet 
labelled by him, which should serve as type, contains a good specimen, 
said to have come from Rio Negro, Brazil. The current application 
of the num.- / „,,„>,, Kze. (1842)) is correct. 

roli/podium mierodontum Desv. (1811). Alsophila microdonta 
Desv.— Correctly interpreted as the equivalent of A. ferox Presl. 
The type is labelled as from Cayenne. 

Polypodia*,, mirrulepidum Desv. (1827). P. percussum Cav. 
(1802).— A luxuriant state. 



I'.'M I'olHl 



nterpreted i 



the Index Filicum as equivalent to /'. oimxtum Honk. (1845). Des- 
vaux's specimen is a single well-developed pinna; he refers on the 
lahel to another specimen in the herbarium of Jussieu. 

Poli/podiu,,, mtvnx Desv. (1827;. Dkyoptkkis miens (Desv.) C. 
Chr. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. ser. 7, x. 142 (1913) (which see). 

Polypodium peruvianum Desv. (1827).— Correctly interpreted by 
Hooker & Greville (to whom Desvaux sent a specimen) and by subse- 
quent authors. 

Polypodium Plumieri Desv. (1811). Dryopteris opposita (Vahl) 
Urban. P. oppositum Vahl (1807). 

Polypodium remotum Desv. (1827). P. leucostivUm Kze. sens, 
strict. (1847).— P. leucostidon has been treated in rather a broad 
sense 1 and several segregates from it may well be recognized. Des- 
vaux's specimen, however, is typical P. leucostidon, at least as that 
is now understood by Maxon. 

Polypodium resiniferum Desv. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. 
' v. 317 (1811). Dryopteris resinifera (Desv.) n. comb. Xrphmdiu,,, 
panamense Presl, Rel. Haenk. i. 35 (1825). D. panamensis (Presl) 
C. Chr. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift ser 7, iv. 292 (1907). 

Polypodium retrofractum Desv. (1827). ' P. chnoodes Spreng. 

Polypodium runcinatum Desv. (1827).— Type not seen 
Polypodium sessilifolium Desv. (1827). P. surucuchense Hook. 
(1837).— Desvaux's name has been applied in this sense, quite 



>lium," but was eorreeted ( 
/W;„ „,/;„,„ Slotuu Desv. 
. Chr. I'ohjpudiimt rrpfati: 



[■ others are : ' 
e\v of the description, the 
the type of P. rnmsum. 
s, once segregated by Ma 



apparently young pi 
fronds. The rhizor 
entire, blackish or ds 



Pteris notMaenaides Desv. Mem. Sue. Linn. Paris vi. 298 (1827). 
Cheilaxthes notholaenoides (Desv.) Maxon, n. comb. Chcihmthcs 
micromera Link, Hort. Berol. ii. 36 (1833).— Dr. Maxon, who had 
already worked out the identity of Desvaux's species, kindly allows 

Pteris ovata Desv. Mem. Sue. Linn. Paris vi. 301 (1X27). Pellaea 
ovata (Desv.), n. comb. Pterin flexuona Kaulf. ex Schlecht. & Cham. 
Linnaea, v. 614 (1830). Pellaea flexuona (Kaulf.) Link, Fil. Sp. 60 
(1841). — An unfortunate, but unavoidable, change of name. Des- 
vaux's type is a young, but unmistakable, specimen. 

Pterin pert in at a Desv. (181 1 ). — Type not seen. 

Pterin piloniuneula Desv. (1827). ' P. decurrens Presl (1822). 

Pteris reticulata Desv. (1811).— Type not seen. 

Pterin nilieulona Desv. (1811).— Type not seen. It may be re- 
marked, however, that although Hooker 1 referred Desvaux's species 
to the Asiatic (hiychiutn nuratum Kaulf. and has been generally 
followed, the habitat "America australis" may possibly be correct. 
There is in northern Chile a species of ( 7// ptoynnitma, not known to 
Hooker and little known even now, described by Philippi as Pellaea 
fnmariarfolia, which Desvaux mav eonceivablv have had 

Pteropnin rhwgata Desv. ( 1N27). -Tvpe not seen. 

Pteropnin vittariuiden Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris vi. 210 (1S27). 
Vittaria vittarioides (Desv.), n. comb. V. Ruiziaua Fee, Mem 
ham. Pong. iii. 16, t. 3, fig. 3 (1851-52). 

Salvinia afeuin Desv. MN27). Type noi seen. Probably correctly 
referred to S. auriculata Aubl. 

Trichomanes arbuscula Desv. (1827). T. Bancroftii Hook & 
Grev.— Correctly applied in current literature. 

Trielwmanes brasilieme Desv. (1827).— The type sheet contains 
specimens of two species, both of the general habit of T. pyxidif, rum. 
One has a bit of rhizome with short and inconspicuous trichonies, 
bearing two fronds with spreading pinnae. The leaf-tissue is rather 
thick and dark-olivaceous; the rachis and eostae are fuscous. The 
cells are nearly isodiametric and thick-walled. The indusia are sub- 
<y limine, about 1.8 mm. long by 0.5 mm. wide at the base of the 
spreading limb, which is about 0.3 turn. wide. 

blackish trichomes and one frond. This has a stipe _' cm Ion- and a 

pale-olivaceous, rather thin, with isodiametric to - 



indusia are 


shoi 


ter and proportionately broader than in 


the other 


specimen, * 






spreading 


limb about 








There is 


nothi 


ng in Desvaux's description to show from which of 






was taken; his figure, however, (Mem. 




Paris vi. t. 


VII, 


fig. 4) was clearly drawn from the first i 




That sped, 




should be taken as the type. This wa: 


s van den 


Bosch's cor 


K-epti 


on of the species; he determined as T. braxilicttsc a 


like specim. 


en fr< 


mi Trinidad, coll. Crueger, now at Kew 


. Further 


Ip!.''i, , -s7. > . 11 


: : ;;: 


uithentie material will probahlv show 
entical with T. eximium Kze. (1847), t 
i variety of T. diaphanum HBK. (1825). 


ssrg 


The secoi 


i.l sp 


ecimen agrees well with one from the Serr 


a do Mar, 


Parana, col 


1. l)l 




•mined by 




as /' 


. i miirijinntum Presl. 




Trichoma 


//r.v r-t 


nnpn'ssum. Desv. (1811). T. BIGIDTJM Sw. 


(1788).— 


According t 


(» its 


label, the type came from Hispaniola. 






raes e 


latum Desv. (1827). T. dactylites So 


d. (1893). 



T. rlutum Forst. (1786). 
richonntnc.s lunqifulium Desv. i INI I >. — Tvpc not seen. 
rirhomane, millefolium Desv. I 1827). T. KLKGAXS Rich. (1 



lNES PEDICELLA'hm Desv. (1S11). Correctly interpret. -d 
terature as equivalent to T. bruchiipus Kze. (1834). 

irs qiirrcifolitim Desv. (1811). T. POLYPODIOIDES L. 
e type sheet contains three specimens, labelled as from 
St. Thomas and Porto Rico respectively. All are T. 

„■« xpicisoruui Desv. (1811). T. osmuxdoides DC. ex 
—So reduced by Desvaux himself in the Prodrome. 
nes trigoxum Desv. (181 1).— Correctly interpreted as 
Kaulfustii Hook. & Grev. 

u-tt irnustum Desv. (1827). T. rupestre (Raddi) v. d. B. 
In ni rupestre Raddi (1825). — The type represents a form 
tiarrow segments. 



s'KW MEXICAN CAHKX 



Carex Mackenziana, sp. nov. Caespifo 



6-10 dm. alti basi 






superantes. bolia pinna basin culmi versus aggregata glabra, 
vaginis laxis castaneo-tinctis, laminis 10-30 cm. longis 5-0 mm. latis 






ncn is(|Uc 



vel flores femiuros pnucos irregularitcr positos gerentibus exceptis 
androgynac lineari-cylindraceae 3 .1 cm. longae 1-0 mm. diametro, 
inferiores late distantes singulae pendulae, superiores approximatac 
interdum geminatae adscendentes, pedunculis gracillimis ad 4 cm. 
longis. Bractca ima vagina 1 5 em. longa clausa paene ad orificem 
lierhacea, lamina anguste lincari ad. S cm. longa ornata; bracteac 
superiores simile* sed rcductac, omncs laminit'crac. Squamae ob- 
longo-ovatae acutae obtusiusculae vel breviter mucronatae pcrigvnia 
subaequantes stramineae vel albidae hyalinae, vitta mediana viridi 
trinervata. Perigynia 30-50 ellipsoidalia vel subobovoidea 3.5 1 mm. 
longa c. 1.75 mm. lata prominentcr binervata, laterihus enervia vel 
leviter pauci-nervata, basi acliacnium laxe amplectentia sicca t a sicut 
alata, apice in rostrum 0.5-0.75 mm. longum laeve demum bidentatum 
subabrupte desinentia, obscure puncticulata sparse strigoso-puberu- 
lentia vel glabrescentia angulis ciliolata. Stigmata tria lusca gracilia 
elongata. Achaenia ovoidea c. 2.5 mm. longa 1.5 mm. lata flaves- 
centia trigona laevia 



From that species it differs in several < 
the comparatively tbick, short, usi 
very remote; the ellipsoid and shor 
perigynia about equalling the scales; 
stigmas. 

Mr. Mackenzie'* key to the scries I 
ten to include ('. Mackenzimiu. 



Culms loosely cespitose, the r 
scarcely beaked 


hkome 


elongate 


; per 


igyniii 




Culms densely cespitose from i 












definitely beaked. 














wide, channeled abov 










-1m. rt h i-nt..; 






gynium oblong-obovoid, the 
Principal leaf-blades 3.5-5.5 


beak ciliate-s 








wide, flat 


, glabrous: 




pergynium-beak smooth. 
Shea id- hispidulous; spikes 




















spindle-shaped, glabrous, i 


with beak 1.5 n 








Sheaths smooth ; spikes 3-5 i 
sparsely puberulent, the b( 


>ak'0°5 n i 


- 


. '.■;!■ 


psoid v 


' Mackenzie 


It is surely appropriate to 


de.lic; 


ite to th 


e lat 


e Mr. 


Mackenzie 


well-marked species in flip pel 


Ills wit 


li which 1 




►rked - 


;o long and 



1T,S OX XOMEXCLATIRK IX [RIDACKAK 



ale or by the rul 
A rigid application of tl 
alterations of specific na 

later nan 
homonym is recognized ■■ 



A hasty survey of Chn/i'nhis showed the presence of nearly fifty latei 

is being monographed by Mrs. Louisa Bolus. In so larpe and difficult 
a group it seems especially preferable to make nomenclature] changes 

not been possible, changes in status have been avoided in the present 



For friendly criticism and assistance during the course of this 
work, I am particularly indebted to Professor M. L. Feraald, Mr. C. 
A. Weatherby, and Miss Marjorie W. Stone of the Gray Herbarium. 

1. HELIXYRA 
The late N. E. Brown, in 1! 
Helixyra of Sa 

four new species, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. xvii. 348-350. 
Salisbury erected the genus Hdi.ri/ra, in Trans. Hurt. Soc. Loud. i. 30."> 
(1812), he placed in it only one species, //. flora Salisb. Neither 
genus nor species was described, but the latter was merely a new name 
given to the plant which Ker had previously described as Moraca 
iontjiflnra. Hot. Mag. t. 712 (1804), this name being cited as a synonym 
ot II . flora. The change in specific name was, of course, unwarranted. 
In addition, M. longiflora Ker was published without the generic 
characterization usually provided for these plates. In its place, 
reference was made to three earlier figures of Moraca in the Botanical 
Magazine, namely, M. flcxuom Linn. f„ t. (>9o (1803), M. rduli, 
(Linn, f.) Ker, T. (U3 (1S03). and M. angaicalata Ker, t. :>!)3 (1802). 

ization of Mo'roro Mill., at least as Ker understood that uenus.'i'n part . 
Under the circumstances it seems impossible to argue that 'llrli.niro 
was validly published by reference to a "previously and effectively 
published description of the genus under another name " Intermit 
Rules Bot. Nomencl. (ed. 3), Art. 42 (2). If such a position should In- 
maintained, however, Ilcil.np-a still remains invalid In <-j v in,- the 
generic character for .1/. „„,„,/,•„/„/„, Ker specificallv made'~the -enus 



another name, but a different genus under the - 
of this generic distinction, too, the third portior 
be used to validate Helixiira. Finally, since, i- 
scribing a new species, it does not seem possibl 



been used for a subgenus of Morara, containing, among other species 
.1/. inngiflnrn Ker. This has been .lone by Baker in Jonrn. Linn.' 
Soc, Bot. xvi. 132 (1877), Handbk. Irid. 48, 57 :>S HS92). and Flo,- 
Cap. vi. 10 (1896), Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PI. iii. 689 (1883), 
Pm\ in Fngler and Prantl, Pflzfam. ii (5). 146 (1888), and Diels in 
Engler and Prantl, Pflzfam. (ed. 2) xva. :>00 (1930). It shotil.l he 
noted that Baker in 1877 included Morara Sisyrinrhiinii. (L.) Ker in 

Monocot. 49 (lS.Yh. synonymous with ll.lixuru. although in IV.- he 



.eluded the plant known v ; 

Sisvrim-hium (L.) Ker, in, 
mi (L.) N. E. Br. He ret 
mis, ignoring the fact that 
ing heen improperly given 

Hclixura bv Salisbury, at: 
/. hmyifhm I Ker) X. F, I 



iant. M - 

IMS ,1!»l».| . 



ke 


rinKon.andSims.A 




/" .' 




ll 'ri 


iS ^, i 1 


//■;,•./ 


Lond. i. 304 ilS12i. .1/ 




,„'/', 


."'>/v' 




'sw,''.'r. 


Brit! 




10(1825). Moraeaf 
















;. Burchellii (Bak< 














II, 


ndbk. Irid. 57 (1891 


I). 


Ilrlixi/ra 


li 


urrhrli:; 


HW 


Tn 


;. cladostachya (Ba 


kn 


)\o!r 


I,,' 1 ; 


,n'' 


1 Morn, 


y/ r/r, 


Hi. 
Tr 


ndbk. Irid. 58 (1802 
ans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 
B. elata (N. E. Br), 




///;' 




r/,„ 


Ul 


■ ,!"> 


a« 


Gr. longiflora (Ker), ( 
[J. MossiKX. K. Br.), 


.//■ 


"k.T 


t 


/A/ 


i5 




Re 


S. propinqua (N. E 


'"'"l' 


lr ','"!!! 


;„., 




v. //,•//. 





.is setifolia ( 



Mnmu, ,-rlarra (Tlmnb.) Ker in Ko 
(1805). J/oram xrmspnthn MncOw;, 
! 1897). J/o/Y/ra .vr/tfofta (Linn, f.) I) 
Isles, 1910: 030 (1917). ffrll.n/ra ,rfil 
Rov. Soc. S. Afr. xvii. 349 (1929). 

' Baker), comb. nov. J 

//r/7.r,/m *,W«„.v ( 



G. spicata (N. E. Br.) 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. x^ 

G. spiralis (Baker), cor 

I rid. :»7 (IS! 12). Ifrfi.n/ra s 
S. Afr. xvii. 349 (1929). 

G. torta (L. Bol.), comt 
xvii. 418 (1927). Hrlixi/m 
(1932): .12 (Iris Societv uf 



This nam 


c was pre, 


•e<le< 


1 by /. ai 


mu Rat', i 


n Atl. -louri 


i. i. 8 


(1830) 


: ~: 


urn, Link, 


Lin 


mi'. Hort 


. Berol. i. 


59 (1S2D. 


Th. 


3 former 


nVlv live, 


^to" 


nneVt 




eral'.le'rol.M 


■ ton 


ns of /. 


hiihijihihi \'; 


ill.' bind 


ley's 


plant, ii 


' specific 


status is to 


he i 


■etained, 


must be ren 


amed I. a 


U N E 


A.Jacque 


mont ex B 


aker (in syn 


on.) 


in (bird. 


















Iris TRIP] 


K.TAI.A Wa 


It., Fl. Carol. 


66 (1788; 








Seven yes 


irs l.elore 


the ] 




»n of Wal 


ter's species, 


the 


younger 


Linnaeus (it 


scribed a i 


i Irii 


> /n> tula 


i, Suppl. 9 


7 (1781). 1 


Vlthough this 




1 to Mora 






■t.Mag. t. 


702 (1S031, 






a bar to Wa 


Iter's nam 


e. ' 


Fheearli, 


■st synoin 


m available 


is I. 


TR1DEN- 






r. Se 


pt. i. 30 










Iris folk 


is\ Mackenzie 


& Hush 


in Trans. 


Acad. Sci. 


St. I 




80 (1902). 
















This speci 


"~>> 


:;,;;: 


jily confu 


sed with 1 

btedly di 


stin«r'''i'! v 




l^vv 


however, to 
This clear a 




S;,r„: 


'lolu! 7 ,; 


/. foliom w;i 


s an.pliHc 


,1 sli 


k'htly by 


Rafinesq. 


ie in his Xei 


A I'l< 


ira. part 



xibed in Lindley's botanical Regisfc 
nniruL. In spite of certain dihVreni 
76 (1830), and probably should take 
.All. lVdfsch. in Bull. Herb. Boiss.ser. 



xiii. .">() f lSKi 



based upon Schimpc 
ise, the name is inva 
rider this number, sine 
latt described a Trito 



ported, Kew Bull. (1929): 137, 
tvbulosa (Burm. f.) Ker, Gen. 
flabellifolia (De la Roche) N. ] 
tubulosa (Houtt.) N. E. Br., 1. c 



flowers "rufeseentes macule 
species, presumably because 
Babiana, he identified it wit] 
is correct, as Ker's reference 

(IV I.-, Roche) N. E.' Br., b 
not be matched in the Kew 
the center of a nomenclatur 
plant from which fig. 2 of t. 
was drawn, the drawing beii 



This i> further shown b : 
which are "rufescentes n 
two specimens of liiihim 
tiihulns/i Burm. In other 



niann specimen back of the Ho 
Thunb., Prodr. 184 (1800), whi( 
as A. rxsrana (Thunb.) Bake: 



p. vi. i: 


;j iiso' 




c.rscapa 


is made i 


isynon 


vm of 


/L tubulosa 


Bakei 


•. Thii 


< hut. 


>r name 


is, of, cc 


tune, c 


•pen b 


o the same 








as Brow 


n's .-1. *m/ 










upon 


ii mis 


identifir 


ation of 1 


he pla, 


it de» 


-ribed with 


a'sfigi 










■cept M 




; suggestion 








n >n (Th 


unb.) Bal 






lv the first 










time, Brown's 




„U>.sn, also, 


nulin''! 


>f then 




•iiiiim'! 


V£17t 


'".r.eT! 


'nun'/ 


lable. My 


". is as 


Follows 














V\\ TV 


Hi LOS4 


1 Bui 


rm. f.) 


Ker, Gen 


I rid. 


1 .") 4 ( 1 


827). /m 


[iuriii. 


f.. Fl. 


Cap. 


Prodr. 1 


* (1768), 


in part 







i (De la Roche) N. E. Br. in Kew 1 
(1929): 137. Ixia JlabeUifolia De la Roche, Descr. PI. Nov. 20 (1766). 
1. via tubulosa Burm. f., Fl. Cap. Prodr. 1* (1768), in part. 

Acidanthera picta, nom. nov. Ixia tubulosa Burm. f., Fl. Cap. 
Prodr. 1* (1768), in part; Houttuyn, Handleid. xii. t. 78, fig. 2 (1780). 
Arithnil/h rn tubulosa illoutt.) Baker in .lourn. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 
160 (1877), and Handbk. Irid. ISC, (1S92). as to name, but not as to 

Mull. U929): 137. 
This is Burmann's first variety, "foliis instar junci. . Flores 

spicati distichi post evolutionem secundi in prima albescentes ten- 
eriores. .; amborum tuhi tripollicares filiformes," preceded by the 

In accordance with Brown's suggestion, Baker's plant becomes 
Aan.wTHKitA exscapa (Thunb.) Baker, Berl. Monat. xix. lo 



Of th.-Th.mb.Tgian specimens of Chula.lus lonqiflora.s, X. K. Brow. 
• lourn. Linn. Soc.. Mot. xlviii. 24-2o (1928), states that they ai 

Tritouia b,„«;tb,n, Linn f. « \ K ' 

Kon. and Suns. Ann. Mot. i. 22s (is,);,,, belongs in the genus Ixi 



NOMENCLATURE IN IRIDACEAE 40 

later homonym and cannot stand. The history of the two species 
involved in the name Tritonia longiflora appears to be as follows. 

In 1805, Ker transferred an Ixia longifhra to Tritonia, referring 
only to Bot. Mag. t. 256. This figure, published in 1794 as Ixia 
longiflora, gives two synonyms: Ixia longiflora of Alton's Hort. Kew. 
i. 58 (1789); and (jiadioln* longiflorus Linn, f., Suppl. 96 (1781). 
Aiton described it as "Ixia foliis etisiformidinearibus strictis, tubo 
filiformi longissimo," and gave as .synonyms Lria longiflora Her-.. 
Cap. 7 (1767), Ixia paniralata De la Roche, Descr. 1*1. Nov. 26 i ITlilii. 
and Gladiolus longifiorus Linn, f., I. c, and Thunb., 1. c. Upon which 
of these was Aiton's /. longiflora based? In the synonymy. Bergius' 
species was cited first; furthermore, its diagnosis and description are 



20, "Facies Ixiae, sed tubus curvus el situs limbi separat, 
Brown found on examination of Thunberg's specimens, the 
question is a Tritonia. On the other hand, from the det* 
careful description given by Bergius, it would appear that 



carefully drawn and about life-sized. 1 
Roche's figure agree so closely in detail l 


hat, ,'xilcxcr., it would appear 
use, De la Roche's name has 


priority. Incidentally, /. pnniculatn v 
presumably figured, from living plants, 

Linnaean and Thunbergian plant must 
to Tritonia, in the apparent absence of 
eordingly it becomes 


Crordin"tVl>V la' Roche. 
name Tritonia longiflora, the 


Tkitonia longituba, nom. nov. < 
Suppl. 96 (1781); Thunb., Diss. Glad. 
(Linn, f.) N. E. Br. in Journ. Linn. Soc 


gladiolus longifiorus Linn, f., 

HI i 1784). Tritonia longiflora 


Tritonia Cooperi Baker, Handbk. 


Irid. 192 (1892). In Journ. 



made by 
one how- 
i (Baker) 
a. After 

no. 31S2. 



Tkitonia quinquenervata, nom. nov. Tritonia Coopn-i Baker, 

Tkitoma koska Klatt in Linnaea xxxii. 700 (1803). This is a later 
homonym of Tritvnin msm (Jacq.) Ait., Hort. Kew. i. 91 (1810), based 
upon <;lwli,>l„x wsru, Jacq., Ic. ii. 201, Coll. v. 22 (1790), a plant 
which, after being placed in (iludinlux, TriUmia, Mtmtbrrtia, and 

..Houtt".' li.'ntli. ex Baker, Handbk. Irid. 1ST (1892). T. rosea Klatt 
must be renamed and an available synonym seems lacking. There- 

Tritonia rubro-lucens, nom. nov. T. rosea Klatt in Linnaea 

xxxii. 700 (1803). 

Ixia rxouLATA Burm. f., Fl. Cap. Prodr. 1 (1708). This plant has 
been removed to TnUmia and named '/'. umlulnUi ( Hurm. f.) N. E. Br., 
Kew Bull. (1929): 137, but there are difficulties involved in the ac- 
ceptance of this. Baker had previously made the same combination, 
T. innlulnta (Burm. f.) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 103 (1877), 
citing Biirmaim's plant and also Lritt crispa Linn, f., Suppl. 91 (1781) 
in synonymy. After examining specimens and considering Baker's 

tical with I.ria „,„IMh, Burn.. !'. He therefore transferred tlie Linn- 
ean plant to Tritmun, renaming it T. Thanh, am X . K. Br., since there 



Bull. (1929): 137. 
xia undulata (Burm 
1877), and Handbk. 



163 (1877), and Handbk. Irid 
plant. Ixia imdulntn Burin. 
undulata (Burm. f.) N. E. Br. 


. 191 (1892), as i 
f., Fl. Cap. Proc 
in Kew Bull. (M 




V. IXIA 


Ixia Rochensis (Ker) L. 


Bol. in Joum. 


This new combination was ba; 
Mag. t. 1503 (1812), and is a 1 
Bot. Mag. t. 598 (1802). /. 


iiis 


Ixia Bellendeni, aom. aov. 
1503 (1812). Ixia Rochensis 

(1929). 





Thunb, 

(1762). 

the pla 

Ixia 

The 


avellanl" 


Zi '■''• 


. Thi 


>f Thi 


lite distinct from / 
of /. polystackya ] 
l's name is a later 

jnberg's descriptio 


1... Sp. 


" 


.i^'Iii 


"niagn 

Ixia 

plant i 


OYATA (A 

f.) Ker in 


:El 


S 


Hort. Brit. (ed. 
ims, Ann. Bot. i. 


1) 49 


isir', 



48 FOSTER 

VI. LAPEYROUSIA 

Lapeyrousia Montana Hutchinson in Kew Bull. (1921): 403. 
This name is a later homonym of L. montana Klatt, Erganz. 25 (1882). 
As there seems to be no available synonym, it is here renamed 

Lapeyrousia nigeriensis, nom. nov. L. Montana Hutchinson in 
Kew Bull. (1921): 403, not Klatt (1882). 

Lapeyrousia Monteiroi Baker in Flor. Trop. Afr. vii. 355 (1898). 
As a synonym of this species, Baker cites, 1. c, Anomathrca cuujoh n.s-is 
Baker in Journ. Bot. xiv. 337 (1876). Obviously, the plant should 
not have been renamed in making the transfer to Lapeyrousia, and 
accordingly it becomes 

Lapeyrousia angolensis (Baker), comb. nov. Anomatheca au- 
golensis Baker in Journ. Bot. xiv. 337 (1876). 

Lapeyrousia setifolia (Linn, f.) N. E. Br. in Journ. Linn. Soc, 
Bot. xlviii. 30 (1928). This name is based upon Gladiolus setifolia* 
Linn, f., Suppl. 96 (1781); Thunb., Diss. Glad. 18 (1784). Since the 
transfer to Lapeyrousia was not made until 1928, however, N. E. 
Brown's name is a later homonym of L. setifolia Harms in Engler's 
Bot. Jahrb. xxx. 278 (1901). If the two species are distinct, it becomes 
necessary to rename L. setifolia (Linn, f.) N. E. Br. Search for an 
available synonym shows that Baker, Handbk. Irid. 170 (1892), 
placed Gladiolus setifolius Linn. f. in the synonymy of Lapeyrousia 
divaricata Baker, Journ. Bot. xiv. 337 (1876). If G. setifolius ami 
L. divaricata are identical, and, in the absence of specimens, I am un- 
able to consider this point, Baker's name must be used for the plant 
under discussion. That a name given to a species of Lapeyrousia in 
1901 should force the abandonment of the same name for a species 
described in 1781 and shown, correctly, in 1892 to belong to Lapey- 
rousia is unfortunate, but under the present rules there is no alterna- 
tive. 

VII. MORAEA 

Moraea aphylla De Wildeman in Ann. Mus. Congo, ser. 4, ii. 21 
(1913). This is a later homonym of M. aphylla Linn. f. Suppl. 99 
(1781). I am renaming it 

Moraea unifoliata, nom. nov. 

Moraea aurantiaca Baker in Fl. Trop. Africa vii. 575 (1898). 
This is a later homonym of M. aurantiaca A. Dietr. Sp. PI. ii. 485 
(1833) and since there seems to be no available synonym, I am re- 



Moraea viscosa, nom. nov. The i 



? refers to the fact thai 



the branches are viscous below the spathes, as Baker pointed out in 
his original description. 

Moraea gracilis Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i. 272 (1878). 
A new name must be found for this species, which is a later homonym 
of M. gracilis- (Licht.) A. Dietr. Sp. PI. ii. 478 (1833). With refer- 
ence to the shape of the ovary, I suggest 

Moraea clavata, nom. nov. 

Moraea undulata Ker, Gen. Irid. 43 (1827). This is a new name 
given by Ker to Murnra rris/xi Thunb., Diss. Mor. 13 (1787), appar- 
ently because of a new combination made by Ker in 1810. In that 
Year, he transferred Iris crispa Linn, f., Suppl. 98 (1781), to Mora, a. 
making it M. crispa (Linn, f.) Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1284 (1810). Ap- 
parently, Ker reasoned that, since the specific name crispa had been 
first used by Linnaeus fil., it should take precedence over Thunberg's 
mime despite I he fad (hat Kit's now combination bringing the Linn- 
aean nam!' into Mnnm, was not made for over twenty years after 

b.^Vphilr^oiml'have'^ original" name restored, Moraea crispa. 
Thunb., non (Linn, f.) Ker. 

Even if Ker had been correct in clu.nging the name, his choice lor 
a new name was unfortunate, su.ee M. uudvlata Ker is a later homo- 
nym of M. undulata (L.) Thunb., Diss. Mor. 14 (1787), based upon 
Ferraria undulata I,. Sp. PI. ii. 1353 (1763). Thunberg's new com- 
bination has not been retained, and the plant is generally regarded as 
belonging in Ferraria. Nevertheless, its temporary stay in Moraea 
will prevent use of the specific name undulata for any species of 
Moraea. 

Although Ker was incorrect in '■ ;ime ; he W:IS 



MheMouviM.H r^vTV Kla 1 1 . Lr-anz. 33 . 1 SS2 >. Making M. enspa 
(Linn, f.) Ker a svnonvm.Klat. incorporated, almost verbatim, large 
portions of Ker's description of this plant in his own description. 

VIII. MISCELLANY 
Antholyza zambesiaca Baker, Handbk. Irid. 232 (1892^ Etwaa 
pointed out bv N. E. Brown, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. XX. 2, 7(1*41 

that this species was originally described from a mixture which in- 
cluded leaves of a species of Vellozia, a portion of the stem of some 
iridaceous plant, and flowed «"hi. s re identical with those ol An- 
Hiohizo waquifica Harms, in Warb. Kunene-Zamb. Exped. 201 (1903). 



Petamexes magnifica (Harms,), comb, nov. Anfhnhiza wagmfiro 
Harms, in Warb. Kunene-Zamb. Exped. 201 (1903). Antholyza 

-jnnhvsiara Baker, Handhk. Irid. 232 (1892). Pvtamnir szambrslarus 
(Baker) X. E. Br. in Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Afr. xx. 277 (1932). 

Aristea cyanf.a De Wild., Plant. Bequaert. i. 51 (1921). A later 
homonym of .1. ryanea Ait., Hort. Kew. i. 07 (1789), this plant is 

Aristea stipitata, nom. nov. A.n/inirn DeWild., Plant. Be([iiaert. 
i. 51 (1921), not Ait. (1789). 

Geissorhiza Schlechteri Baker in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, i. 863 
(1901). This species was somewhat inadequately described from 
Srhlrrhtrr. no. 4701, collected in the Transvaal. A sheet of this col- 
lection in the (ira.v Herbarium agrees with Baker's description, and 
is clearly not Hesperantha Baurii Baker, as labelled by the collector. 
Dissection of one of the flowers showed that the style-branches are 
about twice the length of the undivided style, indicating that the 
plant is a Hrxpcranfha, as its collector believed. Accordingly, it be- 



Com-kih. Cray IU.kk. (WIN 




COM'IUB. C.KAY IlKKH. CXIV. 




Kplazium arboreum, 20; costale, 17; 
cnstatuin, 20; rurvatum, 23; mac- 

|Hctii):ttuiii, 17; Shepherdii, 20; 

Joodia blechnoides, 24 

ita, 28; eoncinna, 

:il; .lipbzinides, 24; excelsa, 30; 

gongylodes, 18; hemiptera', 22; 

hetcroclita, 31; jamaicensis, 22; 
Karstoniana, 30; Linkiana, 24; 
loniiil'olia, 27; nemorosa, 18; nitens, 

32; nothochlaona, 22; npposita, 32; 

var. dependens, 28; polypodioides, 
24; pulverulenta, 30; pyramidata, 
29; reptans, 33; resinifera, 32; 

.-pectahilis, 
dilatata, 28; 



m, 40; Rogersii, 40; seti- 
lolia, 30, 40; simulans, 40; Sisy- 
rinchium, 39; spicata, 41; spiralis, 
41; torta, 41 



hirsutum, 26; magella: 



albomarginata, 12; a una, 

■evicaulis, 41; coerulea, 41, 

crispa, 49; crocea, 41; decora, 

' 'osa, 41; fugax, Kl; gcr- 

11; luilnplnla, II; hcxa- 

^.^o, . .; pumila, 42; setacea, 40; 
setifolia, 10; Sisyrinchiuin, 39, 40; 
tridentata, 41; tripetala, 41 
Ixia, 47; avellana, 47; Bellendeni, 

ferta,"47; Cooperi, 40; crispa, Hi; 
erecta, 47; excisa, 47; flabellifolia, 
1 1; longiflui-a, I."; ovata, 17; pani- 
culata, 45; polystachya, 47; Ro- 
chensis, 47; tubulosa, 42, 43; un- 




1 1 folia, 28 
Moraea, 48; aphylla, 48; aurantiaca, 
4s : Burch.'llii, 41); cladostachya, 
Hi: clavata, 19; crispa, 49; de- 

Uiiiax, 40; gracilis, 49; longiflora, 
38, 39, 40; Rogersii, 40; setacea, 
40; setifolia, 40; simulans, 40; Sisy- 
rinchium, 39, 40; 8] 
Tenoreana, 40; torta, 41. tritida, 
lo; undulata, 49; unguiculata, 38; 
unifoliata, 48; viscosa, 48; xero- 
spatha, 40 
Mnrphixia Cooperi, 46 



, 28; guianense, 

tun, -_'S, 29; panamrnse, 3'-'; plum 

ferum, 2S; Poiretii, 29; Raddii, 2< 

Nephrolepis biserrata, 28; rivularii 

Npuroptcriselegans,29 
Nidularium elegans, 6; Pinelianum, 

Xotliolaena I 



9; hyp 



folium, 29; funiculosum, 30, 
•iiiiantciiin, 30; glandulosum, 
gramineum, 24; graveolens, 
heteroclitum, 31 ; hirsutum, 



geruin, 31; latifoliinn, IS; lowo- 
sticton, 32: lycopodioides, 30, 33; 
megalophyllum, 32; inicrod* 
pidum, 32; 



m, 32; pilo- 
31;' FLumieri, 32; pro- 

3; pubescens, 29; pul- 

I'rigSum^Ts; ri'vSare, 
inifolium, 31; ranci- 



foliatui 
Polystichi 



* Ipllio^ln-Mi: 

culosuni, 29; 
Pachyphyllum C 



18; trifoliata, 19 
Tillandsia chaetophj 
cha, 10; 



chya, '.', 

subulifera. - 
spica, 9; usneoides, 10 
Trichomanes arbuscula, 

chypus, 35; brasiliense,_ M4, 



; - ;■. lire-, 



, Kaulfussii, 



Reprinted from Rhodora, Vol. 38. Nos. 455 and 456, November and December. 1 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



PLANTS FROM THE OUTER COASTAL 
PLAIN OF VIRGINIA 



Dates of Isstjb 

Pages 376-404 and Plates 440-446 

" 414-452 and Plates 447-452 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



PLANTS FROM THE OUTER COASTAL 
PLAIN OF VIRGINIA 



PLANTS FROM THE OUTER COASTAL PLAIN OF 

VIRGINIA 

M. L. Fernald 

(Plates 440-452) 

Continuing 1 our field work in easternmost Virginia, my companions 

an<] I „ ia de four brief excursions in 1935 to the outer Coastal Plain; 

and during the season of 1936, as the guests of my former student, 

Professor Robert F. Smart at the University of Richmond, we have, 

similarly, had four trips to the inner Coastal Plain, adjacent to the 

Piedmont region of the state. In this report the plants of special 

significance collected in 1935 are chiefly discussed; in a later paper 

those of 1936 will be considered. 

Geologically, the Coastal Plain in the southeastern corner of 
Virginia has two sharply differentiated areas: west of the Dismal 
Swamp the region consists of Tertiary deposits, with beds of Miocene 
fossil shells underlying the superficial sands, clays and peats; east of 
the Dismal Swamp and south of the entrance to Chesapeake Bay the 
Tertiary beds are deeply buried under Quaternary sands and clays. 
The reflection in the flora of this difference in surface soils is vivid and 



.ill 1„. 



aore fully considered in a succeeding paper. There is, of 
general floral similarity and the majority of species are 
m the two areas : Pinus Taeda* Taxodium dutichun, Arundi- 



h —: iM 'W™'*- r ''"•"«« -/—. J*,,™ :,;,„;,;., «,■,, 

"'/•/""</'* and uiarginatus, S„iihi.p rofundifnlia Ii„mi-nor 'ind ll'alfiri 
Iris virginica, Habenaria cristai - S rw 

crmuus, Populus heterophylla, Carya „'/.,/, Ml | ,,',,/,!. l'/"'..'„ „' Z'il'ra. 
(a ;i>i"«« ^nntnut, Betula nigra, Fagus grandifolia Qnrrru* 'alba, 
falcata, mgra, phellos and stellata, Morns mbra, Magnolia virginiano, 



, Three Days 



(I»:«) -Contril.. (ira'v Herb. no. OVII.' 
378-413, 423-554 (1935)— cSrfb. qT~ ' 







PZafe 441 


; 




vh 1 

- 1 / . 


X 


, ^^v. 


/ f ', 


1 ''if -3 ' - ^ ; 




\ 








XL 


TOMIFLOKUJ 




■■ "•■'-•«. -».» 



1936] Fernald— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 377 

Itta virginica, Liquidambar Styraeiflua, Rom palwtris, Tephrosiu 
spicafa, Dcsmodium nudiflarum, viridijlorum and lineatum, Clitoria 
mariana, Centra* ma virginianum, Valygala ivcarnata, Rhus copallma. 
Ilex glabra, Euonijmus americanus, Berchemia scaiidcns, Vitis ro- 
tundifolia, Hibiscus Moscheutos, Asegrum shunt, Hypericum petia- 
intinii, Ileliantkemum canadense, Passiflora incarnata, Ludwigia 
alicmifolia and glandulosa, Aralia spinosa, Cornus striata, Nyssa 
aqualica, Oxydendrum arbonum, Vaceiuium stamincum, Diospyros 
virgiiiiana, Symplocos tinctoria, Fraxinus caroiiniana, Gelsemium 
scnipcrviraut, Sabatia angularis, Asclcpias variegutu, I pomaea pandu- 
ratft, Cullicarpa ammcmm, Scutellaria ovalifolia Pers., Monarda 
punctata, Mimidus alaius, Cratiola pilosa, Bacopa acuminata, B/g- 
nonia capreolata, Oldenlandia uniflora, Viburnum nudum. Lobelia 
puberula, Elephautopus audatus and tomentosus, Eupatorium coe- 
Irst in um, Chrysopsi* gramiuifolia, Solidago pinetorum Small. Aster 
gracilis, Pluchca foetida, Helianthus atrorubens, Verbesina occidentalis 
and Pyrrhopappus carolinianus. These and hundreds of others 
abound in their proper habitats both east and west of the Dismal 
Swamp. 

To the eastward, on the outer half of the Coastal Plain in Norfolk 
and Princess Anne Counties, other scores of species are found which 
we do not know on the inner half of the Coastal Plain in Virginia or 
which are there highly localized. Some of these have been noted in 
two preceding papers; others are here to be specially discussed. This 
large flora, in Virginia restricted to or best developed in the two 

l>l,!»Zn"h n,[ "rurhn 7,-uxill W, I1HK.'. Sagittnria talcata Pursli. 
Triglochin striata, Limvobium Spovgia, Uuiota panmdata, Saenohpis 
striata, Cy perns Haspan, Eleocharis quadrangidata, 
puberula and Baldwiniana (Schultes) Torr., I uireaa squat rosa, 
Itiinchospora fusciodaris (Miclix.) Vahl, Cladium jamaieevse ( rantz, 
Scleria setacea Poir., Lemna vaMiiana, Myr 
Quercus virginiana and cinerea Michx., Armaria la, ugi i».-a i« 
Rohrb., Ranunculus hederaceus and pusillus, Persia pal«,!ns KM. 
Sarg., Drosera intermedia Ilayne, Dccumaria barbara, Crataegus 
Ymuinii Sarg., Liuum medium var. texanum (Planch.) Fern., Zantho- 
.vidum Clava-Herculis, Ilex vomitoria. Ampdopsis arborea, I tola 
pectinata, Ladieigia pilosa Walt, and hnripes (Long) E. H Barnes, 
Erunqium aquatic am, Ccntella rcpanda (Pers.) Small, 1 accmium 



378 Rhodora [November 

uiucrocarpon, Sahafiu gracilis, A.srlcpiu.s hunroJulo, Dirhondra repcns 
Forst. var. caroliniensis (Michx.) Choisy, Lippia nodi/lor a and lanceo- 
lufu, Baropa Monnieria var. cuncifolia (Michx.) Fern., Colin in hispi- 
d ul inn, Lobelia dm, .i/ata Small, Euputorium srrofinn m , Erigeron vernus 
and numerous others. Some of these are obviously controlled by 
proximity to the sea, but brackish water extends far up the James 
ami its tributaries, nearly to the Fall Line, and dry white sands with 
plants characteristic of Cape Henry occasionally occur inland. 

West of the Dismal Swamp, from Nansemond County to the Fall 
Line, the characteristic or distinctive plants are more numerous. In 
1935 this area was only slightly examined, chiefly in the region of 
Kilby (west of Suffolk), but even in that brief half-day the contrast 
with Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties was striking, in the occur- 
rence of such plants (not seen by us farther east) as Poly podium 
polypodioidrs, Pihii.s rchinufa, {'■niola latifnlin, (iyiinuipogim ombiguiis, 
Fuirena hispida, Scleria paueiflora, Umlaria puberula, Alctrlsforin-o.su, 
Htjpoxis micruhthu Pollard, Iris verna, Habcnaria ciliaris, Malaxis n. 
sp., Ulmus alata, Asarum virginianum, Psoralen pedunculated, Rhyn- 
chosia erecta and tomentosa, Polygala Curtissii, Lyonia mariana, 
I ucciiiiinn virgutuiit var. tenellum, Solidago yadkinensis, Aster patens 
and linariif otitis, Parthniium ivfegrifoHum and Arnica acaulis. These 
species, all occurring westward into either Southampton, Greensville, 
Sussex, Dinwiddie, Prince George or Chesterfield County or into more 
than one of them, consequently belong to the very extensive flora 
more particularly examined in 1936, to be discussed in a later paper. 

Our collecting trips in easternmost Virginia in 193.") were four. In 
May (4-8) Mr. Ludlow Griscom and ["'entered again at Virginia 
Beach and drove over as much territory in Princess Anne and Nor- 
folk as the limited time would allow. Spring vegetation was in its 
prime, with some species already passed or passing, and again wc 
were impressed by the Alleghenian element in the flora of these 
coastal counties, such inland plants as Liparis liliifotia, Dnt-tariu 
laciniata, Oxalis violacea, Galax aphylla and Carex digitalis seeming 
almost out of place. Carex was already in good condition and we 
were able to extend the ranges northward into Virginia of C. flacco- 
■sprnna and C.foltirulutn var. uu.strati.s Bailey (C. Smulliuna Mackenz.). 
Anmemu presented new problems for solution and some other ques- 



19361 Fernald ,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 379 

In June (16-21) Mr. Bayard Long was, happily, able to join us. 
The same general area, with a flora strikingly unlike the spring flowers 
of our earlier trip, was again covered. The rich woodlands of Great 
Neck and of Little Neck (projecting into Lynnhaven Bay) yielded 
further surprises, including a remarkable new June, is, simulating •/. 
effusus, but with the capsule strongly beaked as in the famously 
localized J. gymnocarpm Coville. A strange Bumclia, discovered by 
Griscom and me in young foliage in May, was now coming into 
flower (collected by Long and me in mature fruit in September). One 
of the most productive trips included a brief landing at the southern 
end of Cedar Island, in Back Bay. Here, bordering marshes charac- 
terized by Phalaris caroliniana Walt, and other good species, the low 
woods, cut off from the open Atlantic only by the sandy outer bar of 
False Cape, suggested bottomlands of the rich Allegheman forest, 
with lush tangles of Elymus vUlosm Muhl. and other Allegheman 
tvpes. Most surprising, however, was the occurrence of Iresme 
rhizomatosa Standi., a species heretofore known only from the -interior 
(Texas to Kansas, east to Alabama and western Maryland). Ob- 
viously, Cedar Island needs more attention. 

In September (5-13) Griscom, unfortunately, was unable to join 
us but we had a happy substitute in Professor John M. Fogg ot the 
University of Pennsylvania, who joined Long and me with his car a 
Virginia Beach. Although Griscom and I had centered I here m 
September, 1933, when we covered only the immediate \i. -mitx, 
subsequent visits had introduced us to many stations in jm< ^ ^ 
fUverin " ( w! ^llhn .""v" l^'^ml Cm»-rarrar were bound to be 

CO DTringThi y s et trt ^ventured westward into Nansemond County 
already noted, and returning to Philadelphia and ^Cambridge .we 



crossed from Norfolk (or Willoughby Neck) to «d Point thencejo 
Yorktown and Fredericksburg. This was new terntoi\ or us, , 
realizing that the Peninsula of Virginia between the 1°™^""" ™ 

thB Ute j E » rf •'■ ( ","""" "'I' 1 M 7 '.:',,., s ,f .lavlfcl.t whi-l. 

expected „,,»,,,,,,! • le dspotnear I[ ; ,mp..m. 



380 Rhodora [November 

In this we were partly successful; at least the clearing and peaty 
thicket where we stopped had its original flora largely undisturbed 
and, quite unwittingly, we added a considerable number of local 
species to the lists of the Grimes's collections 1 : Lycopodium alope- 
cvroides, Audi rus sabulmw Mart. & Schrad., 

Rtmrhospora cymosa, Lechea Leggettii, Helianihus angustijolius, and a 
remarkable and very handsome new Aster, to be described toward the 
end of this paper— a good two-hour's gleaning. Nearby, in disturbed 
soil, the Asiatic Arthraxon hispidus var. cryptantherus (Hack.) Houda, 
new to Virginia, was abundant. 

It was already twilight when we approached Yorktown; but we 
were tempted to take a look at one or two of the " bays" or peaty and 
sandy depressions in the woods. Such depressions seemed to us the 
counterparts of the kettle-holes of Cape Cod, doubtless of different 
origin but with resultant belts of similar wet and successively drier 
and drier sand. One was filled with the giant Rynchospora cornicu- 
lata, not in any of the Grimes lists. Another (the only one wc had 
time to search, on hands and knees in essential darkness), close to the 
road, made us think of Cape Cod, through the abundance of Stachys 
kysxq ifdia, not in the Grimes lists. Here, likewise new to the 
Peninsula, were other species: Solidago pinetorum Small and Plurhra 
visdda (Raf.) House (P. pdiolata Cass.). Several such "bays" were 
noted in the dark, to the south of Yorktown; and after the moon rose 
we saw more to the northwest of Gloucester (John Clayton's home). 
On Cape Cod every such depression has its peculiarly localized species; 
if this be so on the peninsulas of Virginia, as it doubtless is, there will 
he good botanizing there for years to come. 

With only limited time and then only by "cutting" classes I was 
able to get off for a short time in October (1 l-lo). Long was with 
'"<', b>r, with his detailed knowledge of Coastal Plain plants and their 
proper habitats and his unequalled persistence and skill in finding 
them, no critical botanizing in eastern Virginia can be wholly success- 
ful without him. Fogg joined us Saturday night with his car. This 
time we economized time by stopping north of Cape Charles, instead 
of crossing Chesapeake Bay to the southeastern counties. Here, on 
the Eastern Shore, we had a most int< 



1936] Fernald, — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 381 

fascinating Eastville. We got essentially to the tip of Cape Charles 

( Kiptopoke') and left that ana with the regret we had so often felt on 
having to quit, that there was a great deal yet to do. Many of the 
species which come north to Cape Henry are unknown on Cape 
Charles; several, supposed To reach their northern limit south of the 
Bay, are actually found north of it: Andropogon virffinicus, var. trmu- 
spuihriiK (Nash) Fern. & Grisc, Paxpaluni srfairuin var. supmutn 
(Bosc.) Trim, Panirum anceps var. rhhnaatan, (Hitchc. & Chase) 
Fern., Axanopus furcatux, Uniola paalrulata, Ihjnchospma iar.rpansu, 
Xothoscordum hiruhe, Qvrrn,, rirghnan-a, Zanthonihm, Cluva-IIrrca- 
lis, Galium uniflorum, etc. But the most interesting species are those 
southern types which we do not know in Princess Anne and Norfolk 
Counties hut which are in Northampton or Aeeomae County to the 
north. To this series belong the following: Xaja.s gandalupmsis (hut 
extending locally to Massachusetts), M'ultfin pain M" (hr*t m the 
East north of Florida), Baptism alba (stations discovered by Dr. 
Robert Tatnall), a new variety of Cassia n-ietitans (otherwise known 
only near Elizabeth City, North Carolina), Pohigahi Infra (common 
west of Norfolk County), Ludwigia palustris var. nana Fern. & Grisc. 
(the first north of Georgia, but subsequently found to be common 
west of Norfolk County), Utricularia virgatula Barnh. (locally north 
to Long Island), Aster ronrolor (locally north to Martha's Vineyard'. 



Kiptopeke (or at least in both areas) an apparently indigenous 

of wooded dunes o, i: ,|„ ,1 d. o the dwarfed pines. It appeared as 
native as the strictly endemic plants with which it grows and did not 
seem to us to have the aggressive and non-fastidious habits of success- 
ful modern introductions. Leaving Eastville with the usual regret 
that we had failed to visit main areas which would have yielded 
,|.i,. v. t cIommI the Held work for 1035 and the de- 



In the following notes I have followed the procedure of the last 
paper on Virginia, of recording such species and stations as seem to 
be significant in the working out of a fuller knowledge of the flora of 
the state. Although primarily a record of collections made in 1935, 
note is made of earlier or later collections in a few cases. The names 
of species newly recorded (or seemingly so) from the state are pre- 
ceded by an asterisk. 

In some cases revisions of groups suggested by the work on our 
plants have been included. In many cases illustration has seemed 
important to clarify the discussions. The photographs have been 
made by E. C. Ogden, the cost covered largely by a grant from the 
Milton Fund for Research, in part by an appropriation from the 
Wyeth Fund of the Division of Biology, both of Harvard University. 
The drawings of Malaxis were made by Ruth Peabody Rossbach. 
The large expense of reproducing the photographs has been most 
generously met by my companion on most of the trips and the modest 
discoverer of most of the specialties, Bayard Long. 

of Noteworthy Species Collected 1 



Lycopodium alopecuroides L. Apparently very local in eastern 
Virginia, not collected by Kearney or by Grimes. Elizabeth City 
County: peaty depressions in woods and bushy clearings west of 
Hampton, F. L. & F., no. 4738. Prince George County : spha-nous 
bon-trv swale southeast of 1'ett -rslmrg, at head of Poo Run, F. &L.,no. 
5969. 

Lycopodium inundatum L. 

So far as is shown in the Gray Herbarium /, inundatum is repre- 
sented in the Coastal Plain of Virginia only by vars. adpkkssuM 
Chapm. and Bigklovii Tuckerm. The two have been much confused. 
In general var. adpressum has the mature strobiles only IMS mm. 
thick, with tightly appressed sporophylls; var. Bigelovii having 
strobiles 5-13 mm. thick, with loosely ascending to finally spreading 
sporophylls. The two definitely merge and var. Bigelovii clearly 
passes northward into typical /.. inundatum. The Virginia collections 
before me are as follows. 



lihh . 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 383 

moist depressions in sand dunes, Savage Neck, F. L. <(• F., no. 5172 
(as var HiqrUmi). James City County: moist ditch, northwest of 
Williamsburg, Grimes, no. 3908 (as var. Bigelovii). Dinwiddie 
County: boggy woods near head of Old Town Creek, southwest of 
Petersburg, F. & L., no. 5968. Sussex County: sandy and peaty 
depression, about 1 miles northwest of Homeville, F. & L., no. 5967; 
spring-fed wooded sphagnous bog, Coddyshore, F. L. & S., no. 6/53. 
Princess Anne Coi-xtv: shallow water, Cape Henry, L. F. & F. R. 
linn, In! r h (as /.. ///<>/« cumuli *); damp sandy flats back of the dunes, 
UihV Uan-e, f. <l /,.. no. 3«il(i (as var. Bigelovii). 

Var. Bigelovii Tuckerm. Arlington County: clay pit, near 
Kosslvn, Make, no. S937 (as /, nhprmroides). Sussex County: 
sandv and pea t v depression, about 4 miles northwest of Homeville. 
F. & L., no. 5960. Princess Anne County: wet peaty depressions 
in sandv pineland, the Desert, Cape Henry, F. & L., no. 3615. 

inella apoda (L.) Fern. Not collected by either Kearney or 
Frequent in the eastern counties, chiefly in rich woods and 



Pints virginiana Mill. Not noted b.\ Kearney; rare in the two 
southeastern counties but frequent on the Eastern Shore and m the 
region from Nansemond County westward. Princess Anne County: 
a small stand in dry woods at the tip of Little Neck F. & L no. 4/40. 

♦Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong (S. lucid,,,.. Inn. 
& Eames). See Fernald, Rhodora, xxiv. 27 (1922). Prince- Anne 
Cocnty: shallow water, northwest branch of Salt Pond, L. t. &t-K 
Randolph, no. 40S (as N. amerimmon); swale back of the dunes, Sand 
Bridge, /'. G. & L., no. 4531. 

Range extended south from Pennsylvania. Earlier records (Kear- 
ney, etc.) of S. androcladum belong to the branched state of S. ameri- 



upensis (Spreng.) Morong. North- 
the largest nond in the « N ba.-k -.1 d.e ■ 



sandy margin of the lariresl pond 
Savage Neck, F. L. & F., no. 5174. 

Pr.nMA maritima I,, var. longipes Hagstrom. Not recorded by 
Kearne, Pr.mrs. \nm Cnrvn I ' - ^ / {, 

of Hack Bav, oil north end of Knott's Island. July ->o ,1918, K. M. 
U'tr,,, ,-: Back Bay, off Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 453~. 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. Not recorded by Kearney Abun- 
dant in fresi rater of Back Bay, July 23, 1918, 
R. M. Harper, also 1935, F. G. & L., no. 4533. 

P. pulcher Tuckerm. Princess Anne County: brook entering 
Nowney Creek, Back Bay, F. G. & L, no. 4535. Norfolk Count, . 
in a stream near Cornland, F. & G., no. 4295. 

Although /V//,,,^,^ pillrluriy , 



384 Rhodora [November 

Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pavon. Princess Anne County: 
muddy banks and open spots in swales along North Landing River, 
near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 4741. 

Although known locally in Delaware, and reported from Virginia 
(by Buchenau), ours is the first material in the Gray Herbarium from 
between Delaware and Florida, except a sheet of Canby's which 
might have come from anywhere between Delaware and Cape Charles. 
Not noted by Kearney. 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd., var. pubescens (Muhl.) J. G. Sm. 
Princess Anne County: open swamp near Oceana, F. & L., no. 4743. 

Not recorded by Kearney and surely local in the two southeastern 
counties; frequent in the counties west of the Dismal Swamp. 

*Limnobium Spongia (Bosc) Richard. Princess Anne County: 
in water of cove, southern end of Lake Joyce, /•'. <(• <,'., no. 4296 (young 
foliage, in May, floating, the 1. lades conspicuously inflated beneath), 
F. L. & F., no.. 4744 (flowering and fruiting, in September, the newer 
leaves erect and without inflation). 

First material in the Gray Herbarium from between Georgia and 
Delaware. I find no record from Virginia. 

Vallisneria amebic \.w Miehx. Princess Awe County: small 
plants drifted ashore, southern end of Lake Joyce, F. L. & F., no. 4745. 

Not recorded by Kearney. 



I MOI.A I'AMCl LATA L. NORTHAMPTON CoWH : salldv beach of 

hesapeake Hay, west of Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 5221. 
Hitchcock i Man. 180) states the northern limit as Cape Henry. 
(". sessii.ifi.ora Poir. To Grimes's station in James Citv County 
• Id Princess Awe County: rich drv w< s, Great Neck. F. U. & I., 

io. 4559, F. & L., no. 4799. Southampton County: rich woods, 
outheast of Ivor, F. & L., no. 6777. 

Kearney recorded it (as Uniola hngifolia) from Virginia Beach. 

Melica MtTKA Walt. Prix (ess Awe County- rich woods, 
'edar Island, F. G. & L., no. 4560. 

A notable colony, in the low woods of Cedar Island in Back Bay, 
t the outer margin of the Coastal Plain. The habitat given by 
litchcock (Man. 203) is "Rocky woods." Cedar Island is fully So 
liles east of the Fall Line in Greensville County, where the nearest 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 385 

"rocks" are found. Virginia Beach, Kearney's station, is likewise 
on the outer margin of the state. 

Triodia flava (L.) Hitchc, var. Chapmani (Small) Fern. & Grisc. 
in Rhodora, xxxvii. 133 (1935). To the station recorded at Cape 
Henry add Nansemond County: dry sandy woods along Pitch 
Kettle Creek, north of Lake Kilby, F. L. & ¥., no. 4795; dry sandy 
woods, Factory Hill, F. &. /.., no. 6518. 

Elymus villosus Muhl. (E. striata of An, ami.., not Willd.i. 
See Fernald. Rhodora, xxxv. 193 (1933). Pkinckss Anne County: 
rich woods, Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 4554. 

Extraordinarily large (1.2 m. high), with leaves 1 cm. broad and 
inflorescences 1.5 dm. long; a species of rich woods of the interior, 
here at the outer margin of the Coastal Plain. Not listed by Kearney. 

Agrostis elata (Pursh) Trim For discussion of specific characters 
see Fernald, Rhodora, xxxv. 211 (1933). Northampton County: 
peatv clearing, south of Townsend, F. L. & F., no. 5212. 

Aristida purpurascens Poir., var. minor Vasey. For 
of characters see Fernald & Griscom, Rhodora, xxxvu. 13hl ''.>.> 
Northampton County: dry sandy pine woods, Eastville, b. & L., 
no. 5210. 

Extension north from Norfolk County. 



iana Walt. 



: border of 



brackish marsh, Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 454/. 

Not recorded by Kearney. 

The Varieties of Leersia virginica (Plate 440, all figs. X 10). 
In Princess Anne County Leersia virginica WilW. is represented by 
two quite dissimilar plants. One, « delicate plant of damp rich 
woodlands and their bordering ditches, has the whitish-green spike- 
lets (figs. 1 and 2) very minutely and remotely setulose-puberulent, 
with margins smooth or at most very short-ciliolate; the other a 
coarser plant of river-swales, almost as coarse as L. oryzmdes (L.) 
Swartz, has the spikelets (fig. 9) greener, rather larger, with more 
prominent ribbing and a positive filiation of elongate hairs or bristles. 

Study of a large series of material shows that L. virginica through- 
out much of its range breaks into the two variations which we noted 
in Virginia. The size of plant, breadth of leaf and size of spikelet 
vary in both, but one series (figs. 1-8) has the spikelets with smooth 
or barely ciliolate margins, the other (figs. 9-13) has the margins 
coarsely ciliate-hispid. In view of this strong divergence it is im- 
portant to know which extreme formed the basis of L. r,rgn,,r„ 
Willd. Sp. PI. i. 325 (1797). It is also necessary to identify the type 



386 Rhodora [November 

of L. imbrirata Poir. in Lam. Encyc. Suppl. iii. 329 (1813). Fortu- 
nately this is quickly possible, through the fact that on his last trip 
to Europe, in 1935, the late Professor A. S. Hitchcock secured frag- 
ments for the National Herbarium from each of them. These have 
been most generously loaned me by Mrs. Agnes Chase. Figs. 3 and 

4 shows spikelets from the type of L. mrginica at Berlin, X 10, fig. 

5 those of the type of L. imbricata at Paris, X 10. That they are 
both the extreme with essentially smooth-margined spikelets is 
evident. Fig. G shows spikelets (unusually large) of typical /.. 
Virginia from near Mo.it.val {VU-Umn, no. 24,301); fig. 7 from New 
York (Yaughans, Aug. 4, ISO?, Burnham); figs. 1 and 2 from Virginia 
(Fmiahl c(- Long, no. 4781) and fig. 8 from Illinois (Peoria, August, 
1903, Mcl),m„l,I). Mrs. Chase informs me that " Leersia ovata Poir., 
which has been referred to L. lenticular^, is L. virginim with cilia on 
the lemma about 0.5 mm. long." The extreme plant with hristly- 
ciliate spikelets should, therefore, be called 

"Leersia virginica Willd., var. ovata I Poir.), comb, nov /.. ovata 
Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Supp. iii. 329 (1813). 

Fig. 9 shows the spikelets of var. ovata from North Landing River, 
Virginia, Fernald, Long <fr j 
York, Metcalf, no. 1576; fi 

IJ'llrr. n . 4796; fig. 13 from Fort Snelling" Minne; 
770; and fig. 12 from Apalachicola, Florida, Chapman. 

Digitaria filiformis (L.) Koeler, var. villosa (Walt.) Fern, in 
K'«..i>..ka, xxxv, 10 (1034). Northampton County: crest of sandv 
mim! i .rg.ll:u- ! M,„s hU.ff along Chesapeake Bay, Old Town Neck, F. L. & 

■ no. .,103. Nansemond County: dry sandy bank along Pitch 
Kettle (reek, north of Lake Kilby, F. L. A- F., no. 4759. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

Axonopus furcatus (Flugge) Hitchc. Northampton Corvrv 

' \' fj'^ Session in pine woods south of Townsend, F. L. & F., 

■"». ..HI,; NM-niAMPToN Corx-rv: open sandy borders of pools an<l 

P tU7n° nS m ttomland of Nottoway River, Courtland, F. & L., 

Extensions north and west from Princess Anne County. 

Paspalum setaceum Michx., var. supinum (Bosc) Trin (P. sum- 
num Rose), bee Fernald, Rhodora, xxxvii. 390 (1935). X«,i; in un>- 
ton County: dry sandy pine woods, Eastville, F. & L., no. 5102. 

Extension north from Cape Henry. 

P. dilatatum Poir. Northampton Cm vtv Jr^• u .„„iv and 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 387 



Slight northern extension. Although Mrs. Chase, N. Am. Sp. 
Pasp. (Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb, xxviii.), 172, extends the range 
north to New Jersey, the extension is based only on material from 
waste land in Camden in 1882, where the plant was not indigenous 
nor persistent. 

P. Bosciantjm Fltigge. Princess Anne County: wet, argillaceous 
thickets and ditches, Rosemont, F. & L., no. 4756. South ampto.n 
County: sandv alluvium, bottomland <>(' BlaeUntn- River, near Oak 
Grove School, F. & L., no. 6462. Nansemond County: roadside 
ditch, Factory Hill, F. & L., no. 6765. 

Recorded by Mrs. Chase only from Norfolk County and the 1 )ismal 
Swamp. The colloquial name " Bull Grass," coupled with the specific 
name and that of its author, ameliorates the tediousness of an often 
dry subject. 

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx., var. geniculatum (Wood), 
comb, now Plate 441, fig. 2. P. nriliacrum t Walt. Fl. Carol. 72 
(1788), not L. (1753). /'. qnnrulatun, Ell. Sk. i. 1 17 ( 1S16), as to plant 
described, not Muhl. (1813). P. rrtrofmrtum Delile in Desv. Opusc. 
% (1831). P. proliferum, p. grfuculntiun Wood. Am. Hot. Fl. ed. of 
1873: 392 (1873). 

Even after the segregation of the hispid-sheathed nnd coarse 
Floridan and Bahaman var. bartournsc 1 and the slender and small- 
flowered northern var. puritanorum Svenson in Rhodora, xxii. 154, 
figs. 1-5 (1020), Pamvnm dir/mtmni/hnim Michx. consists of two 
very distinct but usually unrecognized geographic varieties in temper- 
ate North America. In New England and much of the coastwise 
region, extending locally into the interior, the common plant (no. 1, 
our fig. 2), when well developed, has a coarse and geniculate stem, 
with enlarged lower nodes, inflated lower and primary sheaths, 
panicles eventually borne at most of the nodes, the peduncle in- 
cluded in the sheath or only short-exserted, the stiffish branches of 
the panicle soon horizontally divergent to finally reflexed, the spike- 
lets rather crowded. Just appearing in New England, as a weed of 
railroad yards and roadsides, apparently coming from the West, is a 
very different plant (no. 2, our fig. 1): more slender, less geniculate, 
the culms more ascending, with sheaths little if at all inflated, the 
nodes less enlarged, the terminal panicles becoming long-exserted 



388 Rhodora [November 

(0.5-2 dm.), their capillary branches all ascending at maturity (not 
divergent or reflexed) and with fewer and less crowded spikelets; 
the aspect of the plant being that of P. capillare L. As represented 
in the Gray Herbarium, no. 2 is rare in southern New England and 
New York; the other specimens are from Pennsylvania, District of 
Columbia, West Virginia, western Virginia and our recent collection 
from eastern Virginia (wet argillaceous thickets and ditches, Rose- 
mont, no. 4761), western North and South Carolina, interior Georgia, 
northern Florida, southern Ontario, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, 
Texas and California; generally an inland range. No. 1, on the other 
hand, is the commoner coastwise plant of the East: Nova Scotia, 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District 
of Columbia, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Florida, Ohio, Mississippi, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Louisiana and Oklahoma. Being weeds, either of them is likely to 
spread, but the greater abundance of no. 1 in the coastal states is 

Panicum dichotomiflorum of Michaux, PI. Bor.-Am. i. 48 (1803) 
was no. 2 of this discussion: 
dichotomiflorum. P. erectum, glabrum: panicula ramos alternos 
culmumque terminate, dichotome (absque rachi commune) 
ramosissima; ramis prolixis, setaceis: floribus oblongis, acumi- 
Obs. Habitus fere P. capillaris. 
Hab. in occidentalibus montium Alleghanis. 

In 1788, Walter mistook our no. 1 for Panicum miliaceum L., the 
Old World annual: 
miliace Panicula patente, culmo ramoso ge- 

um - '• niculato decumbente, staminibus 

flavis, pistillis purpureis, 

the patent panicle and geniculate habit as well as the region (eastern 
South Carolina) making this apparent. Muhlenberg caught the 
second character and published the name P. genieulatum Muhl. Cat. 
8 (1813) as a substitute for P. diefwtomiflorum Michx., excluding 
Michaux's habitat and giving only "Pens. . . . Car. Georg." 
That Muhlenberg probably had our plant no. 1 is evident but nomen- 
claturally his P. genieulatum must rest on P. dichotomiflorum (our no. 
2). In 1816, Elliott beautifully described as P. genieulatum the 



1936] Fernald— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 389 

common coastwise plant, ascribing the mime to Muhl. Cat. but 
giving a clear interpretation of the synonymy: "P. dichotomiflorum? 

Mich. 1. p. 48. P. miliaceum, Walt. p. 72." Elliott's "culmo as- 
surgenti, geniculato . . ; paniculis terminalibus, axillaribusque, 
diffusis, patentibus; vaginis foliorum inflatis" are unequivocal; but, 
unfortunately, he called his beautifully characterized plant P gc i 
latum Muhl.. which, as already shown, was a substitute-name for P. 
dichotomiflorum. 1 Mile's P. rrtrofractum, too, the type from Caro- 
lina, was the same as the plants of Walter and of Elliott; his "panicula 
laxa: ramis retroflexis divarieatis apice iioriferis" makes that clear. 
The first varietal name for our no. I, the plant described by Walter 

P. rclrofractum. is the name published by Alphonso Wood in 1873: 
P. proliferum, 
p. geniculatum. Culm thick, geniculate below; pan. dense. Marshes. 

Muhlenberg nor Klliott; therefore his name cannot be taken as 
based upon Panicum geniculatum, Muhlenberg's substitute for 
typical P. dichotomiflorum. If Wood had cited Muhlenberg the case 
would be different and there would then be justification for the 
assumption of Hitchcock & Chase: "This is probably based on P. 
geniculatum Ell., though that name is not mentioned." 1 When, in 
1788, Walter described our plant, he called it P. " miliaccu ml", the 
.nark of interrogation indicating that he was doubtfully identifying 
it with th, ..I. I- In this instance, with 



p;//^ 


,.,, Caroliniana; but the 
ones not. Thus, under 
n names, all properly 


indicated by typographv" as' not new. thoup 


h with new diagnoses: 


. dimidiaiun 

I'ttifoliuiu and brcvifolium. Even though Wa 


E?rr:;3 


differentiating between the old and the whollj 


r new names. 


| Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. xv. 49 (19 





390 Rhodora [November 

Although Hitchcock & Chase cite in the synonymy of their all- 
inclusive Panicum dichotomiflorum some varietal names older than 
that of Wood, only one might be thought identical with var. genicu- 
late »,. This is P. chloroticum Nees, var. agreste Nees in Trin. Gram. 
Pan. 230 (1826) from Brazil; but the Brazilian material shows that 
this has the upper leaves more evenly linear nearly to the short tip, 
var. grniculatum having them long-attenuate. 

F. philadelphicum Bernh. Princess Anne County: dry argil- 
laceous fields and bushy clearings, Rosemont, F. & L., no 4760. 
Nansemond County: sandy wood-road, Factory Hill, F. & L., no. 

Not collected by Kearney or the Grimes's, 
i P \ AM /?J LTJM Hitchcock & Chase. Northampton County: sandy 
beach of Chesapeake Bay, west of Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 5196. 

Not cited by Hitchcock and Chase from the Eastern Shore. 

*P. agrostoides Spreng. Princess Anne County: argillaceous 
ditches at borders of woods south of Virginia Beach, F. & L., no 4768. 

Not recorded by Hitchcock & Chase nor by Hitchcock (Man.) 
from \ irgima. Our material is transitional to the next. 

*Panicum agrostoides Spreng., var. ramosius (Mohr), comb. nov. 

Lt^rnrjr Contrib - u - s - Nat - Herb - v *- 35? (i9oi) - 

The plant (figs. 4-6) of bottomlands and alluvium of wooded 
swamps from Nansemond County at least to Southampton and 
Greensville Counties, Virginia, scarcely suggests the typical northern 
Pamcum agrostoides (figs. 1-3). The latter, typified by Hitchcock 
and Lhase by a specimen from Pennsylvania, has the culms strongly 
compressed 2-9 dm. high, with pale nodes, the sheaths often longer 
han the mternodes, the blades firm; the terminal panicles 0.8-2.5 dm. 
kmg their branches and branches densely floriferous with crowded 
purple to bronze ellipsoid, acute to short-acuminate spikelcts (FIG. 2) 

stliSd ?r °3) g mtLT^^r i h ; frui ; s are barelj ; 

ATp,™ / y AHis plant occurs m typical form from central 

«:k York and Maryiand ' — *** * N - h 



plant which \ 



utheastern Coastal 1 



Meherrin WC T m thC Va " eyS ° f the BUAwter, Nottoway and 
hst TZtT r 3,em 7 irginia - In tWs Coastal Hain-MissiLippi 
Bmu, plant the culm are less eo mpresse d, 0.5-] .5 m. high, with dark 



1936] Fernald— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 391 

mostly exserted nodes, the leaf-blades membranaceous, the panicles 
green to drab or lead-color (only when exposed to strong light slightly 
purple), the terminal ones 1.5-4 dm. long, their branches and branch- 
lets loosely floriferous with green to lead-colored (rarely purple) 
lanceolate to lance-ovoid attenuate or slender-tipped spikelets (figs. 
4 and 5) of the same length as in typical P. agrostoides but more 
slender (0.5-0.8 mm.) in diameter. The fruits (fig. 6) are slightly 
more slender, approaching those of P. stipitatum but even shorter- 
stiped than in the northern plant. That this is the plant which Mohr 
had there can be no question. His characterization was perfect: 

Stem stouter and taller than in the type, fully 3 feet long 
smooth leaves, 2 feet and over in length, sheaths shorter thai 
m»\c>: panicle hi,, . vwdeh shading, pyramidal, 12 to 18 inches long; 
lower branches 4 to 5 inches long; secondary branches rather distant, 
mostly in pairs; spikelets as in the type, pale. By these permanent 
characters a well marked variety. 

That Mohr associated his variety with P. elongatum Pursh, not 
Salisb. (P. stipitatum Nash) seems natural. Its slender-tipped and 
comparatively elongate spikelets, often subsecund along the branch- 
lets, suggest that species; but P. agrostoides var. ramosius has the 
barely stipitate fruits and the smooth or smoothish leaf-surfaces of P. 
agrostoides, the quite definite P. stipitatum (figs. 7-9) bavin- harsh 
and subrigid leaves, very stiff and contracted panicles with stiffly 
divergent branchleta of subsecund slender spikelets, and the fruits 
(fig. 9) very definitely stipitate. 

Hitchcock & Chase were conscious to some degree of Panieum 
agrostoides var. ramosius but they did not clearly differentiate it. 
Their comments in their discussion of P. agrostoides apply to it. 
Referring to some specimens from Georgia, Florida and Texas they 
said: "In the following specimens the spikelets are more or less 
secund on the branehlets, giving the panicles much the aspect of those 
of P. stipitatum, . . . "; again, discussing other specimens from 
Georgia, Florida and Alabama (Mohr's type) they referred to them 
as "Unusually loosely flowered, open-panieled specimens, such as 
that named P. donqatum, var. ramosius." 

So different are these plants of the southern Coastal Plain and of 
the Mississippi Basin from typical northern Panieum agrostmdes 
that they seem to me a strongly defined variety. In order to make 
dear the characters of the plants discussed I have asked Mr. Ogden 
T <> display their essential characters in Plate 442. 



The following collections from Virginia belong to Panicum agrost- 
oides, var. ramosius. Greensvillk (Ymxty: sandy alluvium, 
bottomlands of Fontaine Creek, southwest of Haley's Bridge, F. G. & 
L., no. 6473. Southampton County: sandy, wooded bottomland of 
Nottoway River, Courtland, F. & L,, no. 6474; sandy alluvium, 
bordering cypress swamp, bottomland of Nottoway River, above 
Cypresa Bridge, F. & L., no. 5990; sandy alluvium, wooded bottom- 
land <»f Blackwater River, southeast of Ivor, F. & L., no. 5992. Isle 
of Wight Corvrv: .sandy alluvium, wooded bottomland of Black- 
wat.-r Kivcr, Zuni, F. d- J.., no. 5991. Nansemond County: sandv 
wood-road, Factory Hill, F. & L., no. 6475. 

P. axceps Michx., var. khizomatum (Hitchc. & Chase) Fern, in 
Rhodora, xxxvi. 73 (1934). Northampton Corxiv: drv pine woods 
near Capeville, F. L. & F., no. 5195. 
Extension north from Cape Henry. 

P. villosissimim Nash, var. pseudopubescens (Nash) Fern, in 

Rhodora, xxxvi. 79 (1934). Nansemond County: drv sandv woods 

and adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 4773. Dixwiddik 

County: border of dry sandy woods near Carson, F. L. & S., no. 5616. 

Not recorded by Hitchcock & Chase from the state. 

*Panicum (sub-§ Scoparia) mundum, sp. nov. (tab. 443, fig. 1- 

5), planta dense cespitosa 0.5 1.1 in. alra: ciilmis finnis basi 0.7-3 nun. 

dian,«-,ro; internodiis elongatis 0-15, i,„is villosis, villis cinereis 

Md 2 nun. Ion-is, internodiis suprrioribus 

•■nM-n'o-puberulis vel breviter pilosis vel glabratis; nodis valde 

diN.TLn-m.-r l.arhans; foliis rosulatis basilaribus late lanceolatis 

- 2-4 cm. longis 8-15 mm. latis 45-60-nerviis; foliis 

caulims primarus 6-15 anguste lanceolatis finnis glabris 6-15 cm. 

longis 8-13 mm. latis, basi mtnndati. ,-iliati- .iliis basi bullatis, 

apice attenuatis vaginis glabris ,,[ papillato-bullaii, margine apice- 

M"<- chans, |,g„l,.s dmsis ad 1 nun. longis; paniculis primariis deinde 

exsertis ellipsoideo-ovoideis 7-12 cm. longis 5-10 cm diametro rhachi 

I' ■"-• I»l'>so vel glabratis, niin.l.,,. ,,!,, „ ls> pedicellis 

• ^ f-ub ( .sc ( ,nibns subgloboso-obovoideis vel 
-ellipsoideis apic, rotnndatis vel obtnsis 1 .S 2.2 nun. longis 1-1.2 
"""■ 'liam. ti... glum;, mtenorr d<-lt..id.-n-„v :i t : . snbarnta 0.1 0.0 
mm longa supenore lemmateque sterili aequilongis valde costatis 
dos paullo superantibus; statu autumnali sparse ramoso, 
i.n.ubus adscendentibus, paniculis terminalibus 1-6 cm. longis.- 
Sussex and Princess Anne Counties, Virginia: (Sussex Co.) peaty 
clearing at border of cypress (Taxodium) swamp, 4 miles northwest 
fJrSZ^h J ? y r™> m % " & L-n 9 , no. 6017, August 25, 
4yy (type in Gray Herb., isotypes in 
Richmond and elsewhere); (Princess 
ndy and peaty meadows, Rifle Range, south of T ' 
' 16,1935,- 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 393 

Panicum, sullen. Dirlwnthrlium, sub- § Sroparia consists of a few 
species with tall culms and with numerous nodes and primary leaves. 
Besides the usually common and widely dispersed P. scoparium Lam., 
it has been recognized as having only three local species: P. scabriu- 
undniH Ell., one of the very local plants of the Coastal Plain; P. 
aculraftnn Hitclic. & Chase, one of the rarest members of the genus; 
and P.'cryptanlliiui) Ashe, whose half-dozen or so restricted stations 
are scattered from Texas to southern New Jersey. It is, therefore, 
to be expected that other highly localized "relic" species of the sub- 

At once distinguished from the coarser and common P. scopanuw by 
its glabrous foliage, small and plump spikelets and sparsely branching 



spikelets decidedly more slender and longer, in P. aculeat 
long and pubescent (fig. 7), in P. cryptanthum 2.2-2 .4 mn 
glabrous (fig. 6). 



hut he soon returned with the first collection of the astonishing 

U The two' nun VrXlZ '1' n!L' VnneT/umty (Rifle Range and 
!>;>», Xeeky both young, greatly puzzled us when they were collected. 



394 Rhodora [November 

In 1935, not feeling competent to propose a new species in Panicum, 
subgen. Dichanthdium, I tried to avoid the inevitable by forcing them 
into the very different P. nitidum Lam. Now that another colony, 
sixty or seventy miles to the west, has been found and the plant 
collected in full anthesis and in its autumnal state, the essential 
similarity to it of the coarse plant of Princess Anne is apparent. From 
P. nitidum the new species is strikingly different in its coarser and 
much taller i scent on the lower internodes (in the 

slender P. nitidum glabrous), in the great number of primary leaves 
and internodes, in its more pubescent and plumper spikelets, and in 
its very sparsely and stiffly branched autumnal state, the autumnal 
state of P. nitidum being as densely and intricately branched as in P. 
microcarpon Muhl. or as in P. dichotomum L. As in P. nitidum, the 
sheaths of P. mundum are often conspicuously viscid-spotted. The 
great number of primary leaves in the better developed plants and the 
strong pubescence of P. mundum seem to place it in subsection 
Scoparia. In other traits and through the less developed individuals 
it approaches subsection Dichotoma. 

In the Princess Anne area, just as in the type-locality, Panimm 
mundum is also a member of a strikingly localized flora. The swales, 
sands, peats and ponds of Dam Neck and the Rifle Range are es- 
sentially confluent. They are the home of usually limited colonies 
of such plants (rare or local in Virginia) as Axonopus furcatus (Fliigge) 
Hitchc, Elcochari.s nmbUjcm Fern., Ripirhoapora fascicular™ (Michx.) 
Valil and R. Wrightiana Hoeckl., ./unci* Fllintfli Oij.pni.. the endemic 
Uypoxi, Longii Fern., the excessively rare //. »v**Ui* I,, Viola 
prrtinata Bickn., Hudrocotulc Cunbui C, & R„ (i n ,fmnu parvifolia 

(Michx.) Fern, and Erigvmn emu* "\\1)'\\ & G. ^ ^""^ 

Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash. Princess Anne County: swales 
back of the dunes, Rifle Range, F. & L., no. 4264; open clay of fields 
and thickets, Virginia Beach, F. G. & L., no. 4546; fresh to brackish 
swales along North Landing River, near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 4775. 

Mature culms very brittle. 

Setaria magna Griseb. Princess Anne County: border of salt 
marsh, arm of Lynnhaven Bay at Third Street Bridge, Great Neck, 
*. & L., no. 4,,,; tresh to biacki.h >v,,i!, . : ,j,.: u North Landing 
River, near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 4778. 

At both stations in recently disturbed soil, suggesting recent intro- 
duction. Not noted by Kearnev. 



1936] Fernald, — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 395 

*Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, v;ir. < hvpta\ i iikhi s 
(Hackel) Honda. Va.u. vm/m Citv Coi.ni y: roadside ditches border- 
ing peaty depressions in thin woods and bushy clearings west of 
Hampton, F. L. & ¥., no. 4758; seen in a similar habitat a few miles 
farther north. 

The eastern range " Pennsylvania to Florida," given by Hitchcock, 
Man. Grasses U. S. 725 (1935), needs clarification. This Asiatic 
plant is represented in the Gray Herbarium from Pennsylvania only 
by material from the Japanese Garden in the Centennial Grounds of 
Philadelphia in 1876. Mr. Long informs me that he knows no evidence 
of it in Pennsylvania except as rultiwtrd in the Japanese Garden of 
60 years ago! 

Andropogon Elliottii Chapm. Elizabeth City County: 
peaty depression in thin woods and bushy clearings, west of Hampton, 
F. L. & F., no. 4747 —not collected by Grimes. Northampton 
County: frequent to common. 

A. virginicus L., var. tenuispatheus (Nash) hYrnald \ Griscom 
in Rhodora, xxxvii! 142 (1935). Extended north from Princess Anne 
County to Northampton County: peaty clearing south of Town- 
send, F. L. & F., no. 5181. 

*A. virginicus, var tenuispatheus, forma hirsutior (Hackel) 
Fernald & Griscom, 1. "c. Extended north from Georgia to North- 
ampton County: moist peaty depressions in pine woods south of 
Townsend, F. L. & F., no. 5180. 

Cyperus sabuloscs Mart. & Schrad. Not collected by Grimes. 
Elizabeth City County: peatv depressions in thin woods and bushy 
Hearings, west of Hampton, F. L. & F., no. 4809. A frequent weed 
in Northampton County: Eastville, F. & L, no. 5224. 

*C. Iria L. As pointed out by Fernald & Griscom in Kn<>i>"K\. 

Virginia is' var. S.mhmlri i'lintth.) Kern, & (irisc. We now have true 
C. fria from Princess Awe County: clearing in rich dry woods, 
Kittle Wek. /•'. <(■ L, no. 4810. , . , 

*C Engelmawi Si. Mid. Northampton Coi nty: sandy border 
of pond in wood- hack of the dime-. Savage Neck, F. L. & i ., no. 
5228. 

The first r 



\tlan 



States from south of Massachusetts and New York, where it is local 
and isolated from the Mississippi drainage. The pond wh< 
Engelmanni abounds is one of a group of small ponds with two other 
extraordinarily local species abounding. See notes on Wolffiu punctata 
and IVolffiella fioridana. 



cove, southern end of Lake 

Cited, with doubt, by Kearney from sterile material collected at 
Cape Henry. The plant seen by us (F. & L., no. 3761) in fruit at 
Cape Henry was E. microcarpa Torr. 

*E. flaccida (Reichenb.) Urban, var. olivacea (Torr.) Fern. & 
Grisc. in Rhodora, xxxvii. 155 (1935). Northampton County: 
boggy swale bordering swampy woods south of Kendall Grove, 
F. L. if- F., no. 5235. Isle of Wight County: moist depressions in 
sandy pine barrens south of Zuni, F. & L., no. 6532. 

Extension south from New Jersey. 

Fuirena hispida Ell. Nansemond County: springy and sandy 
depressions, Kilby, F. i. A: F., no. 4822. Thence frequent west to 
the Fall Line. 

Not listed by Kearney, who notes F. squamosa Michx., a species 
common in Princess Anne County and on the Eastern Shore but not 
seen by us to the westward. 



n.) Gray. York County: filling 

small depression or " bay," about four miles south of Yorktown. 
Examined but not taken, since we did not realize that it is not in 
rrimes's collection. Occasional in the most southern counties, from 

K. ( viiiisA Ell. Elizabeth City County: peaty depressions in 
ni^ woods and bushy clearings west of Hampton, F. L. & F., no. 

v -'; • ''"nitnon m the southern counties from Princess Anne to the 

Not collected by Grimes. 

R. mk uocephala Britton. See Feniald, Rhudoka, xxxvii. 404, 

'■'• i. -i'.M. figs, 4 and 5 (1935). Princess Anne Coixtv: fresh to 

l<>n- Nonli Landing Kiver. near Creed's, F. L. & F., 



1936] Fernald, — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 397 

The three recorded stations (Kearney's at Northwest, Fernald & 
Long's near Blackwater River, tributary to North Landing River (see 
Rhodora, xxxvii. 405) and this station near Creed's) are on the 
estuaries of small rivers entering the northwest head of Curratuck 

Scleria triglomerata and its Allies (Plate 444).— In south- 
eastern Virginia .the plants with cellular-reticulate 3-angled hypo- 
gynium, no tubercles, and lustrous, smooth, white, cream-colored, 
drab or marbled achenes, occur as three clearly defined species, all of 
which are reduced outright in Core's treatment 1 to Srlrrin friijln- 
merata. The three occur in close proximity to one another, two of 
them often closely intermingled in the same habitats. Consequently . 
if they are mere phases of one species, it is singular that they should 
be so sharply distinguished by clear morphological characters, without 
intergrading in the same habitats. Study of the series in the Gray 
Herbarium shows that the three have several definite characters each 
and that their broad ranges are quite different, although in the 
Coastal Plain from New Jersey to North Carolina they all come 
together. 

Without a very critical examination of the type of Scleria triglo- 
merata Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 168 (1803) it is impossible to say 
which of the three he had. Upon examining it many years ago Asa 
Gray made the pencilled memorandum regarding the material: 
"Very poor." Consequently, its exact identity can presumably he 
made out only by one very intimately acquainted with minute details 
of the plants. For the time being I am retaining the name N. tri- 
glomerata for the coarsest of the three plants (fk;s. 1-4), the species 
of wide range to which the name has been most generalK applied 
since the monograph of Torrey. $. nitida Willd. in Kunth, Fnum. 
n. 350 (1837), with emphasis given the "rigid" slender leaves and the 
QVATE-subglobose achenes, is taken up for a Coastal Plain species 
with these characters. In 1855 Steudel, Syn. PI. Cyp. 174, described 
from South Carolina a S. flaccida. From his diagnosis alone it might 
be either of the two above noted. The third species is the excessively 
slender S. minor (Britton) Stone, Rep. N. J. State Mus. for 1910: 283 
(1911). 

species, they are distinguished as 



Membranous band on ventral side of li 
nearly so below the sharply separated glabrous t 



B forking, in no. 1 forming a knotty i 
"ow-green; culms 2.5-6 mm. thic 
mi. broad, linear and scarcely 



up to the Bhort ti itha and midribs 

beneath pilose; to oblate, strongly 

rounded at summit, nearly or quite as broad as long, 

2-2.5 mm. high, 2-2.7 nun. broad nos. 1-4) 1. S. 

Plant bluer-green: culms 1-2 mm. thick at base; leaves 



id elongate; plant blue-green, 
s 2-6 (rarely -8) mm. broad, 
puberulent to glabrous, scarcely pilose: achenes ovoid 
or ovoid-subs thick, (2-)2.8-3.3 mm. 
long, 2-2.8 mm. broad (figs. 9-12) 3. S. nitida. 

1. S. triglomerata Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 168 (1803), at least 
in sense of Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. V. iii. 372 (1836) and most later 
authors.— Eastern Massachusetts to southern Ontario, Wisconsin 
and Iowa, south to Florida, Alaliama, Mississippi. Louisiana and 
Texas. — Common in southeastern Virginia, especially west of the 
Dismal Swamp. Plate 444, figs. 1-4. 

2. *S. minor (Britton) W. Stone, Rep. N. J. State Mus. for 1910: 
283 (1911). S. triglomerata, var. gracilis Britton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. iii. 230 (1885), not S. gracilis Ell. (1824). S. triqlomrrata, var. 
minor Britton in Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. i. 282 (1896).— Southern 
New Jersey to North Carolina.— In Virginia frequent to common in 
peaty or boggy depressions at least of Henrico and Prince George 
Counties. Henrico County: exsiccated swale near Bynl Airport, 
F. L. & S., no. 5666. Prince George County: argillaceous and 
siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg, 
at head of Poo Run, F. /,. ,(• S., no. 5665; argillaceous and boggy 
depression north of Gary Church, F. L. & S., no. 5667. Figs. 5-8. 

3. S. nitida Will.l. in Kiuitli, Knum. ii. 350 (1837), ex char.— New 
Jersey to Florida, thence to Mississippi, chieflv in «lr\ sandv woods 
and thickets— The Virginia material in the Gray Herbarium is as 
follows. ^ Print ess Anne County: dry oak woods, Cape Henry, 
F. & G., no. 2771 (as S. triglomerata, var. gracilis). Nansemond 
County: dry sandy woods and adjacent d, ■nriiigs, Kilby, F. L. & ¥., 
no. 4833 (as S. triglomerata). Isle of Wight County: dry sandy 
pine and oak woods about 1 mile southeast of Zuni, F. & L., no. 
6094; dry sandy pine barrens south of Zuni, F. G. & L., no. (5549; dry 
sandy yellow pine and oak woods near Walters, F. & L., no. 6095. 
James City Cocxty: sandy soil in thicket, 2V 2 miles west of Williams- 
burg. Gnm.cs, no. 3843 (as S. triglomnata). Bedford County: July 
1, 1871, A. H. Curtiss. Figs. 9-12 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of V 



lrgima 



S. SETACEA Poir. NORTHAMP 

swampy woods south of Kendall 

Not recorded from Virginia by Core, Am. Sp. Scleria, Brittonia, 
ii. no. 1 (1936); noted from Princess Anne County in Rhodora, 
xxxvii. 405 (1935). 

Carex arenaria L. Northampton County: sandy wood: among 
the dunes, Savage Neck, F. & L., no. 5249; crest of sandy and argil- 
laceous bluff, Chesapeake Bay, west of Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 

Appearing in every way like an indigenous element of tiie vegetation; 
seeming to us like a relic on our coast comparable with the many 
limited colonies from New England to Newfoundland of species which 
abound in western Europe. Our experience does not support the 
statement of the late K. K. Mackenzie in the North American Flora, 
xiii. 39 (1931): "adventive from Europe. . . . Scarcely well 
enough established to be treated as a member of the Nortli American 

C. stipata Muhl., var. uberior Mohr (C.vberior (Mohr) Maekenz. ). 
Common in swampy woods of Norfolk and Princess Anne 
Counties: east of Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4322. 

Presumably the plant intended by Kearney's citation of C. siipaia. 

C. laevivaginata (Kiikenth.) Maekenz. Princess Awe County: 
swampy woods east of Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4320. 

C. seorsa E. C. Howe. Princess Anne Cocnty: swamp east of 
Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4310. 

C. Howei Maekenz. Princess Anne Cocnty: wet swale east ot 
Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4315. 

*C. flaccosperma Dew. Norfolk Cocnty: gum swamp near 
Cornland, F. <£- G., no. 4343. 

Extension north from North Carolina. 

*C. stricta Lam. Princess Anne Cointy: by creek in gum 
swamp, west of Pungo, F. & G., no. 4323. 

Not seen from Virginia by Mackenzie in preparing the treatment 
of Carex for the North American Flora. 

*C folliculata L., var. australis Bailey (C. hnchocarpa Willd., 
<■[■ X'lHitlianu Maekenz.) Norfolk County: alluvial woods near 
Cornland, F. c(- (!., no. 4347. Frequent in bottomlands and swamps 
westward to the Fall Line. 

Not seen from north of South Carolina by Mackenzie in preparing 
the treatment of Carex for the North American Flora. 

*C RIParia Curtis, var. laccstris (Willd.) Kukenth. (C. lacuxtri* 



400 Rhodora [November 

Willd.). Princess Anne County: by creek in gum swamp, west of 
Pungo, F. & G., no. 4346. 

Not seen from south of Delaware and the District of Columbia by 
Mackenzie in preparing the treatment of Carex for the North American 

I am not able to follow Mackenzie in specifically separating the 
North American Carr.r larusfris from the Old World C. riparia. I 
find myself more in accord with Francis Boott, William Boott, 
Bailey and Kiikenthal in treating it as one of the variations of a semi- 
cosmopolitan species. Mackenzie's diil'erentiation of the American 
('. larusfris and C. hyalinopsis Steud. (C. rij/uria, var. imprrssa S. H. 
Wright) as species apart from C. riparia is not clarified by his charac- 
terization (p. 436) of the American C. lacustris as having ' 
. . . scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, retuse or emarginate, 
followed on the next page by the explanation, that 



Carex lacustris, 



scales are cuspidate 



3 species they i 



\\ou i ]i.i.L\ fi.okidaxa (J. I ). Sin.) Thompson. Apparent ly com- 
mon in quiet waters of ponds and pools, Princess Anne County: 
creek between the ponds, Dam Neck, F. & G., no. 4352; Kaiuev's 
Pond, F. G. & L., no. 4601; Lake Joyce, /'. G. A- L., no. 4600. North- 
ampton County: forming dense stranded carpets at borders of small 
ponds in woods back of the dunes, Savage Neck, F. L. & F., no. 5252, 
i" «'»e pond making a continuous Land outside the equally continuous 
inner zone of Wolffia punctata. Surry Coirvn : abundant in the 
pond. Sunken Meadow Beach, F. & L., no. 6789. 

*V\olffia pi nctata Griseb. A species of southern and inland 
range, occurring from the West Indies and Florida to Texas, north 
in the interior to northwestern New York i Irondecpmit Bay ), south- 
ern Ontatio and southern Michigan. Northampton Cocvrv: float- 
ing in greatest profusion in a small pond in woods hack of the dune-, 

vageXeck, inclosed by a 1,,-oad marginal /on,- of ll'nl (firllu Ihr'nlauii. 
in the pond, Sunken Meadow Beach, 



the ( 



region north of 1 



ling its northern I 

idant on many species of deciduous trees, 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 401 

It is to be hoped that this, the Water Hyacinth, will not spread, as 
it does in the Gulf States, and thus obliterate Limnobium and other 
rare species of Lake Joyce. 

*Juncus (§ Genuixi) Griscomi, sp. nov. (tab. 445, fig. 1-4), 
planta dense cespitosa habitu •/ i'u <> ' .n siiuilliina : < uli- 

circa 1 m. alt is l.asi 2 3 mm. diametro; cataphyllis arete vaginatis 
fulvescentibus inembranaceis opacis, supreinis !>-l 1 cm. longis apice 
rotundatis subuliferis subulo 3-4 mm. longo; inflorescentiis anthclatis 
laxis reguladter brjichiiitis 3 S cm. latis floribus remotis; hracieis 
infimis terctis erect is O.N 1' din. longis; prophyllis chartaeeis pallidis 
lanceolato-ovatis apice attenuato-subulatis; floribus 3-3.6 mm. 
longis; sepalis (lepalis extends) lirmis viridescentibus lanceolato- 
attenuatis apice subulatis valde costatis margine anguste hyalinis 
(U0.fi mi,,, latis; petalis itepalis internis) similliniis subbrevioribus; 
staininihns ;! sepal is } : > hreviorihiis; antlieris linearibus filamentis 
paullo longioribus, filamentis apice rufescentibus; capsulis perianthia 
subaequantibus trigono-oblongis olivaceis nitidis subcoriaceis tricoccis 
apice rotundato-tnmcatis valde mucronatis, rostro if); 
firmo 0.3-0.5 mm. longo; seminibus 0.1) mm. longis aureo-bmnneis 
inaequaliter cllipsnidcis b,v\ iter apiculatis, apieulis purpurasrenuliu-. 

., /'.'„.. ■ '-.." , '.. ■. . ;i.- - !• ': \ -- 



Juncm Grist 


■nmi, siltli 


ough superficially suggesting J. effimis L., 


var. costulatm 


Fernald, i 


it once attracted us by its greener color and 


more open infk 


>rescenees 


and especially by the strong and prominent 


beaks of the < 


•apsides. 


In /. rtfusus (including its varieties) the 


capsule (fig. 5 


i j s ,. m . ir . 


jinate or depressed at tip and beakless. In 


having a defo 


itelv l.ea 


ked capsule J. Griscomi suggests the very 


localized relic, 




uvrpus Coville (./. Smifkii Engelm. (1SCS), 




in>".'a"sp< 


'cies known onlv loeallv on the Appalachian 



m Old World species S< 
J. inflexus is much i 
scences smaller and i 



402 Rhodora [November 

fuscous flowers, 6 stamens and more tapering castaneous capsules. 
The affinity of J. Griscomi is, clearly, with J. effusvs, but its strongly 
mucronate capsules at once separate it from all forms of that aggregate 
species. As yet we know it only from the type-station, an extensive 
springy depression where the localized Juncus abounds. 

J. Roemerianus Scheele. Common in Princess Anne County, this 
species extends north at least to Northampton County: border of 
sail marsh, Old Town Neck, F. L. & F., no. 5260. 

Small (Man.) states its northern limit as North Carolina; already 
recorded by Erlanson from the James River. 

J. repens Michx. Northampton County: moist dune-hollows, 
Savage Neck, F. L. & F., no. 5267. In the Gray Herbarium an old 
specimen from Nansemond County: Suffolk, October 26, 1831, Wm. 
Durlutyfun. Frequent westward to Southampton, Sussex and Prince 
George Counties. 

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton. Recorded from Princess 
Anne County by Kearney; not listed by Grimes or Erlanson. The 
following specimens in the Gray Herbarium indicate northward ex- 
tensions Elizabeth City County: Fortress Monroe, May, 1877, 
Ihos. M wrong; Hampton, May 4, 1894, J. R. Churchill; boggy meadow 
nmr sea, Uuckroe, B. L. Robinson, no. 354. Northampton* County: 
upper border of salt marsh near Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 5268. 
Iypoxis micrantha Pollard. Nansemond County- dry sandy 
Iby, F.L. &F., no. 4847. Prince 
woods about 3 miles southeast of 
> F I AS no 5733, 
i n-Munsly collected in Fairfax County: moist gravelly so 
thicket DOrth of Occoquan, L. F. & F. R. Randolph (distributed as 

The first records from north of North Carolina. 
Iris virginica L. Common in swamps and along streams from 
Tt?tV tV T'^'"'' 1 '" ,!i " 1;iil Line = ™™y collections. 

*;, r A , U> ' KU ^ Lln,il I'ltiNTEss Anne County: rich pine 
no 4374 * * ' n °" ^ rich pine woods ' Munden > F ' & Q " 

Torr. Bot. CI. xxvi. 165 (1899) 



I,1;,n,: ' ,,!,, ' i: ' ...1. 2-2.5 dm. alta-cormoV- -1 5 cm.' 

diametro; vaginis basilaribus 2, imis perbrevibus chartaceis apice sub- 
.IH.r^busherbaceisl 2 -Uiquis; folia 

.nnm.M., wigma 4-8 cm longa, lamina elliptica 2.3-5.5 cm. longa 
1- 2.5 cm. lata; pediment.. 3 7,,, 




1936] Fernald, Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 403 

cylindrico 5-12 cm. longo 5-10 mm. diametro; bracteis ovatis 1-1.5 
mm. I'H gis »asi •'• 'is 2-4.5 mm. 

longis; floribus numerosis viridescentibus 2.5-3.5 mm. longis; sepalis 
lateralibus ovato-lanceolatis obliquis obtusis 1.2- 
1.7 mm. longis, sepalo medio lineari-oblongo circa 
2 mm. longo; petalis linearibus quam sepala media 
brevioribus; labio late cordato-deltoideo 2.5 mm. 
longo 2.2-2.5 mm. la to lobis basalaribus subdiver- 
gentibus 1-1.1 nun. longis, lobis terminalibus la- 
teralibus deltoideis 0.4-0.6 mm. longis, lobo medio 
0.2-0.3 mm. longo. — Yhu;i.\ia: dry sandy woods 
and adjacent clearings, Kilby, Nansemond 
County, September 11, 1935, M. L. Fernald, Bay- 
ard Long & John M. Fogg, Jr., no. 4851 (type in 
Gray Herb.; isotypes in Herbs. Phil. Acad, and 
Univ. Penn.). North Carolina: Blowing Rock, Fig. 1. Flower 
Watauga County, August 5, 1893, B. L. Robinson, of Malaxis Bay- 
no. 97 in part (mixed with and distributed as arm, laid open, X 
Microstylis ophioglossoidcs Nutt.). 

Malaxis Bayardi (for its discoverer, Bayard Long) is a highly 
localized plant, but is presumably of broader range through the 
southeastern states than the two collections at hand would indicate. 
The sheet from Blowing Rock, in the Blue Ridge of northwestern 
North Carolina, contains 2 plants of .1/. unifolia Michx. (Mirro- 
■I'n.ssoidrs Xutt.) and two of the newly described species, 
mixed and apparently not differentiated by Dr. Robinson in collect- 
ing them. At the type-locality, Kilby, M. Bayardi was found under 
the thicket bordering pine {Pinus echinata) and oak woods in the 
Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia. 

Long, Fogg and I, venturing westward from our centre in 
Princess Anne County, found northern Nansemond County oeetipied 
largely by a different flora (see p. 378). With very limited time at our 
disposal, we were collecting small series of each interesting plant 
Long, reaching under the overhanging shrubs, collected a specimen 
of the strange Malaxis and called our attention to it. My own en- 
thusiasm to help was promptly diminished through an attack by 
ants upon my bare arms; but Long and Fogg between them secured 
sufficient specimens for a good type-series. 

The nearest relatives of Malaxis Bayardi are the common North 
American M. unifolia Michx. (fig. 3 and text-fig. no. 2) and M. 
Orisebachiana Fawc. & Rendle, of the West Indies. Both of the 
latter species have thick- or oblong-cylindric spikes. That of M. 



Rhodora 



[Xovk. 




n h! fnl in. when fully expanded, 1-10 cm. long 
and 1.3-2.5 cm. thick, with mature divergent 
pedicels 4-8 mm. long. In M. unifolia the larger 
flowers (fig. 3 and text-fig. 2) have the ob- 
long-oval lip shallowly cordate at base, with the 
2 lateral apical lobes elongate, the central one 
a tiny tooth. The West Indian M. Grisebachi- 
ana, as shown by the illustrations (Fawcett & 
Rendle, Fl. Jam. i. t. 6, figs. 18-23) and by the 
West Indian specimens, lias a short and thick 
raceme like that of M. unifolia, but an almost 
quadrate short-oblong lip only 1.75 mm. broad 
and with comparatively short basal lobes. 

In its very slender raceme Malax is Hnyardi 
suggests the calcicolous boreal M. brachypoda 
(Gray) Fern, in Rhodora, xxviii. 176 (1926) 
and xxxv. 241, t. 253, figs. 1-4 (1933); but M. 
brachypoda has the leaf nearly basal, yellowish 
larrower bracts, and drooping cordate lip with 

( To be continued) 



JSfiB 







■ 



kl W 



V*IB 



414 Rhodora [December 

PLANTS FROM THE OUTER COASTAL PLAIN OF 

VIRGINIA 

M. L. Feknald 

(Continued from page 404) 

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch, var. lasia, var. nov., ramulis 
dense subpersistenterque villosis— Coastal Plain from Florida to 
Texas, north to Virginia, and less characteristically and more rarely 
to southeastern Massachusetts, inland through the Mississippi Basin 
to western Tennessee, southern Illinois, Iowa and South Dakota. 
Type: Lake City, Columbia County, Florida, July 11-19, 189.5, G. l\ 
ISash, no. 2158 (in Gray Herb.). 

The Virginia collections are as follows: Henrico County: Rich- 
mond, May 5, 1894, J. R. Churchill. Princess Anne County: rich 
dry woods, Little Neck, Fernald, Griscom & Lang, no. 4627. Norfolk 
County; dry rich woods, east of Gertie, Fernald, Griscom & Long, no. 
4628. 

Typical Ostrya virginiana, with the new branchlets glabrous or 
merely sparsely pilose and glabrate (or stipitate-glandular but other- 
wise glabrous in forma glandulosa (Spach) Macbr.) is the characteris- 
tic northern tree, occurring from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to 
the interior of Virginia, the uplands of Georgia and Tennessee, 
Missouri and Oklahoma. Var. Icma takes its place in lower areas of 
the southern Coastal Plain. Forma glandulosa occurs sporadically 
throughout the range of the glabrous-twigged typical 0. virginiana. 

Mr. C. A. Weatherby, who, in 1935, sought the type of Carpinus 
virginiana Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8, upon which the name Ostrya vir- 
<J»'"»'' rests, reports that there seems to be no clearly identifiable 
specimen to stand as the type. I am, therefore, accepting the smoother 
extreme of the species. 

•^ 184 L-n P f Ch definCd tW ° variation s of our hop-hornbeam, 0. 
-nmnrn Wflld., a. glandulosa and & eglandulosa Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 

T' n HlS Vaf ' glanduhsa was Properly reduced to formal 

rank as 0. mrgimana, forma glandulosa (Spach) Macbr., Field Mus. 
Pub Bot iv. 192 (1929). In so doing Macbride seems to have left 
Spach s 0. virginica % eglandulosa to stand as typical t 
,hn,h E ;n CUS 7T NIANA Mill. Northampton County: 
shrub in peaty clearing south of Townsend, F.L. &F 

Extension north from Cape Henry. 

*Q. cixEREA Michx. Princess Anne County- sm 
the sand dunes, Cape Henry, F. L. & F., no. 4863 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 415 

Extension north from North Carolina. 

Celtis laevigata Willd. (C. missvssippiensis Bosc). Princess 
Anne County: dry wooded slope near Third Street Bridge, Great 
Neck, trees 10 m. high, F. & L., no. 4866; rich woods, Cedar Island, 
F. G. & L., no. 4630, distributed as C. occidentalis, var. submembrana- 
cea Fern. Passing to 

C. laevigata, var. Smallii (Beadle) Sarg. (C. occidental!*, var. 
f)ub))n;ubnih.u(ra Fern, in Rhodora, xxxvii. 425 (1935) ). To the 
station on Knott's Island add the following, also in PRINCESS Anne 
County: rich woods, Cedar Island, trunks up to 6 dm. in diameter, 
F. G. & L., no. 4631; dry wooded slope near Third Street Bridge, 
Great Neck, F. & L., no. 4867. Southampton County: wooded 
bottomland of Meherrin River, above Haley's Bridge, F. L. & S., 
no. 5767. 

Asarum arifolium Michx. Princess Anne County: rich pine 
woods, Munden, F. & G., no. 4387; pine woods, Creed's, F. & G., 

Evidently rare in Virginia; not seen by us farther north nor west. 

Polygonum densiflorum Meisn. (P. portoricense Bertero). See 
Weatherby, Rhodora, xxv. 20 (1923). Princess Anne County: 
peaty margin of cove, southern end of Lake Joyce, F. L. & F., no. 
4872, as P. portoricense. Surry County: margin of pond in cypress 
swamp, Sunken Meadow Beach, F. & I., no. 6810. 

Not recorded by Kearney. 

P. cristatum Engelm. & Gray. Northampton County: dry 
sandy and argillaceous pine woods back of the shore-bluff, west ot 
K'iptojH'ke, F. L. & F., no. 5300. Susskx Cor.vn : dry sat 
and oak woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 6200; border of dry sandy woods, 
4 miles south of Stony Creek, F. G. & L., no. 6590. 

Not recorded by Kearney, Grimes nor Erlanson. 

*Salicornia mucronata Bigel. Northampton County: border 
of salt marsh east of Eastville, F. & L., no. 5303. 

First collection in the Gray Herbarium from Virginia; not recorded 
by Kearney, Grimes nor Erlanson. 

t S. europaea L. Princess Anne County: salt marsh arm of 
Lynnhaven Bay, at Third Street Bridge, Great Neck, F. <fc L., no. 
4876. 

Not recorded by Kearney. 

S. ambigua Michx. Princess Anne County: moist sand, 1 mile 
east of Lynnhaven Inlet, L. F. & F. R. Randolph, no. 437; salt marsh, 
arm of Lynnhaven Bay, at Third Street Bridge, Great Neck, i . & L., 
no. 4875. 

Not listed by Kearney. 



416 Rhodora 

*Iresine rhizomatosa Standi. Princess Anne County: rich 
woods, Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 4635. 

Described by Standley as occurring in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, 
Missouri, Alabama, and Tennessee, with the type-collections from 
Plummers Island in the Potomac in Montgomery County, Maryland. 
Standley specially noted the remarkable northeastern isolation on 
Plummers Island, saying: 1 



for the genus. It seems probable that seeds have been brought down by 
the Potomac from some locality in the mountains, although the genus is 
not known upon the east slope of the Alleghenies; or perhaps the plants 

fhen are several colonies of the plant upon Plummers 
Island consist; ( juals, but in 1915 only two or three 

plants flowered. 

Cedar Island, in Back Bay, is on the outer Coastal Plain, 145 miles 
southeast of Plummers Island. It is not probable that seeds have 
recently been arriving there, without colonies starting in intermediate 
spots. I strongly endorse Standley's suggestion that the Plummers 
Island "plants are the last survivors of ancestors which had a wider 
range in Maryland and Virginia." The isolation of the species on 
Cedar Island favors this interpretation; it is quite parallel with nu- 
merous other isolations on the Coastal Plain. 

Notes on Paronychia, § Anychia (plate 447, all figs. X 10).- 
Anychia Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 112 (1803) is a strictly North Ameri- 
can group. Commonly kept apart as a genus, it met the challenge of 
Fenzl as early as 1840, the latter great student of the CaryophyUak* 
Paronychia Adans. as Paronychia, § Anychia (Michx.) 
licher, Gen. 958 (1840). Although most American 
botanists have retained Anychia as a genus, Mr. J. Francis Macbride, 
in 1915, entered an unpublished binomial for one of our species on a 
sheet in the Gray Herbarium and made the memorandum: "Anychia 
and Anychiastrum are not to be retained. Old World species [of 
Paronychia] show pedicelled perianths and the bracts of Amiehia"; 
and in 1934 Pax & Hoffmann in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pfianzenfain. 
ed 2, xvi c 300 (1934) followed Fenzl in treating Anychia as a section 
"t / arychia. With this treatment I find mvself in sympathy; con- 
sequently I am not able to follow Small in breaking Anychia into 



Fenzl 



three genera. 

i Standley, iw. Tiiol. 



1936] Fernald ,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 417 

In his Manual Small illustrates his ideas of generic differences in 
this series. Anychia has "Sepals with narrow margins, hooded and 
mucronate" and "Styles short, united" as contrasted with Anyckias- 
trum Small with sepals " broad, with a wide hood at the apex and a 
short stubby mucro" and with "Styles elongate, united, separating 
and partly deciduous in age"; and Nyachia Small has "Sepals with 
broad wing-margins, hooded and with a thick umbo" and "Styles 
very short, distinct." Comparison of the illustrations on pages 480 
and 48 1 of Small's Manual show the "short stubby mucro" of the 
sepals of Anychiastnnn to be longer than and as sharp as in Anychia 
and the upper calyces of each series of drawings so similar as to be 
essentially inseparable, while the lower calyx under Anychia is so 
like both calyces under Nyachia that the reputed generic differences 
are not evident. Furthermore, all three have the sepal-tip hooded or 
cucullate. If the degree of sharp-pointing is considered a generic 
difference, what shall we sa.\ about AnycMa canadensis (L.) Ell. and 
A. polygon-aides Hat'., both included by Small under Anychia, while 
the very similar .1. divaricafa Haf. appears as Anychiastrum mon- 
tnimm Small ? As originally described by Small (Torreya, x. 231) the 
sepals of the latter (figs. 9-11) are "abruptly pointed at the apex, 
• • . without prominent apical cusps." But in the most extreme 
form (fig. 8) of Anychia polygonoidcs (J. Nuttalli Small) the sepals 
end in a positive awn or cusp 0.2 mm. long, while in A. canadensis the 
flat round-tipped sepals (fig. 1) are even less mucronulate than in 
■iin/chia.sfraw montanum. As a stable ofakric character the degree 
of pointing of the sepals is extremely weak. 

Similarly with the styles. Although Anychia is separated from 
Amjchiavtnnn by having " Styles short, united," as opposed to "elon- 
gate, united, separating . . . in age," the lower right-hand 
flower of Anychia in Small's Manual is shown with the 2 styles wholly 
distinct, as in Nyachia. Those who find clarity and intellectual stimu- 
lus in the recognition of such "genera" are free to do so; unless they 
further clarify them, however, they can hardly expect others to follow 
them. Personally, I agree with Pax & Hoffmann in reducing Anychx- 
astrum, Anychia and Nyachia to Paronychia. 

Paronychia § Nyachia (Small) Pax & Hoffm. L c. (1934), based on 
Nyachia Small in Torreya, xxv. 11 (1925), consists of a single unique 
species from the sands of Florida. This is Nyachia pulnnata Small, 
which became Paronychia pulnnata (Small) Pax & Hoffm. 1. c. The 



418 Rhodora [December 

latter name, however, is a later homonym, for Pax & Hoffmann over- 
looked the Rocky Mountain P. pulvinata Gray (1864). Under 
Paronychia, Nyachia pulvinata may become P. chartacea. 1 

Paronychia, § Anychia consists of two species. One of them, P. 
canadensis (L.) Wood, Class Bk. 1861: 262 (1861) at least as to type, 
Queria canadensis L., is a clear-cut species, with glabrous stems, 
capillary branches, thin elliptic leaves, very short stipules and stipu- 
lar bracts, flat essentially ribless round-tipped sepals and much 
exserted subglobose capsules (fig. 1) with distinct styles. The other 
species is usually coarser, the stem puberulent or minutely pilose, 
the leaves oblanceolate to narrowly obovate or narrowly elliptic, the 
Stipules and stipular bracts attenuate and comparatively conspicuous, 
the sepals (figs. 2-8) usually corrugated (always so in age except 
sometimes in one variety), mucronulate- to subulate-tipped, the 
capsule included or barely exserted, obovoid, with the styles united 
at least below. This second species is the heteromorphic series now 
passing as Anychia polygonaides Raf. and Anychiastrum montanum 

Anychia polygonoides occurs in four geographic varieties: 

Var. a (figs. 2-5). Stem stiffly erect or ascending, the older and 

larger plants with broad flabelliform outline, the branchlets rather 

densely flowering; leaves grayish-green, often minutely serrulate 

toward the sharp tip, those of the primary axis 1 1 cm. long; stipular 

"-'•" Hnwmlan.r-ntt.-in,., . sl.nrtr, man the calyx; 

sepals definitely corrugate.!, with minute white mueronulate tips; 

■ mucl, shorter than the ovary. Massachusetts to 

, .sconsm, SO l ut ! J° Flontk < in d Texas.— Passing insensibly to var. 

noides Raf ^ gFeener pkntS t0 Var ' A Anych ™ p ° lyg °~ 

Var. b (figs. 6 and 7). Similar to var. a; stipular bracts' equaling 

pping the flowers.— Delaware and Pennsylvania to Illinois 

«3w l', T ( '', S) - L Si f Uar to var - a or more depressed and diver- 
Htlf y iT hed; SGpals With subulate ™s 0.2 nun. Ion-. 
XutoUi Small 118 an FrankHn C ° S -' Penn sylvania. Anchyia 
lnwTnH^jif^ 8 ; 9-11 !' Diffusel y t0 horizontally branched, forming 
laLr (nrb^ \ ' g , reC n er; leaVes bare1 ^ if at a11 serrulate, the 

larger (primary) ones only 0.7-1.2 cm. long; stipular bracts ovate- 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 419 

lanceolate, shorter than to about equaling flowers; sepals less corru- 
gated to plane, blunt, very minutely mucronulate; united styles 
nearly or quite as long as ovary. — Pennsylvania to Georgia and 
Alabama. Anychiastrum montanum Small. 

That the first three varieties are variations of one species there is 
likely to be little question. The fourth (Anych 
more remote from the others through its diffuse habit, greener and 
smaller foliage, broader stipular bracts, blunter and less corrugated 
sepals and longer style-column. But numerous plants with the char- 
acteristic gray-green foliage are diffuse and several of them have the 
style enough elongated to make a strong approach to typical Avi/rhi- 
vstriim montanum, while such plants as Hunnewell & Griscom, no. 
15,169 from Three-Top Mt., Shenandoah Co., Virginia, with the 
scarcely corrugated sepals (fig. 11) and the long style of AnyeMat- 
trum montanum, has the ascending habit of typical Anychia polygo- 
noides (my var. a). Furthermore, such a diffusely branched plant as 
C. C. Deam's no. 7540, from Clark Co., Indiana, with the habit and 
small green leaves of Anychiastrum montanum, has the corrugated 
sepals and the short style (fig. 5) of var. a. Such specimens indicate 
that Anychiastrum montanum, in its best development, is only one 
of the extremes of a variable species. Incidentally, it has a number 
of names much earlier than that given by Small. These and the other 
names given to the pubescent-stemmed species will now be discussed. 

In determining the proper names for these four varieties, we at 
once meet a familiar difficulty: Rafinesque proposed several species. 
The first series was published in Rafinesque's Atlantic Journal (1832) 
and included four species: 



1. Anychia Polyqnnnides, Raf. discovered, 1818. I 

"'". . :..-.-'. . .it, ' 

.•oolate; flowers solitary in dichotomy, subpedice late, erect. 
* rom the nu to the three following, six 

inches high. . 

. 2. Anychia fastigiata, Raf. disc. 1820. Stem dwarfish, erect, puberu- 
Jent, subdichotome, fastigiate; leaves adpressed, linear cuneate, acuie, 

two inches. , 

, '■>■ Anychia conferta, Raf. disc. 1821. Stem erect, dichut 
lent; leaves linear cuneate, acute, serrulate; flowers crowded fastigiate 
■'■dunculate. From knobs of Kentucky, annual, three or tour 



lateral; flowers sessile, lax or remote. Arid hills of Kentucky, one to 

In 1838 Rafinesque added somewhat to his characterizations of 
1832, in the New Flora of North America, iv. 42 (1838). He had one 
additional name which concerns us: 

835. Anychia divaricata R. stem decumbent puberulent very 
branched and divaricate, leaves oblong acute smooth, stipules ovate acute, 
flowers crowded striate sessile segments of calix m 

sp. blended as usual with Queria or A. canadensis, branches so divaricate as 
to be sometimes almost reflexed, leaves 3 lines long one broad, flowers 
small quite crowded at the end of branchlets. Found from the Alleghany 
Mts. to Kentucky on hills, estival, stems spreading 6 to 10 inches. 2 

Anychia polygonoides, fastigiata and conferta are, with reasonable 
certainty, either my var. a or b; without mention by Rafinesque of the 



tipular bracts it i; 



A. lateralis suggests 



my var. d, but it came from "arid hills of Kentucky/ 
not know Anychiastrum montanum, and it might have been a habit- 
form of Anychia polygonoides. Anychia divaricata with its " branches 
so divaricate as to be sometimes almost reflexed" seems to be my var. 
d and in 1911 Steele 3 took up Anychia divaricata in this sense, gave a 
detailed and accurate 4 account of it and cited characteristic specimens. 
There is no question that Anychia divaricata Raf. sensu Steele is 
m montanum. After his very discerning discussion of 
Anychia divaricata Steele remarked: "I leave it to Doctor Small, who 
is already acquainted with this plant, to transfer it to Anychiastrum, 
if he sees fit." Small, however, had already (the year before) described 
the plant as a wholly new species of his AnycMmtrum. 

One other name must be considered. When Wood published the 
combination Paronychia canadensis (L.) Wood in 1861 for the up- 
right plant with "style none," he defined a variety which is surely A. 
• Anychiastrum montanum. This variety 



pumila. Dwarf, a few inches (2-4') high the lvs 
, very pubescent; stems short-jointed, tufted I , fls 






1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 421 

style as long as the ovary (at least in specimens from Md. sent by Mr. H. 
Shriver). 1 

From among the early specific names of Rafinesque's, Anyrhia 
polygonoides has been selected and validated as applying to the com- 
mon plant with flabelliform or fastigiate habit, pubescent stem, cor- 
rugated sepals and united styles. This name, however, cannot be 
taken over into Paronychia on account of P. polygonoides Muschler 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xlv. 459 (191 1) . A. fattigiata and A. conferta were 
apparently conspecific with .1. polygonoides (merely smaller plants) 
and I am, therefore, selecting the former of the two for retention. 
Since it is not now possible to determine with certainty whether 
Rafinesque had the variety with shorter or with longer stipular bracts 
I am applying his name to the wider-ranging and generally commoner 

As I understand this complex species it should bear the following 
names. The characters are given on p. 418. 

Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.), comb, nov., var. typica. Anyrhia 
jastigiata Raf. Atl. Journ. 16 (1832). A. polygonoides Raf. 1. c, not 
Paronychia polygonoides Muschler (1911). A. conferta Raf. 1. c. 
Var. a of p. 418. Figs. 2-5. 

Var. paleacea, var. nov. (figs. 6 et 7), stipuli.s elomratis, bracteis 
-lipulurihus calyces aequantibus vel superantibus.— Delaware and 
Pennsylvania To" Illinois ami Tennessee. Typk: dry soil, Mt. < lib:.. 
Delaware, July 30, 1875, A. Commons in Gray Herb, (distributed as 
A. canadensis). 

Var. Nuttalli (Small), comb. nov. Anyrhia Xnttalh Nnall in 
Torreya, xxv. (i() (1925). Mountains of Pennsylvania. Fig 8. 

Var. pumila (Wood), comb. nov. Anyrhia canadensis,?. r» »>['<' 
Wo(ul. Class Book, 1861: 263 (1861). A. divaricata Raf. New H. iv. 
■U HS3S) at least as interpreted by Steele, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb 
nii. 363 (1911). An:, 

(1910). Plagidia montana (Small) Nieuwl. in Am. Midi. Nat. ni. 1 o 
(1913). Paronychia montana (Small) Pax & Hoffm. in Lngl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenr. Aufl. 2, xvi c . 300 (1934). Figs. 9-11. 

Silene caroliniana Walt. Princess Anne County: sandy pine 
woods, scarce, Creed's, F. & G„ no. 4390. 

Not listed by Kearney and evidently very local in southeastern 
Virginia. 

Ceratophyllum demersum L. Princess Anne County: in 
waters .nar.in „t I.„k, r„v,v. F. L. & F. t no. 4638 Surry Coun- 
ty : margin of pond in cypress swamp, Sunken Meadow Beach, t. a 



Not listed by either Kearney or Erlanson; but presumably of wide 
dispersal in ponds and pools. 

Ranunculus pusillus Poir. The following material is in the Gray 
Herbarium from the Coastal Plain of Virginia— Elizabeth City 
County: pools at Hampton, May 12 and 13, 1877, Tkos. Moronq; 
marshy border of woods between Buckroe and Hampton, B. L. 
Robinson, no. 301. Princess A.vxe County: mud of wooded swamp, 
Oceana, t. & G., no. 4393; pools in gum swamp, west of Pungo, F. & 
,™"°'u 43 ? 4; b ° rder of gum swam P. Land of Promise, F. & G., no. 
439o; border of wet clay ditch, Virginia Beach, F. & G., no. 4396. 
Norfolk County: alluvial woods near Cornland, F. & G., no. 4397. 

Not listed by Kearney nor Erlanson; but doubtless overlooked 
because of its early maturing, the plant being a quickly maturing 
annual or biennial which is completely disintegrated by early June. 
Trn R V lN ( c ™ PALMATUS Ell. Norfolk County: ditch, Cedar 
mil, t. & G no. 4398. Chesterfield County: wooded river- 
swamp along Appomattox River, near Hopewell, F. L. & S., no. 

First records from north of South Carolina 

Menispermum canadense L. Princess Anne County: rich 
woods, Great Neck, F. & G., no. 4407. 
Not listed by Kearney nor Erlanson. 

Nor^mpt PAU c TKIS (R i at ' ) S; "' K - (/> - l'» b(m 's i p ursh) Sarg.) 
/■ . " , v " ": N ,.._" Nn . : low deciduous and mixed woods, Eastville, 
.a /.., no. D601 ; woods north of Cheriton, R. R. Tatnall, no. 1810. 
Extension north from Cape Henry. 
•nJk' |W VKS '! VALh - l }'-) X <'^< var. ithesckns Palmer & Steyer- 
no. Nsu V n,T NNK °' JNTY: nch dr y woods, Great Neck, F. & L., 
„,.,., v ..• ni> "- f ^iKLD County: wooded river-swamp along Appo- 
'»■'»<* Kimt, near Hopewell, F. L. & S., no. 5780. 
Although Palmer & Steyermark indicate the pubescent-leaved 
Buah as extending north, in the East, only to South 
-aro ina, it reaches New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. 
I^^xu" 'Yvx! r^ ADKXS ' S , L -' Viir " Kon m>ifolia (Greene) Fedde. 
Isle of Wtph C woods, Great Neck, F. & G , no. 4411. 

, r ' N n ;S f ndy and loam y wooded slope north of 
. ' • d **> no - bo9 9, less characteristic. 
l, ! , i .;' i ! ' l< t ; j| ( ; N '' / '' / '''/'' v '' ; ^' 7 ;''' / ' / ' 7 ^ with the leaf becoming 1-2.8 dm. 
iia'rrou/. o, l , ,n; '. rU '"' 1 "' li "' 1 " ,>:Ml ,) '' ,Sil1 lol)0S a " <l s "™™its of the 
',' [?', V'l ' ' ( '" i ' r ' St ': ' 1, ' 1 " :u '' '»' cn'nate, occurs from eastern Quebec 
M.uutoba and North Dakota, S outUar,l ,., , 1<irtllCTn Florida, 



1936] Fernald, — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia -12.'! 

Tennessee, Arkansas and Oklahoma. Southward it passes into the 
there more frequent var. rotundifolia, with mature leaves only 0.7-1.8 
dm. broad, firmer, unlobed or lobed, the margin without dentations 
or barely undulate. This southern extreme reaches northeastward 
to New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
*Capsella Bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic., var. bifida Crepin. 
immon weed in cultivated field, East vi lie, 

A very marked variation, with large and deeply notched fruit. 

Dent aria laciniata Muhl. Princess Anne County: rich woods, 
Great Neck, F. & G., no. 4413. 

Listed by neither Kearney nor Erlanson. 

Agrimonia platycarpa Wallr. Northampton County: dry 
sandy pine woods, Eastville, F. & L., no. 5314; dry pine woods south 
of Kendall Grove, F. L. & F., no. 5315. Isle of Wight County: 
rich sandy and loamy wooded slope north of Walters, F. G. & L., no. 
6606. Sussex County: sandy and loamy woods south of Pleasant 
Grove Church, F. & L., no. 6225. 

Not recorded by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

Cassia nictitans L., var. hebecarpa, var. now, (tab. 44s, in; 
l r 3), caulibus laxe ramosis vel depressis; foliolifl 

ciliolatis valde approximatis 4-7 mm. longis; leguminibus villoso- 
hirsutis, villis divergentibus ad 1 mm. longis.— Coast of Virginia an.. 
North Carolina. Virginia: crest of sandy and argillaceous blurt 
along Chesapeake Bay, Old Town Neck, Northampton Co.. October 
l ; h 1035, Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 5316 (type in Gray Herb., is..- 
iviMs in Herbs. Phil. Acad, and Univ. Pa.); North Carolina: 
Elizabeth City, August 26, 1803, Boettcher, no. 291. 

Typical Cassia nictitans has the surfaces of the legumes (fig. 4) 
covered with minute incurved-appressed hairs and the longer and less 
approximate leaflets glabrous, the rachis either glabrous or appressed- 
pubescent. In its villous-hirsute legumes the newly proposed var. 
hebecarpa suggests var. Mohrii (Pollard) Macbr., but that more 
southern extreme has the leaf-surfaces positively pubescent. 

On Pine Mountain in Bell County, Kentucky, Kearney collected 
the extreme in the series of variations of Cassia nictitans, the plant 
of Bell County having the legume quite glabrous. This extreme may 
be called 

ls »l. T. II. Kmrm-ii, n„. I'Jti , TYI-t. in Cray H.tIU. 



424 Rhodora [December 

*Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br., var. Gibbesii (Small), comb. nov. 
B. Gibbesii Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 599, 1331 (1903). 

Although Small restricts his Baptisia Gibbesii to South Carolina, 
plants with the small fruits rounded at summit, instead of larger and 
tapering, are in the Gray Herbarium from scattered points on the 
Coastal Plain, from Georgia (dry pine woods near Belair, Richmond 
Co., Harper, no. 1315) to Rhode Island (Wickford, August 28, 1908, 
G. G. Kennedy). 

The collections from Virginia indicate rather general occurrence. 
Northampton- County: dry Hearing horderinif pine woods south of 
Kendall Grove, F. L. & F., no. 5319. Princess Anne County: clay 
held near Lynnhavm, F. G. & L., no. 4658. Prince George County: 
argillaceous and siliceous boggy depression north of Gary Church, 
t.L & i». , no. 5804. Southampton County: dry sandy oak and pine 
woods northeast of Cypress Bridge, F. & L., no. (5227. 

Although var. Gibbesii in extreme development is well marked, 
there are altogether too many transitional specimens to hold it specifi- 
cally apart from the larger-fruited B. tinctoria. 

Crotalaria sagittalis L. Frequent in sandy woods and clear- 
Counties THAMPTON ' ELIZABETH City ' Prince George, and Sussex 



Emt in our manuals that Crotalaria sagittalis is 
annual is misleading. Northward and frequently southward it 
flowers as an annual, but in eastern Virginia it is more often a stout- 
based and obvious perennial. 
Psoralea psorauoides (Walt.) Cory. (/>. pcdvneulata (Mill.) 
' I " r N v ssemond County: dry sandy woods and adjacent 
J < -■ j -■ Mlhy, t. L. & F., no. 4890; and frequent westward to the 

Listed by Kearney only from North Carolina. 
iMKRiv kki-tesckxs (L.) Poir. Norfolk County: climbing 
high at border of gum swamp, near Cornland, F. & G., no. 4438. 
Not listed by Kearney nor Erlanson; first representative in the 
I'"''- ! 1 ' ■ r,,i,rmm fr ""' Vi '*i»i«. The speeies was recorded from Vir- 
ginia by Andre Michaux in 1803, his record repeated by Pursh. Tom* 
& Gray and others. It is now certainly rare in the state 

Not listed by Kearney. 

D. ROTundifolium (Michx.) DC Elizabfth City County- 
bushy clearings and borders of woods west^Hampt^n F. L ° * £ 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 425 

no. 4897. Nansemond County: dry sandy woods and adjacent 
clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 4896. Thence west to the Fall Line. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

D. paniculatum (L.) DC, var. pitbens T. & G. Princess Anne 
County: open sands back of the dunes, Rifle Range, south of Rudy 
Inlet, F. & L., no. 5901, growing with var. angustifolium T. & G. 
i var. Chapmani Britton), our no. 5900, a variety recorded by Kearney. 
Isle of Wight County: sandy pine and oak woods south of Zuni, 
F. & L., no. 6615. 

Not recorded by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

D. lineatum (Michx.) DC. Northampton County: dry pine 
woods east of Eastville, F. & L., no. 5330. Princess Anne County: 
dry argillaceous fields and bushy clearings, Rosemont, F. & L., no. 
4894; pine woods, Macon's Corner, F. & L., no. 4895. Thence west 
to the Fall Line. 

Noted by Kearney (as Meibomia arenicola Vail) only from Virginia 
Beach. 

"Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim. Abundant by many roadsides 
from Princess Anne County (Cape Henry, F. & G., no. 2830, aa 
L striata) inland at least to Isle of Wight County (Zuni, t. & L 
no. 6239) and north to Stafford County (Aquia Church, t. L. & f ., 
no. 4913). 

Thoroughly naturalized. 

Rhynchosia erecta (Walt.) DC. Northampton County: dry 
sandy pine woods, Eastville, F. & I., no. 5339. N LNBfJlOND County. 
dry sandy woods and adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & t ., no. Vd&&). 
Thence west to the Fall Line. 

Not recorded by Kearney. 

*Oxalis stricta L., forma viridiflora (Hus), comb, nov^ Oxahs 
stricta viridiflora Hus in Mo. Bot. Card. Ann. Rep. xvm. 
Virginia: open sandy border of roadside ditch, Savage Neck, North- 
ampton Co., October 11, 1935, Fernald & Long, no. 5<J4l. 

The form of Oxalu stricta with green petals appears 3] 
through the range of the species and should rank as a forma rat 
than as a geographic variotv. the variations to which the term vanetas 
is more and more restricted. When he published it with a trmonual 
Hus spoke of it as a variety; and it has so been treated by other 



.Herculis L, Northampton County 



Zanthoxylum Clava-Herculis L. Northampton wum, 
sandy and argillaceous bluff and upper border of beach, ChesapeaK 
Bay, west of Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 5342. 



Extension north from Cape Henry. A beautifully developed colony 
of trees. 

*Melia Azedarach L. Northampton County: many fruiting 
trees, border of pine woods north of Kendall Grove, F. L. & F., no. 
5357. Southampton County: border of wooded bottomland of 
Meherrm River, above Haley's Bridge, F. L. & S., no. 5820. 

Generally cultivated as China Berry or "Mahogany"; now natural- 
ized through seeding from old trees. Small (Man.) gives the north- 
eastern limit as North Carolina. Kearney listed the species as 
"perhaps planted" and Erlanson's record of a "Flourishing tree in 
Williamsburg" is inconclusive. 

Polygala Curtissii Gray. Nansemond County: dry sandy 
woods and adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 4925 ' Thence 
common westward and northwestward to the Fall Line. 

Not listed by Kearney nor Erlanson. 

P. cruciata L. Northampton County: boggy swale bordering 
-■ <>>P. woods, south of Kendall Grove, F. L &F no 5347 Sus- 
sex County: Waverly A. B. Seymour, no. 8. Southampton County: 
^l y i! no e 62°62 WO ^"^ ^^ 3 mileS northwest of Ivor ' 

Noted by Erlanson only from Henrico County; evidently local. 
T inH P ,?f p BIA . 0B ™? AT > Pursh. Princess Anne County: roadside, 
field M iTim'/-,^ 6 " n °- 4446 - Henri ™ County: cultivated 
bo W* y H I 'tZV- R - ChurchilL Southampton County: wooded 
no 5^30 mn RiVef ' ab ° Ve Hale > r ' s Brid ^ e ' F - L * S " 

Not listed by either Kearney or Erlanson. 

Plant, X tion r ITO r, L -M NORTHAMPTON CoUNTY = south shore of Old 
no ITQfi ^f i • south -southwest of Bayview, R. R. Tninnll 
no. 1796, peaty clearing south of Townsend, F L & F no 5354 

Extension north from Princess Anne County. 

*Vitis cinerea Engelm. 



i 205 (ml ' V ' ^ S* R 838 ( 1933 )5 BaiI ey, Gentes Herb, 
m. zuo (19^4). \ . austrinu Sim, 1, Fl S e I" - 7", r«4 MOml — 

representation* Southeast ? m V "P™- The following specimens, 

neaXvat™ *™ C ™™ ■ thicket by Chickahominy' River, 
Co,,r, : *J^/i££fc S^LJTSgSi 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 427 

F. L. & S., no. 5842. Greensville County: sandy alluvium, 
bottomlands of Fontaine Creek, southwest of Haley's Bridge, jP. G. 
& L., no. 6634. Nansemond County: border of inundated cypress 
swamp along Somerton Creek, Factory Hill, F. & L., no. 6831. 
Norfolk County: Portsmouth, Rugel, specimen marked by Engel- 
niann " I 'His aestivalis i'oliis indivisis" and by Bailey - I . aestivalis" ; 
border of woods, northeast of Northwest, F. G. & L., no. 4673. 
Princess Anne County : border of gum swamp, Oceana, F. G. & L., 
no. 4672; rich woods, Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 4674. 

In Gray's Synoptical Flora, i. fasc. 2: 425 (1897) Bailey cited 
Vitis cinerea var. floridana only from "Manatee Co., Florida, and 
apparently also in Arkansas" and separated it, as had Munson in 
1896, from I \ cinerea with " ash-gray leaves and the gray tomentum 
of the young growth" by its "Growing tips rusty-tomentose, as are 
sometimes the veins on the under sides of the leaves; cluster longer- 
peduncled and more compound." V. cinerea, a wide-ranging species 
of the Mississippi Basin and Gulf Coastal Plain, was cited as coming 
east to northern Florida. In his Manual Small admits V. cinerea for 
Florida and cites V. Simpsoni as occurring only on that peninsula. 
In his latest consideration of the group, his Species of Grapes peculiar 
to North America, Gentes Herbarum, iii. fasc. iv. (1934), Bailey ele- 
vates V. Simpsoni to specific rank (with V. cinerea, var. floridana 
correctly cited as a synonym), with the range "Southern Georgia and 
Florida according to Munson; I have a specimen . . . ticketed 
as native in southeastern Arkansas ... I have seen it at Au- 
gusta, Georgia and southward . . . ; to be expected in the Caro- 
linas." Not only is this characteristic Vitis "to be expected in the 
Carolinas";in the Gray Herbarium it is well represented by thoroughly 
characteristic material from South Carolina (rich woods, Abbeville 
District, June, 1855, Hexamer & Maier; Santee Canal, Ravmel; both 
identified by Bailey as V. aestivalis) and from North Carolina 
(thicket along edge of swamp, Edenton, L. F. <£ F. K Randolph, no. 
6H, as V. aestivalis). In southeastern Virginia it abounds and 
"strikes one in the eye" through its rufescent shoots with the char- 
acteristically uncleft and long-tipped blades projecting over the roads 
from many or most rich swampy woodlands. Thoroughly character- 
istic plants of it can be seen clambering over the trees in a moist c e- 
Pression near the Biological Laboratories of the University of Puch- 

When Mr. Long and I called the attention of our hosts, Professors 
John W. Bailey and Robert F. Smart to this conspicuous climber, 



428 Rhodora [December 

unrecorded from north of southern Georgia, Professor Bailey promptly 
responded: "Why, that's Pigeon Grape. It grows everywhere in the 
lower Mississippi Valley." He was essentially correct. The only 
shadow of difference I can find to separate var. floridana from V. 
cinerea is its rufescence. The tendrils and foliage are otherwise 
identical, the thyrse, whether in flower or fruit, shows quite parallel 
variation and the length of the peduncle, emphasized by Bailey, gives 
me nothing diagnostic. The stones of ripe fruits collected by Long 
and me in mid-October exactly match those of material from Engel- 
mann himself of his V. cinerea. It is significant that Munson, whose 
experience with southern grapes was unequaled, abandoned V. Simp- 
soni as a species and treated it as V. cinerea, var. floridana. Two 
sheets of Simpson's material sent by Munson to the Gray Harbarium 
are important. They were originally labeled by him Vitis Simpsoni, 
" Rusty Winter Grape" or "Rusty Cinerea." On one sheet Munson, 
on September 24, 1889, wrote "should be only a variety of V. cinerea. 
T. V. M. 9/24 '89." On the other sheet he crossed out the name V. 
Simpsoni and substituted "V. cinerea, var." 

I ntil something more positive than rufescence (which is often not 
very obvious) instead of cinereousness is put forward I am unable to 
maintain litis Simpsoni as a species. 1 But as a variety of the wide- 
ranging V. cinerea of the Mississippi Basin and Gulf Coastal Plain 
it is most interesting. The occurrence of types largely developed in 
the latter regions but with continuous or even quite isolated or re- 
stricted areas on the Atlantic Coastal Plain is becoming more and more 
apparent. This Vitis is another case in point. 

Stkw.vrtia Malachodendron L. Two Virginia sheets are in the 
Gray Herbarium, one from Accomac (<m viy, INSti, F.Iiis }f ears; thv 
other from Norfolk County, F. & G., no 4455 



Agr. Sci. viii. 59 (1887). 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 429 

It is wiser not to publish the exact localities. Too many people, 
and among them many botanists, will immediately dig up and take 
home to die mature or old individuals of rare and local plants, which, 
left undisturbed in their natural haunts, would survive for future 
generations, If people lack consideration for others it is better not to 
show them rare plants. Stewartia Malachodendron is now very rare 
in Virginia (or elsewhere), doubtless due to removal of shrubs for their 
beautiful flowers. The species was sent from Virginia to the Earl of 
Bute (Stuart or Stewart) and others, who were cultivating it as early 
as 1741. In that year, in his Dmm Planfurum ( Intern, Linnaeus 
described it as Siewartia (with the plate referred to as Stevartia) from 
material derived from Virginia, the plate drawn by Ehret ("Icon 
plantar man,. Ehretii"), and he stated that dried specimens had been 
sent hv John Clavton ... (ironovius. In 1743 or 1748, in Marc Cates- 
bv's Xatural History of Carolina, etc. Append. 13, t. 13, it was proposed 
as a new genus Steuartia. As to the date of this publication, Pteitter, 
Nomenclator, gives 1743, but the copy of it at the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at Harvard contains the penciled memorandum that 
it ea.ne out in 1748. The latter date, as will be shown, is probably 
correct. Catesby said "For this elegant plant I am obliged to my 
good friend Mr. Clayton, who sent it me from Virgimo, and three 
months after its arrival it blossomed in my garden at tvlhain in 
May 1742." Of importance in establishing the date is a letter from 
John Mitchell quoted by Catesby: 

SI The Plant which vou shewed me by the name of Steuartia I take to 
be a new tnnsoTnZsZ^me that I called Malachodendron. 

This item is significant, for in his Planiarum ^ ae ^J € ^J^ 
condita et in Virginia observata (1748), with l 
Mitchell published his Malachodendron, whence 1 
specific epithet. He would hardly have written to I 
1743 of the plant "that I called Malachodendron" five years or m 

before he published it. . . T . M „_>_ 

Catesby, calling the shrub Stemrtia, not ment.omng Lmnaeus s 
Stewartia of 1741 and implying the publication of a brand new g , 
said: "The Right honourable and ingenious Earl of Mm* I hope 
excuse my calling this new genus of Plants after "«; <**li 
beautiful colored plate represents a branch w,th fou expanded 
flowers, an opened capsule and freed seed, a b.rd called Re^ 

,,,■„,,,:■ died I ■.»,« Irlmmmon. Th.s plate, 



. Linnaeus derived his 
, Catesby in 1742 or 



430 Rhodora 

signed "MC," has the air of originality. Nevertheless, the Ehret 
plate published by Linnaeus in 1741, "G. D. Ehret delin.," is so like 
the upper half of the Catesby plate of 1748 (but in black and white), 
with the drawings of the capsule and seed only slightly different, that 
the two plates obviously originated with one artist ! 

In Catesby's original account (1748) the generic name was spelled 
Steuartia. This was repeated in the edition revised by George Ed- 
wards, in 1754. But in an edition of 1771, with the Appendix num- 
bered consecutively with vol. ii, page 13 and plate 13 of the original 
and the 1754 editions becoming page 113 and plate 113, the name was 
altered to Stunrfia. Linnaeus, however, in 1753, our starting point, 



The Varieties of Ascyrum Hypericoides. Ascyrum Hypericoi- 
des L. has long been recognized as a polymorphic species and many 
binomials have been proposed for forms within its specific bounds. 
On the other hand, Coulter, after maintaining 1 two species, A. Crux- 
Andreae L. and A. Hypericoides L., gave up the separation and united 
all the forms as A. Hypericoides, saying "they cannot be separated 
even varietally ... and the attempt to maintain two distinct 
species seems untenable. In any event, the North American plant 
should bear its original Linnaean name." 2 

Our experience in eastern Virginia indicated that some recognition 
of geographic varieties is desirable. The commoner plant of the 
Coastal Plain there has tall and erect or strongly ascending stems up 
to 9 dm. high and usually unbranched or only sparsely branched at 
base, but with flowering branches from most of the middle and upper 
axils; with the primary leaves oblong-oblanceolate, 2-3 cm. long by 
o-9 mm. broad; the outer sepals broadly ovate and commonly sub- 
cordate, m maturity 10-15 mm. long by 7-10 mm. broad. This tall 
shrubby plant is characteristic of pine woods and borders of mixed or 



deciduous woods i 



, Norfolk, 



Northampton and Accomac), extending inland at least across the 
Coastal Plain; and, although most material has accumulated from 
-Mem \ i rgini!l , th,s coarsest Coastal Plain extreme is represented by 
specimens from south to Florida, west to Mississippi, 



inland n. 
Maryland 



and Missouri and north to Worcester County, 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 431 

Much less common in easternmost Virginia is the low, suffruticose 
plant which extends northward to New Jersey and Nantucket and 
which ranges broadly through the southern states. In this extreme 
the suffruticose stem reclines or spreads into low diffuse mats with the 
new flowering branches 1-2 (rarely -3) dm. long; its larger oblong- 
oblanceolate leaves are 1-2.3 cm. long by 4-9 mm. wide; the outer 
sepals elliptic, oval or oblong-ovate and rounded at base, 5-11 mm. 
long by 3-7 mm. broad. This smaller, lower and diffuse plant was not 
seen by us in Princess Anne and Norfolk Counties, but we got it in 
Nansemond, York and Northampton, and in the counties immediately 
westward and it is represented in the Cray Herbarium from many 
counties across the state quite to its westernmost border (ascending 
to 3500 feet). 

Extending from Virginia to Florida and the West Indies, westward 
to Texas and Mexico there is a third extreme, a shrub often as tall as 
the largest extreme of the series but with leaves linear-oblong or 
linear-oblanceolate, with crowded axillary fascicles and undeveloped 
branchlets. In this most southern extreme the principal leaves are 
0.5-2 cm. long but only 2-4 (rarely -5) mm. wide; its larger sepals 
vary from oblong-elliptic to ovate, 5-11 mm. long by 3-5 mm.. broad. 

Although conspicuously different in their extremes, these three 
strong trends merge in all characters. I have vainly sought for any 
satisfactory characters in capsules and seeds and I am forced to the 
conclusion reached by Coulter, that they are not specifically separable. 
As already noted, however, I feel that they should be designated as 
well marked geographic varieties. 

As first published by Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 787 (1753), Ascyrwn con- 
sisted* of three species, two of which concern us. The first was A. 
Crux-Andrcae, based on Hy pericoides ex terra mariana, floribu* adgvtu 
lutein of Plukenet, "which plant proves upon inspection to be Hyperi- 
cum mutilum L.I"— Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 672 (1840). Subse- 
quently Linnaeus altered his conception of A. Crux-Andreae, in Sp. 
p l- ed. 2: 1107 (1763) by taking from his citations under his original 
4. Hypericoides a Gronovian reference to the wide-spread low plant 
of the United States and transferring it to A. Crux-Andreae. In this 
revised sense Torrey & Gray and many later authors took up the 
latter name, but such a procedure is no longer justified, since A. Crux- 
Andreae of ed. 1 was merely Hypericum mutilum. 

A*n,rum Hypericoides of L. Sp. ed. 1 was a mixture, which was 



432 Rhodora 

clearly discussed by Torrey & Gray. Said to come from Virginia, ir 
rested partly upon the Virginian plant of Gronovius, which in the 2d 
edition Linnaeus transferred to A. Cruz-Andreae, in part upon a 
Clifford specimen (not now preserved), in part upon Hypericoidm 
frutexcms erecta of Plumier (the narrow-leaved West Indian plant) 
and in part upon a Plukenet plant which is A. stems Michx. ; certainly 
a most confused concept. By removing in his 2d edition the Gronovian 
plain ami by deliberately adding to the citations under A. Hyprrieoi- 
(!>.s Patrick Browne's Jamaican shrub with "foliis linearibus," to 
which lie gave priority of place, Linnaeus established the fact that he 
ultimately intended principally the linear-leaved shrub of the West 
Indies. In his monographic and very discerning study of the Hyperi- 
rnrrfir, Prodromus d'vne Monographic de la Famille des 11, 
(1820), Choisy (p. 61) thus interpreted A. Hypericoides and he was 
followed in the still more extensive but less discerning monograph of 
Spach. 1 It seems right to follow this interpretation. Spach, however, 
distinguished the continental plant with linear leaves from the West 
Indian as .1. UnifcUum but the two seem scarcely separable. 

The low and matted or diffuse half-shrub of wide range, extending 
north to southeastern Massachusetts, was first clearly designated 
as Ascynnn multicnuh Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 77 (1803). Spach gave 
it several names and it has recently passed on the continent of North 
America as typical A. Hypericoides. 

The tall and largest extreme, which occurs from Florida to Missis- 
sippi northward on the Coastal Plain to Maryland and inland from 
Mississippi to the low country of western Tennessee (Carroll Co.) 
and southeastern Missouri (Dunklin Co.), seems to be Ascyrum 
Spach, Hist. Nat. Ve'g. v. 461 (1836). His "Plante tres- 
semblable a 1'espece pre'eedente par le porte, mais plus grande dans 
toutes ses parties. Rameaux infe'rieurs munis de ramules floriferes a 
presque toutes les aisselles . . . Feuilles en general 2 fois plus 
grandes que celles de 1'espece precedente" are points which indicate 
this identity. 

As I understand Ascyrum Hypericoides, it consists of the following 
rieties. 
n -^™ Hypericoides, var. typicum. A. Hypericoides L. Sp. 

A. Crux-Andreae, p. angustifolium Nutt. Gen. ii. 16 (1818). A. lini- 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 433 

folium Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. v. 459 (1836).— Ascending shrub with 
very crowded linear-oblong to linear-oblanceolate leaves, with nu- 
merous axillary fascicles and short sterile branchlets; larger leaves 
().."> 2 cm. long, 2-4 (-5) mm. wide; larger sepals oblong-elliptic to 
ovate, 5-11 mm. long, 3.5-9 mm. wide.— West Indies and Florida to 
Texas and Mexico, north to Bermuda, Virginia and Tennessee. 

I have seen no thoroughly characteristic material from Virginia but 
Choisy, Prodr. Monogr. Hype'ric. 61 (1821), under his A. Crux- 
Andreae, §. "foliis oblongo-linearibus angustioribus" (based upon 
Nuttall's variety), cited it "E Virginia (v. s. sp. in h. D. C.) " Much 
of the material from the inner Coastal Plain of Virginia is transitional 
between var. typicum and var. obkmgifolium, and Fernald & Long, no. 
6275, from south of Zuni, Isle of Wight County, is a near approach to 
var. typicum. 

Var. multicaule (Michx.), comb. nov. A. multicaule Michx. Fl. 
Bor.-Am. ii. 77 (1803). A. hdianthemifolium Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. 
v. 460 (1836). A. sputhulaium Spach, 1. c. 462 (1836). A. Crux- 
Andreae sensu Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 156 (1838), 672 (1840) and subse- 
quent auth., not L. Sp. PI. i. 787 (1753).— Low and diffuse or matted, 
the slender ascending leafy branches 1-2 (-3) dm. long, flowering from 
the tips and the uppermost axils; larger leaves ohloim-oblancrulatc 
1-2.3 cm. long, 4-9 mm. broad; outer sepals elliptic, oval or oblong- 
oblanceolate, rounded at base, 5-11 mm. long, 3-7 mm. broad- 
Georgia to eastern Texas, north to Nantucket Island, Ma- 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, West Virginia, 
Kentucky, southern Illinois, Missouri and Kansas. 

Var. oblongifolium (Spach), comb. nov. A. oblongrfolnuu >pach. 
Hist. Xat. Vco. v. Itil ( ISMii). Steins erect or ascending, solitary or 
few, 3-9 dm. high, simple or but sparsely branched at base, with 
flowering (often quite eloim-ate) branches from most of the middle 
and upper axils; leaves ol>lon<;-oblanceolate, the primary ones in 
distant pairs, the larger 2-3 cm. long, 5-9 mm. broad; outer sepals 
'•madly ox ate, usually cordate or subcordate at base, IO-b> mm. 
long, 7-10 mm. broad.- Coastal Plain, Florida to Mississippi, north 
to eastern Maryland, western Tennessee and southeastern Missouri. 

The Varieties of Hypericum § Elodea. The Marsh St. Johns- 
worts consist of two clearly defined species, Hypericum rirginieum L 
and H. petiolatum Walt., the former wide-ranging from Florida to 
Newfoundland and eastern Canada, thence westward to Manitoba 
i,l ' ! Nebraska, the latter typical of cypress- or gum-swamps of the 
South. A third plan,, somewhat intermediate in aspect, in having 
s *'^ile instead of pctioled leaves but with the floral characters of H. 
l"-tiol<itu,n, occurs from Florida to Louisiana and northward into 



434 Rhodora [December 

southern Virginia, southern Ohio, southern Indiana and Missouri. 
This is II. tubulosum Walt. (1788), Elodea Drummondii Spach (1836) 
and Triadmum hngifoliiim Small (1898). 

The southern material nl !l ..- :',.■,,■ virtjhtirui,! has the mature 
(fruiting) styles 2-3 mm. long, continuing the gradually tapering 
capsule, and the mature sepals lanceolate, acute and 5-7 mm. long. 
This plant occurs from Florida north on the Coastal Plain and in the 
Piedmont to the lower altitudes of New England and Nova Scotia, 
inland to Ohio. The more northern material, from Newfoundland 
and the southern slope of the Labrador Peninsula to Manitoba, 
Minnesota and Nebraska, all has shorter styles, when mature only 
0.5-1 (-2) mm. long, the capsule often plumper and more rounded 
at summit, though sometimes attenuate, the mature sepals usually 
oblong or elliptic and rounded or blunt at tip and only 2.5-5 mm. 
long. The seeds of the northern series average minutely longer than 
in the southern and in color they are commonly paler and their reticu- 
lation is a little fainter; but these characters break in a long series and 
so many of the long-styled plants have blunt sepals, so many of the 
short-styled have them acute that I cannot find the constancy I look 
for in true species. In foliage, too, the two exactly resemble one an- 
other. I am, therefore, looking upon them as two very well defined 
geographic varieties, the long-styled southern and coastwise plant 
with lanceolate acute sepals being typical //. virijiuicum, which was 
described by Linnaeus from Pennsylvania and which had the "Calyx 

The northern extreme was beautifully described from Canadian 
specimens as I-lodra frnsrrl Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. se'r. 2, v. Bot. 
168 (1836): "sepalis ellipticis vel oblongis, obtusis; . . . stylis 
(sub anthesi) ovario subduplo brevioribus." As a northern variety 
it becomes 

Hypericum virginicum L., var. Fraseri (Spach), comb. nov. 
Elodea Irasen Spach m Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2. v. Hot. IbS (1836).- 
Woundland and Canadian Labrador to Manitoba, south to Nova 
Scotia northeastern and central Ma ,,-ut, central 

1 ennsylvama, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, Iowa and Nebraska. 

As shown in the Gray Herbarium and the Herbarium of the New 
I'-nuland Botanical dub, all material from Florida to New Jersev 
and all from Rhode Island belongs to typical ll^ri,-,,,,, nnjuunn,: 
i-rthennore, all specimens from Newfoundland, 'the Labrador Penin- 
sula, Quebec. Magdalen Islands, Prince Edward Isl-.ml \Yw Bruns- 



1936] Fernald, —Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 435 

wick. Ontario, Vermont, Michigan, Indiana, Minnesota, Iowa and 
Nebraska are var. Fraseri. In Nova Scotia, Maine, New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania both 
varieties are found, but they there usually show clear segregation into 
southern or lowland and northern or upland series. In Nova Scotia, 
with its well known admixture of Canadio-Alleghenian and Coastal 
Plain floras, both are common, but in several counties with little or 
no development of Coastal Plain plants (Victoria, Pictou, Colchester, 
Cumberland, and Halifax and on Sable Island) only var. Fraseri has 
been collected. In Maine the long-styled typical 11. virginicum is in 
the southern and coastal counties, extending inland to southern 
Penobscot, Kennebec ami Androscoggin; but var. Fraseri alone is in 
the northern three-fourths of the state, extending more locally into 
the southern counties. In New Hampshire typical H. nrginicum is 
in the southern counties (Rockingham, Merrimac and Cheshire), var. 
Fraseri extending over the state. From Massachusetts nearly all the 
collections are of typical //. virghiiniM, but var. Fraseri is represented 
from the extreme northeastern corner of the state and from the up- 
land of Worcester County. Similarly, from Connecticut most speci- 
mens are of typical //. virginicum, but var. Fraseri is represented from 
Franklin and Waterbury. The representation from New York and 
Pennsylvania is too small for generalization, but typical //. virginicum 
attends inland at least to Washington. Chenango and Seneca Counties, 
New York, with var. Fraseri south at least to Washington. Oneida 
il "d Cortland Counties. From eastern Pennsylvania all the material 
is typical H. virginicum., the var. Fraseri being in the Gray Herbarium 
only from ('enter Count v. 



new species, Triad, nam hnniifoliu,,. Small in Bull. Torr. Bot. 
140 (1898) (as T. hngifdia), was well characterized by Walt 
«me he published his Hypericum peihlatum. Walter u 
three species of this section: 
**Stamina in 3 phalan.nbus Mores rubesreutes. Glandulae i 






oribus trigvnis pedum <u - xillaribus oppositis, 
s laevissime basi 

oril us t -'it - '< ,; ' corponlms 

h | n it ' v '.~ > sessilibus. 

oribus trigynis, ld medium US( l ue 



436 Rhodora 



;l)i:« i:\ihki! 



Walter's Ihjpvrinnn ram panvlatum was, ol)viously, //. r'irti'utinim 
L.; his H. petiolatum was, as obviously, the plant generally so called; 
his //. ixhulosum differed from the latter by the very character used 
by Small in his Manual to distinguish his own Triadenum longifolium; 
"Leaf-blades sessile, truncate or subcordate at base." In the series 
of H. petiolatum in the Gray Herbarium there is great diversity, some 
plants showing petioles 1.5 cm. long, others up to 1 cm., still others 
only ().:, «•„,., and still others only 2 or :{ „„„. Ruyel's material in the 
Gray Herbarium, bearing the data quoted by Small for the type of 
Ins 'Inndnnnn hmnfoUuw, has the lower and median leaves quite 
hke those of H. petiolatum except for their lack of petioles. In the 
series before me it is possible to go from plants with sessile and basallv 
narrowed leaves to those with most of them subamplexicaul. Hush's 
no. 6312 from Campbell, Missouri and Hale's mat, -rial from Louisiana 
have the several upper pairs of leaves with broadlv rounded to sub- 
casping bases. I can find no floral differences. On the bottomlands 
of the Nottoway River in Greensville County, Virginia, Mr. Bayard 
ix>ng and I had the opportunity to compare them side-by-side. The 
flowers were essentially alike, both with recurving small petals. I am, 
therefore, calling the sessile-leaved plant 

novT/ C u PETIO w'!°,', Walt '' var " tubulosum (Walt.), comb. 
• in Ann. Set. Nat. ser. 2, v. Hot. MiTM.SM)- "foliis . . . 

; !„ 1 ,;n, ;; ,i T i i 1 U ' "«™f™ "hh^o-spathulatis, sessilibus; su- 

long, obtuse sepals ot / r„d,,h, '''''''lV, ',,/''"",' ' ('' \ •' ''" "7 
sepal-shape parallels that in the ,«„ „' ' ' V !'; ' "'' ' ( "" < ' '" 
,.,,,„. • i.i 

-i->.-^s^^ssir,r ' '"""t /; "" ; r 
b : h c ,, ab r ; --— -;™: ;:!,;';;,';;; 

The foliage-characters of most extrp™ r i~ v i- , 

as broad -inH all * , e T - ""W-fohum, the sepals are 

Vio US m beSt ^ Wtiolatum. 

Little NVek.'y; 7; A ( [ I 'y IS, '; |(i Pi 1 t '.lL KSS Ax * E County: rich dry woods, 



1936] Fernald, Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 437 

First from north of South Carolina. 

*V. affims Le Conte, var. Langloisii (Greene) Griscom. Norfolk 
County: sandy bank, east of North Landing, F. & G., no. 4457. 

First from north of northern Florida. 

V. sagittata Ait. Princess Anne County: clay of roadside, 
east of Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4464. 

Not noted by Kearney. 

*Ammannia Koehnei Britton, var. exauriculata, var. nov. (tab. 
449, fig. 4 et 5), planta perennis basi prolongate decumbent i; foliis 
spathulatis vel late oblanceolatis omnibus basi attenuatis vel an- 
gustatis, superioribus nee basi dilatato-subcordatis: petalis nullis. — 
Virginia: fresh to brackish swales along North Landing River, near 
Creed's, Princess Anne Countv, September «.), l'.a'>. /• V maid, Long & 
Fogg, no. 4954 (type in Gray Herb., isotypes in Herbs. Phil. Acad, 
and Univ. Penn.). 

Var. exauricirftittt is a very extreme departure from typical Am-mun- 
nia Koehnei in having all the leaves narrowed to base (fig. 5) and in 
having a prolonged and decumbent base (fig. 4). Typical .4. Koehnei 
(figs. 1 and 2) has the erect or ascending stem rising directly from the 
annual base and its upper leaves are auriculate or subcordate-clasping 
(fig. 3). Although the wide-ranging plant sometimes has small 
Petals, they are, as originally described by Britton, "fugacious," 
so much so that it is an exceptional plant which displays them. Our 
material seems to be quite apetalous, but it is so mature that petals, 
if they occurred, would have fallen. I get no difference of calyx and 
seeds between the two. 1 am consequently treating the plant of North 
banding River as a variety. The typical annual A. Koehnei is O.S-5 
<li". high; the loosely ascending or reclining leafy stems of var. ex- 
"■"rimlul,, . Jm . 2.5 7 dm. long. 

North of Florida typical Annummiu Koehnei is a very localized 
plant. I have before me all the material in the Herbarium of the New 
York Botanical Garden, kindl\ sent by Dr. Gleason. This, with the 
representation in the Gray Herbarium, comes from the following 
scattered stations ■ 



u North Car< 

" S, ;i islands," 

Florida: si 

shores and dit. 



Rhodora [December 

\\ limps. Okeechobee region, Brevard County, Fredholm, 
ndy shore. Orange County, Frrdholm, no. 5420; pinehmds 
-re. Small, no. SSS1 ; pineland, Fort Myers, ./. F. Sfandln/, 
■rra (Via Island, Simeon, no. 407; Kev West, KW?,//. 
■pi: Heron Island, 7W//, no. 6424. 
l i.r.vxnri.osA Walt. Recorded in Rhodora, xxxvii. 433 

B single station in Norfolk County, the first record from 
mil ( Molina. Now known to be frequent from Princess 
t,\ westward to the 1'all Line. The following specimens 
tie. Pkixckss Awe County: wet argillaceous thickets 
. Rosemont, F. & L., no. 4960. Nansemond County: 
'■fi ."it border of woods, Magnolia, F. L. & F,, no. 4963. 
>\ County: argillaceous ditch south of Sebrell, F. & L., 
'i i i \>\ n.t.i County: sandy alluvium, bottomlands of 
eek, soul Invest of Haley's Bridge, F. G. & L., no. 6653. 
«GE CoUNTy: swampy clearing near Gary Church, F. & 
; alluvial woods of Second Swamp, north of Baxter Cross- 
, no. 6308. New Kent County: ditches near Providence 

& L., no. 6654, the northernmost recorded station. 

Kli. 1'riv kss Anm. County: fresh to brackish swales 
Landing River, near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 4960. 
i north of North Carolina. 

f ■-> i Long) K. H. Lames. Additional station in Princess 
n peatj margin of cove, southern end of Lake Joyce, 

im " ' ; . ''" • v ' n - nana Fern. & Grisc. in Rhodora, 

'. , ' h ~ > - h ;,ml l() ! 1035). Aucomac Couxty: depres- 
'[- '" I""": w ""'k - 1 i miles north of Accomac, F. L. & F. f 
1:1X1 '' (,li ; I;( 'i < oi'xty: swampy clearing near Gary 
-V- L. no. 6310. Si-sskx County: water-hole in sandy 
'press.on iexsu-eated shall 

'^■ille. /". Jt L., no. 6311 
.'it mns from Prince ( 
Nansemond County. 
north from southern Georgia. 

i > > M mxvTUM (Walt.) BSP. Frequent in Princess 

niter, south end of Fresh Pond, L. F. <!• F. li. 

!'■ G. & L., no. 4680; border of 

by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

V '' v!i([ ' M > L. To the few recorded stations add 

. ' l" ). ] ' : !r, ; il ; " '."-ackisli svvi.les along North Land- 



1936] Fernald, — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 439 

in swales along North Landing River, near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 
4972. Surry County: turfy tidal shore of Janus River, Claremont 
Wharf, F. & L., no. 6847. 

Rhododendron atlanticum (Ashe) Rehder. Frequent in dry 
woods, oak scrub and pinelands, from Princess Anne to Sussex 
County: many nos. 

Not noted by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

in Princess 



Not noted by Kearney. 

Galax aphylla L. Princess Anne County: rich woods east of 
Little Creek, F. & G., no. 4490, F. L. & F., no. 4985. Isle of Wight 
County: rich wooded bank of Blackwater River, near Joyner's 
Bridge, F. G. & L., no. 6668. 

Not mentioned by Kearney. 

Limonium Nashii Small, var. trichogonum Blake. Northampton 
County: border of salt marsh east of Eastville, F. & L., no. 5409. 

L. carolinianum (Walt.)* Britton, var. angustatum (Gray) 
Blake. Princess Anne County: salt marsh, arm of Lynnhaven 
Bay, at Third Street Bridge, Great Neck, F. & L., no. 4986. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

*Hottonia inflata L. Princess Anne County: pool in gum 
swamp, west of Pungo, F. & G., no. 4491. 

First specimen in the (I ray Herbarium from between southern New 
Jersey and Georgia. 

Bumelia lyctoidks (L.) Gaertn. f.. var. virginiana, var. nov., 
loi| i> nnnonnn t'erlilinni oblanceolatis. I .3 2.S em. talis, apicibus \ aide 

U j v, 'i'- August 20. l!i_'|, /■;"./. (o-iiiirs, no. 120«>; Sewell's Point, Nnr- 
'" lk ( 'oumy, June 28, 1872, A. If. Curtis: dry wooded slope near 
3d Street Bridge, Great Neck, Princess Anne County, May 5. i '.>:>">. 
tr »'»l'I & Cns,,,,,, ,,n. lli'2 (voung foliage), June 17, 1935, Fernald, 
W<„„ tV /ij//f/ n( . 1|;ss (v ; flower-buds), September."), I93.>, 

f '/""W <i" long, no. 4987 (fruit), type in Gray Herb.; rich dry woods, 
kittle Neck, Princess Anne Countv, September 6, 1935, Fernald «(• 
Long, no. 4988. 

Burndia lycioidis rests, nomenelaturally, upon Sidiroxylon lyctoidet 
L ; S P- PI. ed. 2: 279 (1762), said to grow in "Canada." Linnaeus 
cited references from Duhamel de Monceau and Boerhaave but Ins 
s Pecies must rest primarily on his own Li/rioitl,-*, Hort. Cliff. 488. In 
H °rtus Cliffortianus Linnaeus stated that the tree came from the 
East Indies or perhaps from Africa ("Crescit vel in India Orientali? 



440 Rhodora [December 

vel potius in Africa'/"). It is now generally recognized as the char- 
acteristic Carolina Buckthorn of the southern United States. 

The tree usually passing as Butnrlin lynn'tilr* has the mature leaves 
of the fruiting branches (excluding those of the sprouts and leading 
shoots) elliptic-oblong to narrowly obovate, tapering to a blunt but 
siibacuiuinate apex, and becoming 2-3.8 cm. broad. This tree, oc- 
curring from Florida, to Texas, extends north into North Carolina, 
western Kentucky, southern Illinois, southern Missouri and Kansas. 
The tree of southeastern Virginia always, so far as known (from four 
areasi, has the leaves of the fertile branches strongly rounded at apex 
and when mature only 1.3- 2.8 cm. broad, and so far as we yet know 
this tree with narrower and round-tipped leaves occurs only at this 
northeastern limit of the specific range. 

In view of the original obscurity as to the geographic source of 
L'jnoid.s, I asked Mr. C. A. Weatherby to determine, while in Eng- 
land in the summer of 1935, just what Linnaeus had before him. 
He reports that there is no Clifford specimen at the British Museum, 
but that in the Linnean Herbarium the material marked in the hand 
of Linnaeus " lyrioidcs" is of the characteristic southern tree with the 
narrowly obovate leaves abruptly narrowed to a blunt apex; a photo- 
- r: 'I' il M ' ,,iri (1 U > M <- Weatherby confirms this identification. Inci- 
' i, ' nI;ill >. Mr - Weatherbj determined that Sideroxylon laeve Walt, 
"ro 100, ia also the more southern tret: with subacuminate 
. ( ' aX< ' S ' ... tlnS nmmrtlon >t is at least noteworthy that Sargent, 
'" Nha ' si " ,u1,1 h;iV( ' described the leaves as "acute and rounded 

j'' m "' X .' ml ,li: " F;ix ""' s l )lat(J should have shown the flowering 
''■""' "_)' il - nr 'l'"i'""i, with the leaves unquestionably round- 
- obviously made from the Curtiss material 

■■'table. By the International Rules, 

"" "o. XUI, the specific epithet takes a capital initial 

no i enencname. The question is whether Liinoidr* 

■ ■ ( .j " ' '/ , '"!'"; ( ''Planus, was a generic name. At the end of 

..j "' Tl "' latter work > Linnaeus, after properly treating 

" -"'-,,, such as Cycas, Trapa, Conorarpv.s, U^ndambar, 

-,.' ' u '" lliui ;1 nondescript category "Oidea," for plants 

o which he did not have the necessary flowers to place them in the 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 441 

regular genera. He treated these as hypothetical genera, giving them 
provisional names indicating their similarity to recognized genera: 
Obvidrs, Caiutoidrx, I.ycioides, etc.. The last "Fades perfects Lycii, 
fristis," etc. If Lycioides be considered a generic name, then the 
specific name repeating it should l>e given a capital initial. The fact, 
that in publishing S'ulero.riilnn lyrioides Linnaeus used a small initial. 
has only a minor bearing on the question, for in some other cases 
Linnaeus used lower-case initials !'< »r old generic names used as specific 
epithets. I am keeping, however, to the long established usage. It 
might be thought by some that Linnaeus, whose names and often 
quite inconsistent and frequently unidentifiable species are usually 
overglorified, was violating the provisions of the 1935 rules in publish- 
ing hypothetical or provisional genera. I leave the decision on that 
point to those who are better able to solve such problems. 

Fraxinus pkxsyi.vamca Marsh. Norfolk County: gum swamps 
and wet woods near Indian Creek. F. (7. «£• L., no. 4690. Thence 
westward to the Fall Line. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

Gentiana parvifolia (Chapm.) Britton. Northampton County: 
wet pine woods, Eastville, F. <.(■ L., nos. 4714, 4717; by brook m 
swampy woods south of Kendall drove, F. L. tfr F., no. 4515. Acco- 
mac County: border of low woods, 2 miles south of Painter, F. L. & 
F>, no. 541G; border of low woods, 1 ' ■> miles north of Temperaneeville, 
(• L. & F., no. 5418. Westward to Isle of Wight and western 
Nansemond Counties. 

Extensions north and west from Princess Anne County. 

G. villosa L. Princess Anne County: rich dry woods, Great 
inn !"' F - & L > no - 4993 : rich woo<ls - Virginia Beach, F. L * F., no. 
4994. Nansemond Cot xi y: drv samlv woods and adjacent clearings. 
K,1 V, F. L. & F., nos. 4995, 4997. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

Ipomoea Lacuxosa L Prtncfss Vxxe Cnrvn: grassy roadside, 



1*1,.;,.; 



dge, F. L. & /•'., 



near Creed's, F. L. & F., 

Not listed by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

Phlox paxiculata L. Princess Anne County: roadside-banks 
and fence-rows near Creed's, F. L. & F., no. 5012. 

Not listed by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

"Verbena urticifolia L., var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald, yar. 
^y- (tab. 450, fig. 5 -Si. foliis subtus minute vein'; 
Pnis longioribus vix ti.'A mm Ion-is- ramis floriferis filiformibus laxe 



41 2 Rhodora [December 

adsrendentibus vel divergentibus puberulis; bracteis 0.5-1 mm. longis; 
ealyeibus niaturis 1.7-2 nun. longis puberulis; coccis 1.5 mm. longis 
luridis dorso plain's.— Eastern Virginia to South Carolina, rarely 
'""'Tliuanl in ( (,!!»,. cticut. Connecticut: damp woods, Wethersfield, 
Churls U right. New Jersey: sandy loam by Maurice River, Port 
Khzab.-th, November 8, 1936, Long. Virginia: rich woods, Virginia 
1»«-.-m-1.. September 10, 1935, Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 5013 (type in 
<T|;IV Uvvh - : '■" ■'■ >;"idy and loamy wooded slope north of Walters, 
August I'll and 22, l<i:{li, Frruahl, (irisroui S: Lour,, no. 067-1 ; border of 
,r > -'"'!> uo<„is. 1 miles south of Stony Creek, August 19, 1936, 
;'" '"" / ' / " Gnseom & Long, no. 6673; rich woods southeast of Ivor, 
( >«-tr.l»er If,, I'.i.-iii, tn;mbl d- Lour,, no. 6864. North Carolina: moist 
ground Durham Co., August 26, 1932, H. L. Blomquist, no. 149. 
vi°V, TH C , AR0LINA: damp S um -° ak woods, 1 mile north of Kingstree, 
Williamsburg Co., July 11, 1927, Wiegand & Manning, no. 2714. 

Common and wide-ranging typical Verbena urticifolia has the leaves 
Btrigofle-hirsute on the veins beneath (fig. 2) with stiff hairs up to 
1-1.3 mm. long, or glabrate; the mature inflorescence (fig. 1) with 
"sualh st iffy ascending strigose branches; mature calyx (fig. 3) 
stngose, 2-2.3 mm. long, the subtending bract 1-1.5 mm. long; 
mature nutlets (fig. 4) about 2 mm. long and definitely corrugated 
°* nh ™ on th e back. Var. leiocarpa, on the other hand, has the 
thin leaves (fig. 6) velutinous or subvelutinous beneath with minute 
hairs only very rarely 0.3 mm. long; the panicle (fig. 5) lax, with 
1<>".m-I> aseendmg to divergent puberulent, filiform mature branches; 
the mature calyx (fig. 7) at most 2 mm. long and puberulent, with 
very short (0.5-1 mm. long) bract; and the tiny nutlets (fig. 8) only 
1-6 mm. long and quite smooth on the back. Although an old and 
'"niao d sheet from Connecticut is in the Gray Herbarium, no other 
'■ en ' « Found there or in the extensive local collection of the New 

U f ''"' ' " j ( lub from north of New Jersey. 

, ' rh y" >n l' n f" !; "< var. leiocarpa, although having the same general 

;.' X " '" "f V s< AHRA Vahl > collected by Fernald & Long in Surry 

° r ; n ' °2*?\ im (Wder of tidal marsh along Gray's Creek, 

■•■;'■ «m ( reck Landing, south of Swann Point, no. 6863, the first 

'"'.7'". from north of Wilmington, North Carolina), may be 

^uished in flower by the bilobed character of the stigma, 

surface being subtended by one sterile lobe. In I. .rubra. 

tne other hand, the stigmatic surface lies between two almost 

I 1 v Vi ?' ThC frUiting Calyx of r " urticifolia, var. b iocarpa 

«'«vergent from the rachis and the nutlets are smooth; 

•"■reus, ,n 1 . seabn, the fruiting calyx is strongly divergent and the 



1936] Female! — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 443 

nutlets reticulate above. Furthermore, after drying, the plants in 
question are easily separable on foliar character, the upper surface 
of the leaves of V. vrticifolia, var. leiocarpa being much less harsh to 
the touch than those of V. scabra. 

V. canadensis (L.) Britton. Princess Anne County: roadside 
bank, Creed's, F. & G., no. 4496. 

In Dr. Perry's Revision of the North American Species of Verbena 
(Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. xx. 316 (1933) ) recorded northward only to 
North Carolina but Small (Man.) extends the range to Virginia. 

Stachys hyssopifolia Michx. York County: exsiccated elay- 
■"•' ;i ■:ii'-'i pond in woods, 2 miles south of Yorktown, /'. /.. d* /'.. no. 
5016. 

Not listed by Erlanson. According to Epling, Prelim. Revis. Am. 
Stachys, in Fedde, Repert.Sp. Nov. Reg. Yeg. Heih. lxxx.71 (1934) the 
species "ranges from Eastern Massachusetts along the coast to New 
Jersey and Delaware, thence inland to eastern Pennsylvania. It 
occurs also in the Appalachian system in northern Virginia and in 
western North Carolina." Our station is, therefore, the first on the 
Coastal Plain south of Delaware. 

S. tenuifolia Willd. Princess Anne County: wet argillaceous 
thickets and ditches, Rosemont, F. & L., no. 5017. 

Not listed by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. Northampton County: dry 
clearing bordering pine woods, south of Kendall Grove, F. L. & F., 

Not listed by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

*Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumont, forma cleistogama, f. now, 
'tis tubulosis vel subconicis e calyce vix exsertis elansis. 

Virginia: sandy pineland, Cape Henrw Max 1. 1035, Frmald & 

' • -' , no 4408 (^vni, :- n tr^_u . ,„ — „.„t^. :., u„ r K, Cric-ntu 

and Phil. Acad.); , 
m »< Frmald, Oris 

L ate in the season the flowers of Linario canudnixis may become 
greatly reduced in size, though morphologically normal. Forma 
c <K>togama at Cape Henry and at False Cape was abundant in the 
ry sand, the vernal flowers quite insignificant and completely closed, 
inning a blunt cap above the ovary. 
wn!f AR , IA d ecemloba Greene. Nansemond County: dry sandy 

°»as and adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 5034. 

Not liste <i by Kearney. The easternmost Virginia station given by 



Rhodora 






[December 


. Phila. lx> 
ty. Kilby 
aistal Plai 


:xl 208 (1929), 


is New Bohe- 
itheast of New 


Barnhart 
eck, F. L. 


. Nob 
A- /•'., IK 


thampton County: 



•very, giving us a station intermediate between 
cv and Florida and Cuba. When he published 
»rr. Bot. CI. xxxiv. 580 (1907) Barnhart had seen 
on-- Island, from Cape May and from Florida 
Nance [of the latter to the Long- Island and Cape 
ed so close that I am unable to name any char- 
nay be distinguished. . . it seems better to 
in Cuba and Florida provisionally to ('. virfjn- 
;ck several other species, far isolated from their 
Engt'lmmmi at its first station south of New 
are.v armaria of Atlantic Europe (see p. 399), 
i first coastwise station north of Florida (seep. 



kf.a F., forma pubescens (Britton), comb 
mbescens Britton, Mem. Torr. Bot. CI. h 
ial is from Northampton County: dry 



d at a number of other stations 
toother Houstonia purpurea. It 
er than a geographically isolated 



orviY: marshy borders of woods between 

rium from north of Georgia. 

lichx. Recorded from Princess Anne 
m Rhodora, xxxvii. 446 (1935). Range 
and westward. Northampton County: 

'. lavage Xeck, F. &■ L., no. 5457; drv pine 

•<>ve, F. L. & F., no. 5458. Isle of Wight 



1936] Fernald — Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 445 

County: rich sandy and loamy wooded slope north of Walters, F. G. 
& L., no. 6697. 

Ripe fruit purple-black, succulent. 

Viburnum prunifolium L. Prince George County: border of 
rich dry woods, Great Neck, F. G. & L., no. 4705. Norfolk County: 
• lamp 'ticket, Cedar Hill, /■'. *• G., no. 4508. Thence west to the 
Fall Line. 

Not recorded by Kearney from east of Nansemond County. 

Lobelia elongata Small. To the type-locality, Northwest in 
Norfolk County, cited bv McVaughin Rhodora, xxxvui. 2m.. add 
Princess Anne (ointy: brackish marsh by North Landing River, 
Pungo Ferry, F. & G., nos. 2946, 2947, also at same station (near 
Creed's), 1 F. L. & F., no. 5053. 

Elephantopus carolinianus Willd. Tkin. ess Anne County: 
rich woods, Virginia Beach, F. & G., no. 2896, F. L. &F., no .8058. 
Xanskmond County; dry sandy woods along Pitch Kettle Creek, 
north of Lake Kilby, F. L. &• F., no. 5059. Thence west to the *all 
Line. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

Princess Anne County: rich woods^ Virginia 



Beach, F. L. ,(• /'., no. 5056. Thence westward to the Fall Line. 
Northampton County: in Piuus Tarda forests about Cape Charles, 
Ti<Ir«troi,i, no. 1 1,595; dry sandy pine woods, Eastville, f. & L., no. 
5480. 

Not listed by Kearney. The species is not recorded for Maryland 
by Shreve. We found it in some abundance, when, returning by car 
to Philadelphia, we stopped at twilight to collect Nyssa sylvatica, var. 
biflora (Walt.) Sarg., near its northern limit. At the base of a tree 
covered with Bignonia, caprcMta, also near its northern limit, Elephan- 
topu, hmaitnxu* was abundant: border of gum swamp, south of 
Beaver Dam, along Wagram Creek, Worcester County, Maryland, 
F. L. & F., no. 5574. 

Elephantopus tomkntosis I,, forma rotundatus, forma nov., 




440 Rhodora 

clearing l)ordering pine woods south of Kendall Grove, Northampton 
Co., October 13 and 15, 1935, Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 5482 (type 
in Gray Herb.). 

Typical Elephantopus tomentosus has the narrowly to broadly obo- 
vate rosette-leaves tapering at base and once-and-a-half to thrice as 
long as broad, and its cauline bracteal leaves narrow and small. 
Forma rotundatus, with its round-based and round-tipped short 
rosette-leaves and broad and numerous cauline ones is a striking 
departure from it. This extreme variation may have resulted from 
clearing of the land but all the plants in a clearing of many acres were 
essentially uniform. A similar specimen in the Gray Herbarium, 
without rosette-leaves, but with the lower cauline one strongly rounded 
at both ends or even subcordate, was sent from Mississippi by Dr. 
Crockett (through C. W. Short, who commented on the "odd leaf"). 

Solidago PUBERULA Nutt, var. pulverulenta (Nutt.) Chapm. 
Noted in Rhodora, xxxvii. 447 (1935) from Princess Anne County. 
Range extended to Elizabeth City County: bushy clearings and 
borders of woods west of Hampton, F. L. & F., no. 5083. 

S. pixetori-m Small. Recorded in Rhodora, 1. c. 448 from Prin- 
cess Awe, Henrico and Pittsylvania Counties. Range extended 
slightly north to York County: border of dry woods, 2 mil. s sunt), 
Of Y( .rktown, F. L. & F., no. 5086. Common inland to the Fall Line. 

>. vadkixexsis (Porter) Small. See Fernald, Rhodora, xxxviii. 

-11 l''.:»". Nansemond County: dry sandy woods am! ;idja<rni 

by, F. L, & F., no. 5084; Suffolk, July 24, 1872, A. H. 

( , ir ti,,, : ,s X. Buoftu, also Heller, no. 1127, as N. hnntfii. Frequent 

westward to the Fall Line and beyond. 

Flowering chiefly in late June and July. 

? I' n q?^ VICI nt NA (Gray) SmalL See Fernald > l - c - 200 > P 1 - 422 ' fi s s - 
('.", ■', N ? R ™ AMPT0N County: dry pine woods northwest of 
,. V ,' S . ' ■ ;!'.,{■• no - 5512 - James Cit y County: old grown-up 

"fg. (.runes, no. 4445, as S. Boottii. Pkince 
George County: dry s:..ul.x uoods :,,.,! Hearings west of New Bo- 
iTsm'. ' n °- 5932; dry W °° ds ' Blackwa ^ School, F. L. & S., 

Very late-flowering, in late September and October. 
an H*9 N nq?r R f L M Ait ' Var - Halea * a F emald, 1. c. 227, pi. 431, figs. 1 
F L TfL^TTT? C ° m '■ Ca P eville ' 

L\LL^ist™ ; F - & L " nos - 5524 and 5525 ' from EastvilIe > are 

Pmvr^ T T LIA r "• ReCOi : ded in Rhodora - xxxvii - 44 8 (1935) from 
- W ■ Axxe County, where local. Northampton County: com- 

nT «1 Y?SZ WO ° ds > man ? r" ° ne P lant on Sa W Neck (F. & U 
no. 5517) being an evident hybrid with S. odora 



19:56] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 447 

It is probable that the northeastern limit of range of Solidago iorti- 
folia is in Northampton or Accomac County. It has been cited from 
Maryland on the basis of the confusing blanket-label of the late Wil- 
liam M. Canby: "Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia." 
Under this label Canby distributed abundant material. Very similar 
specimens in the Gray Herbarium bear the memorandum in the hand 
of Asa Gray: "Northampton Co., Virginia. E. Shore, 1867. W. M. 
Canbij." 

S. Elliottii T. & G., var. pedicellata Fernald in Rhodora, 
xxxviii. 21.), pi. 42.1 ( I936i. The type is from Northampton Colnty: 
border of wet pine woods, Kastville, F. &• L, no. 5520. Immature 
specimens from near Hampton {F. L. A- F., no. 5091) apparently belong 
with it. 

Very late, flowering in mid-October. 

*Aster spectabilis Ait., var. suffultus, var. nov. (tab. 451 et tab. 
452, fig. 1), planta 6-9 dm. alto; pedun< 

involucris subcylindrico-campanulatis 1.4-1.6 em. altis: hractris ca. 
S-soriatis valde sqimrrosis, apiciluis cxtcriorum valdc foliaceis ovatis 
margine glanduloso-ciliatis.— Virginia : bushy clearings and borders 
of woods, west of Hampton, September 13, 1935, Fernald, Long & 
Fogg, no. 5096 (type in Gray Herb.). 

Typical Aster spectabilis, occurring from eastern Massachusetts to 
Delaware and Maryland and reappearing in the Carolina mountains, 
is usually 2.5-6 (rarely -8) dm. high; with campanulate or (when dry) 
campanulate-hemispheric involucres (pl. 452, figs. 2 and 3) 0.8-1.4 
cm. high; the bracts in about 6 series, the outer with oblong or ob- 
lanceolate, herbaceous tips loosely ascending to slightly squarrose. 
Isolated southward, on the southern coast of North Carolina, var. 
rinerascnui Blake in Rhodora, xxx. 226 (1928), differs from typical 
A. spectabilis in its cinereous-hirsute and less glandular indument, 
but the involucres are otherwise much as in the more northern typical 
A. spectabilis. Var. suffultus, also isolated from the continuous 
range of A. spectabilis, has an involucre almost as suggestive of A. 
Curtisii T. & G. (pl. 452, fig. 4) as of A. spectabilis, but A. Curtisii is 
a thin- and glabrous-leaved plant, with glandless and glabrous, broad 
involucres. A. spectabilis, var. suffvltus has the glandular peduncles 
and involucres and the characteristic scabrous foliage of A. spectobih*. 

Torrey & Gray, Fl. ii. 108 (1841), extended the range of A. spectabilis 
south to Florida. This is extremely doubtful. The Torrey & Gray 
material in the Gray Herbarium which was reputed to come from 
Florida was labeled in Gray's hand "Florida? Croom" and "£.", which 



448 Rhodora [December 

means that it was A. spectabUis, £. T. ^ G., 1. c. with ''flowering 
branches, or peduncles, few and slender, mostly simple, pilose with 
slender hairs as well as glandular-pubescent." This plant, type of 
A. spedabilis, £., is Blake's var. cinerascens; and it is significant that 
above his original "Florida? Croom" Gray later wrote in pencil 
" Perhaps N. Car." That is more probable. 

Another old sheet in the Gray Herbarium, identified by Gray as 
A. xwruloxHx, is marked "fieri). Rat', [inesquej, IS 12. Locality un- 
recorded." This consists of a plant of .1. ttpcctabilix, var. rinrrasccm 
and a characteristic top of the newly proposed var. suffultus. It is 
possible that Rafinesque had, presumably buried under some other 
genus, names for both these plants. 

Aster gracilis Nutt. Princess Anne County: argillaceous 
clearings and borders of woods, Virginia Beach, F. & L., no. 5097. 
Xanskmoxd Coi\ty: about Suffolk, Heller, no. 1140; dry sandy 
woods and adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 5098. Thence 
west to the Fall Line. 

Not recorded by Kearney from Virginia. 

A. graxdiflorus L. Nansemond County: dry sandy woods and 
adjacent clearings, Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 5099. Thence west to the 
Fall Line and northward at least to Hanover County: October 10, 
1890, T. C. Porter. 

An October-flowering species, very handsome. Not noted by 

A. coxcolor L. Northampton Couxty: sandy and argillaceous 

ipper border of beach, Chesapeake Bay, west of Kiptopeke, 

F.L. & F., no. 5531. Nansemoxd County: dry sandv woods and 

■ by, F. L. & /•'., no. 5100. Thence west to the 

Fall Line. 

Not recorded by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

*Aster coxcolor L., forma lasiocaulis, f. nov., caulibus villosis, 

villis patcntibus; foliis plus minusve villosis Vikoimw drv sandv 

! - l»i"f wood, back of the shore-bluff, west of Kiptopeke, 

October 14, 1935, Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 5532 (type in Gray Herb.; 

isotypes in Herbs. Phil. Acad, and Univ. Penn.). 

Typical Aster concolor (no. 5531), with minute canescent-puberu- 
lent or -sericeous coat, abounds on the steep outer bluff along Chesa- 
peake Bay, west of Kiptopeke, and there shows no departure from the 
ordinary form. Forma lasiocaulis makes a pure colony back from the 
bluff, in woodland humus, where, at some seasons, the ground must 
be positively wet. The extreme development of pubescence may, 



1936] Fernald,— Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 449 

perhaps, be a response to these unusual conditions, typical A. con- 
color being a decided xerophyte. 

A. patens Ait. Northampton Cointy ; dry sandy and argillaceous 
pine woods back of the shore-bluff, west of Kiptopeke, F. L. & F., no. 
5533. Nansemond Coin'TY: dry sandy woods and adjacent clearings, 
Kilby, F. L. & F., no. 5101. Thence locally west to the Fall Line. 

Not recorded by Kearney from southeastern Virginia. 

Erigeron pulchellus Michx. Princess Anne Cointy: rich 
woods, Great Neck, F. & G., no. 4513. 

Recorded by Kearney only from Suffolk. 

E. philadelphicus L. Princess Anne County: rich woods, 
Cedar Island, F. G. & L., no. 4707. 

Not noted by Kearney. 

*E. ramosus (Walt.) BSP., var. Beyrichii (Fisch. & Mey.) Trel. 
Princess Anne County: dry mixed woods, Little Neck, F. & L., no. 
4236. Dinwiddie Counts : border of dry sandy woods near Carson, 
F. L. & S., no. 5938. Southampton County: dry sandy oak and pine 
woods northeast of Cypress Bridge, F. & L., no. 6425. 

Quite like the Beyrich material in the Gray Herbarium. Strikingly 
different from common K. ramosus in its very reduced foliage, small 
heads and often violet rays. It also flowers later. Not noted by 
Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

*E. RONARiENSis 1, (/•,'. UnifoUns Willd.) Norfolk County: 
sandy roadside near Gertie, F. G. tV L., no. 4709. 

Extension north from South Carolina. 

Silphium athopurpureum Retz. Princess Anne Cointy: rich 
dry woods, Great Neck. /'. G. <v /...no. 4711. 



from Wythrville, Wythe County. Virginia, between the Alleghenies 
and tlie'plue Uid-r'-iud our co'lleeiion from Princess Anne County. 

Heiivntius \NcrsTiFoi its L Eiiz\reth City Cointy: bushy 
Hearings and borders of woods west of Hamilton, F. L. tfc F., no. 5144. 
Frequent from Nansemond County to the Fall Line. 

Not listed by Erlanson. 

Bidens discoidea (T. & G.) Britton. Northampton- County: 

— npy , | s ,„,„■ Main's Siding, F. L * F.,no. 5558. PRINCESS 

Anne Cointy: damp peaty depi 



Henry, F. & L., 
tbe"Fall Line; usually on fallen logs 
umps in swamps. 



450 Rhodora [December 

Not noted by either Kearney or Erlanson. 

Senecio aureus L. Prixcess Axne Couxty: rich woods, Great 
Neck, F. & G., no. 4517. 

Not listed by Kearney. 

Krk.ia Dandelion (L.) Nutt. Princess Anne County: open 
clay, borders of thickets, Virginia Beach, F. & G., no. 4518. 

Nut listed by Kearney nor by Erlanson. 

Explanation of Plates 440-452 
Plate 440. Spikelets of Leersia virginica Willd. Sufficiently explained 

Plate 441. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.: fig. 1, plant, X %, from 
Clinton, Maryland, September 28, 1921, Th. Holm. 

P. dichotomiflorum var. geniculatum (Wood) Fernald: small plant, X -',-, 
from Eastham, Massachusetts, September 24, 1913, /■'. S. Collins. 

Plate 442. Panicum agrostoides Spi 
from near New \ oik, Gray, \ \ < -.ikcletB, X 10, 

.. 
from Constant ia, V-y. y"i .. Eamea, no. 14,147. 

1 
5 spikelets, X 10 from n _»,,, ,,,„„ | .,,, , H.II, 

•.•:.■: 

P. stipitatum Nash: fig. 7, portio 
specimen; fig. 9, grain, X 20, from sai 

l ) ' t ' Ui n:] - I'\m<tm mt-m.i m, n. -p. ui. 1 , portion of plant in at 






bearded node 
leaf, showing 



7riZ;j r ' a ot upper leal, I 

viscid spots, X 10, from type. 

■"■: kio. 6, spikclet, X 10, from Wilmington, iNoriu 
Carolina, August 28, 1905, A. S. Hitchcock. 

it t A ^ UL / : ;V '■ ' " 7 > spikelet, X 10, from Takoma Park, 

l> ,; t "- ", "lumlH.. lulv _>7. iMOt,.),;,, < ,<„ ,,„„',, 

Michx.: no. 1. inflorescence and 
! 
^ Massachusetts, August 8, 

:.;,:-;-' «' ^^^^ t ^i^Slt^ Son\ie B p£t°a e s 

S. minor (Britton) W. Stone: fig. 5, in 
tapering bracts, X 1, from head of Poo W 
Fernald, Long & Smart, no. 5665 fig 6 sm _ 

aSes," xf from no' 5665™ ^ W * ° f "^ "^ ^"SB? A*S 
ence, with characteristically tapering 



, Fernald, Griscom & Long' 






Plants from the Coastal Plain of Virginia 
X 2, from the type; fig. 3, fruit, X 6, from tl 

J. e'ffusus L., var. COffrr* »-"» W— «.M. «« 

Clement Pond, Barrington. 

J. gymnocarpus Coville: fig. 6, capsule, X 6, from an isotype, Broad 
Mountain, Sell ;gust 24, 1866, C. A'. Smitf, 

Platk 44t). M w.axis Bayahiu, n. sp.: hi;. 1, four plants, 1, I'rorn kilb\ , 
Virginia, Fernald, Long & Fogg, no. 4851 (type); fig. 2, portion of raceme, 

M.'unifolia Michx.: fig. 3, raceme, X 1, from Cuthbert, Georgia, Harper, 

Plate 447. Varieties of Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fernald, all 
figs. X 10. P. fastigiata, var. typica: fig. 2, f.u 

, n< . 7.>5 ii<. .5. • ■' — .<.-i:ii-.-tr~. 

togust 26, 1900, E / ■ a and fruit from Waterford, 

New York, Home, no. 13,37)4; fig. 5, flowers and fruit from Clark County, 
Indiana, Dram, no. 7540. 

Var. paleacea, n. var.: fig. 6, flowers from Mt. Cuba, Delaware, July 30, 
1878, Commons (type); fig. 7, flowers from Allegheny Mts., Steele & Steele, 

Var! Nuttalli (Small) Fernald: fig. 8, fruits from Blue Ridge Summit, 

kiity), 1886, Tatnall. 
Var. ptjmila (Wood) Fern.: fig. 9, ; !'•■• s <" 1 ' A ' 

■ 
Three-Top Mt., Shenandoah County, Virginia, Hunnewell & Gnscom, no. 

P. canadensis (L.) Wood: fig. 1, fruit from Danvers, Massachusetts, 
August 14, 1887, J. H. Sears. , . 

Plate 448. Cassi a m< i i pans L. : fig. 4, surface of legume, X 4, from Cape 
Henry, Virginia, Frrnul.,1 A- Grisnw, no. 2830. ^ _ ] _^ ^ f 

Aft 

X 4, from the type. , , .. . 

C. nictitans L, var leiocarpa, n. var.: FIG. 5, surface ot legume, X 4, 
from the rvn. I'me Mn ti , //, no 496. 

I'r.AiK 14<i. Aii\i.\\vi\ Kuktinki Britton: rios. land -\ plants, X H trom 

Iom., / mm in H. ih N V Bot. Gard.); 

'«.. 3. bases of upper leaves with axillary flowers (one petal showing), X 2, 
l'-«iu.Ia<-ks.mvillo, Florida, .1. //. Curtis, no. 5133. „ , .„,•,„. 



North Landing Kiver, Virginia, Ftr'noM, Long A' /•-w/^no. 4l).i4 m 



. has, s ot i 



Plate 450 V ; : fig. 1, portion of ■ 

v 
29, 1894, B. L. Robinson- fig 2, lower surface of lea 
Pennsylvania, August 29, 1900. // 7, .- fn, 3, I 

WO. 1. ,,,„ r, Massachusetts, September 27, 1891, 

Rafter Deane. . f 

\ fkticifolia, var. lkioi a i \ I 1 , in a ! . i ild. n i \. u0 )?T™°e. 

■ ' ' 

- npe trun, A iu, 

from the typL rp 

M 'm" ' ' •J" )rn n '""I" ■,/ t t Foflrflf, no. 6096. 



.,<! fk,. :;. \. sim.. 1 msii.is Imm lirook- 

line, Massachusetts, September 12, 1889, Faxon. Fig. 4, A. Cuktisii lorr. & 

Sounty, North Carolina, September, 1897, E. E. Magee. 




, 419, 420. 
Nuttalli, 417-419, 421. 
Polygonoides, 419. 

' " , 417-421 
. ,i, 4 IS 421. 
h, 41 S 120. 
c, 418. 
<l, IIS 12(1. 



Asclepias 1, 
Ascyrum Ci 

Hypericoides 
Varietie 

linifol 



ar. paupercula, 



var. virginiana, 



Gentiana parvifolia, 



Gratiola pilosa, 377. 
Gymnopogon ambiguus, 
Habenaria ciliaris, 378. 



?a, 439. 

f. pube- 

Hyacinth, Water, 401. ' 
Hydrocotyle Canbyi, :;«»4. 
Hydrolea quadrivalvis, 393. 




nodiflora, 378. 
:-, 440. 
Styraciflua, 377. 

Lobelia elongata, 'ATS, \ (.">. 
puberula, 377. 

data, 438. 
alternifolia,_377. 

glandulosa, 377, 438. 

Lycioides, 439-441. 
Lycopodiun; b 

alopecur 

inundatum, 382. 

var. adpressum, 3S 



i:,ii 



iron, 429. 

a d Bayardi, 402-404, 451, pi. 446. 
brachvpoda, 404. 

(Irisekirhianu, 103, 101. 

unifolia, 102 104, 151, pi. 440. 
Marsh St. .Johnsworts, 433. 
Meibomia arenicola, 425. 



INDEX 

Panicum d 



Melica n 



, 384 



Not as on Paronychia, § Anychia, 416. 
Nyachi 



italicuiii, 3N0. 

inicrocarpoii, 30 1. 
miliaceum, 387-38S 
mundum, 392 3! 
443. 

nitiduin, 302, 304. 




. tris, 377, 422. 



141. 



I'll; i-ili- c i il 

Phlox panicuL 
Pigeon Grape, 
Pinus echinata, 37S, 4 

serotina, 377. 

Taeda, 376, 445. 

Plagidia montana, 421 



Polypodium polypodioic 
Populus heterophylla, 3' 
Potamogeton lonchites, 

Psoralea pedunculata, 3 

psoralioides, 424. 
Pyrrhopappus 



Johnsworts, Marsh, 433. 
icornia ambigua, 415. 
europaea, 415. 



S., minis v 



,415. 

canadensis, 422. 

. rotundifolia, 422, 423. 

Scleria Elliottii, 3«»3. 
flaccida, 397. 

gracilis, 39S. 

minor, W7. 39X, 150, pi. 114. 

nitida, 397, 398, 450, pi Ml. 



ciflora,378.' 



Setaria magna, 394. 

Sideroxylon laeve, 44 

lycioides, 439, 4< 



' ma, var. Ion; 

Kusty Cinerea, 42S. 
_ Winter Grape, 428. 
ra, 393. 
i faduca, 393. 



cymosa, 370, 3S0, 390. 



Stachys hyssopifi 
tonuifolia, 1 



- 

Stevartia, 429. 
Stewartia, 429, 



. 



petiolatuni, l.'iti. 

ata, 377, 384. 
Triodia flava, var. Chapmani, 385. 
Tripsacum dactyloides, 37ti. 

-:,.;77. 
Ulmus alata, 378. 

' folia, 378. 

long'ifolia, 384. 
. paniculata, 377, 381, 384. 
x'ssiliflora, 3M. 

I tl'ieularia Vll'uatllla, 3X1, 144. 



viriratmn, v;ir. hnellum, 378. 
• ricana, 384. 
: Ascyrum Hypericoides, 
of Hypericum § Elodea, 433. 
of Leorsiji virginica, 3S5. 
of Paronychia fastigiata, 451. 

idewris, 443. 
scabra, 442, 143. 
urticifolia, 442, 451, pi. 450. 
var. leiocarpa, Hi 14:;, 



prumfolium, 445. 




-. var. Langloisii 


, 437. 


esculenta, 436. 




pectinata, 377, 394. 




sagittata, 437. 




Stoneana, 436. 




Vitis aestivalis, 426-428. 




var. argentifolia, 


428. 


" Mooter, 428. 




argentifolia, 428. 




bicolor, 428. 




cinerea, 427, 428. 




var. 428. 




" floridana, 426 








Simpsoni, 426-428. 




Water Hyacinth, 401. 




Winter Grape, Rustv, 12s. 




Wisteria frutescens, 424. 




WolfBa punctata, 3X1, :;'.).">, 


100, H 


Wolffiella floridana, :S«.t:,, tl) 




X,\ ii- can.liniaiia, 370. 




difformig, 370. 




Clava-Herculis, 377,381, 425. 



ARABIS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL 
NORTH AMERICA 



By Milton Hopkins 



Dates of Issue 

63-98 12 March, 1937 

106-148 and Plates 457 and 458 5 April, 1937 

155-186 8 May, 1937 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



ARABIS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL 
NORTH AMERICA 



By Milton Hopkins 



Dates of Issue 

Pages 63-98. 12 March, 1937 

" 106-148 and Plates 457 and 458 5 A P' '■'• L837 

" 155-186 8 May, 1937 



Rhodora 



give us all the facts. In tracing the etymology of the name, 1 I find 
that it occurs in two 15th Century manuscripts of Dioscorides' Materia 
Medica which, in published form, were' undoubtedly available to 
Linnaeus at the University of Upsala. In the standard edition of 
Dioscorides' work, edited by Max Wellman in 1907, 2 the section in 
Book ii (§185) pertaining to Arabis is omitted from the main text, al- 
though included in a footnote, because practically the same descrip- 
tion (with only the most minor variations) is given for " Drabe" in 
an earlier section (157). The description for Arabis reads as follows, 
the brackets being mine: 

"Grass [herb] about a cubit high, slender, stem-leaves like a 
Lepidium, but softer and whiter, and the top an umbel having 
white flowers. The herb is cooked in a gruel in Cappadocia. Fruit 
when dry is mixed with condiments as a substitute for pepper." 
In view of the fact that Linnaeus named a plant Lepidium Draba, one 
is somewhat inclined to the belief that perhaps he was familiar with 
the above description, and that more than likely he had also seen 
Dioscorides' similar one for Arabis but, realizing that the genus 
Arabis was quite distinct from the genus Lepidium, had used the 
name for our genus, and concluded that, because it (as well as Lepid- 
vum) was "cooked in a gruel in Cappadocia," it must have been 
named by Dioscorides from some region nearby. And what region 
more probably than Arabia? The words "Arabia Regione" in the 
■ Botanica give only part of the story; one concludes from 
them that Linnaeus himself named the plant after the country 
Arabia. But what appears to be much more likely is that Dios- 
corides first applied the name, and that Linnaeus obtained it from him. 
Lnnaeus, in 1753/ described seven species of Arabis and two of 
lumtu, winch genus was first merged with Arabis, in 1829 by Gaudin. 4 
Uf Linnaeus' hst only A. lurata and A. canadensis were strictly 
• "ft i Ameman, the others all being European or Eurasian (except 
for A. alpina and T. glabra, which have since been found in North 
^meriea as well as in Europe). Michaux 5 next discussed the genus in 
Worth America, but he included only one species of Arabis and none 

» Species Plantarum, ii. 664-666 (1753). 



1937] Hopkins— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 65 

of Turritis, his A. fulcata being merely another name for Linnaeus' 
A. canadensis. In 1807 Persoon published his Synopsis Plantarum 
which included among the known species of Arabis and Turritis only 
three from North America, A. lyrata, A. canadensis and T. laevigata. 
He described no new species but merely brought together in one work 

authors. After Persoon, Pursh, in 1814, treated seven species of 
Arabia and two of Turritis, 1 and Nuttall, in 1818, published nine of 
the former and one of the latter. 2 The treatments of Pursh and of 
Nuttall, although primarily not of a monographic nature, were 
eminently satisfactory at the time. But not until three years after 
Nuttall's work was published did a really impressive treatment appear, 
when DeCandolle finished his Systema, in 1821. In this great work 
all the known species of Arabis and Turritis were treated with ade- 
quate diagnoses and discussions of ambiguous or obscure characters. 
The Prodromus, by the same author and appearing three years later 
but written on a much more condensed scale, contained one more 
species of American Arabis than the Systema. The next important 
study of Arabis (in North America) appeared in 1829 in Hooker's 
Flora Boreali- Americana. With many important specimens from 
Canada and Greenland in his possession Hooker could, quite natu- 
rally, give highly accurate descriptions and could include more species 
from the New World than any of his predecessors had done. He 
incorporated into his treatment all the new species which had, earlier 
in the same year, been described by Graham from plants grown at the 
K"val Botanic Garden at Edinburgh. Hooker's treatment of Arabis 



P'-'i'd ami lacked political boundaries. Hence such ranges as " shores 
"f tlie Arctic Sea between 107 and i:U)°" were considered as ample 
"'formation re-ardim- the station from which a particular species was 
Elected \Y-uK ten \ e-ir ' -liter Hooker in ISoS, the first part of 
Torrey & Gra'v's' .uperi, Flora of North America appeared. Arabis* 
was given a comprehensive treatment, on the basis of more material 
than previous American authors had seen. Many of Torrey & Gray s 
names are still quite valid. The first edition of Gray S Manual t IMM 
"hastily prepared to supply a pressing want" 4 treated Arabis and 



6 Rhodora 


[March 


'urritis as separate genera, but the fifth 


edition, nineteen years later, 


arried them both under Arabia, and ex< 


;ept for an occasional diver- 


ence, 1 succeeding American authors hav 


e continued to treat Turritis 


S 'n i n!^ K tetu,l> < ,tanicalexplo I 


ation by the opening of the 


Vest during the middle and latter par 


t of the nineteenth century 


lade itself manifest in the extensive ( 


•ollecting during that time. 


dany of the species of Ambis brought ba 




:he Synoptical Flora of North America, 


begun by Gray, with certain 


ections by Watson, and continued un.lei 


■ the editorship of Robinson, 


ontains :<S species of Ambit (the treatm. 


mt by Watson). Edward I, 


ireeue, Marcus E. Jones, Aven Nelsoi 


i and P. A. Rydberg have 


a.rked on the genus and proposed ma 


ny new species (Greene, in 



A purpose was to '•clean house" and to take stock ( 
ilities, has occurred. The task is not an easy on. 
xamination of well over one hundred type-specimen 



'■chycarpct), A. HolboeUii, A. ntrofmrta ami A. Hot 












Hod) 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America h 

such coarse implements as a small pick-axe, and being extracted i 
toto only with the greatest patience and diligence. Although Gra 

says of Arabis: "HERBS, with annual, biennial or perennial roots.' 
I 'have never vet observed am plant with typically annual root! 



em may be either glal 



The shape of the radical leave 
broadly obovate-spatulate whil 
°r subentire to very slightly de 



68 Rhodora [March 

have such margins, but the last one only infrequently possesses them 
and is more usually found to have them irregularly but rather sharply 

specimens of A. Drvmmondi, to rounded or obtuse, as in some plants 

M/.e lor the irenus- as long as 12 em. All of these leaves are petioled, 
the petiole being rather narrowly winged, and they may be either 

Cat-line Leaves. These may vary from linear-spa tulate, as in 
.1. hirufa, to broadly elliptic, as in J. ranaclnisis, and are either sessile 
or very short-petioled. The lowermost may have short winged 
petioles, as is usually the case in .1. glabra, but the middle and upper- 
most are always sessile, with either a nonclasping or an amplexieanl 
base. If the latter condition is typical for a species, the base is either 
sagittate or auriculate or, more rarely, both types may be found on 
the same stem. Beginning at the lower part of the stem and progres- 
sing upwards towards the raceme of flowers, the stem-leaves gradually 
become diminished in size so that measurements should always be 
made from those leaves nearest the middle of the stem. This pro- 
gressive decrease in size is very gradual, but its occurrence makes 
measurements of extreme uppermost or lowermost leaves very mis- 
leading. Associated with this progressively diminished size of the 
cauline leaves is the fact that they are either remote, i. e. arranged so 
that the tip of one leaf does not touch the base of the next higher one; 
subremote, in which case the tip of one leaf may slightly overlap the 
base ot the next successive one; or definitely imbricated, the leaves 
dearly overlapping one another as shingles on a house. To rely 

ever, dangerous, for it frequently happens that a plant whose normal 
tendency is to develop imbricate leaves, will, if the environment is 
shady, assume the remote-leaved habit, with a stem of the most 
delicate texture and cauline leaves so few in number as to be almost 
negligible. Such cases have been observed in A. pymocarpa (A. 
kirtuta of Am. authors) especially. 

Flowers. Perhaps the most unsatisfactorv organ on which to base 
a determination, not only of Arabis but of any member of the Cru- 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 69 

ciferae, is the flower. Generic lines based solely on this, instantly 
disappear, and to identify a cruciferous plant in full flower is a task 
which only a person with great confidence would undertake. The 
saying " By their fruits \ e -hall know them" should be a law in so far 
as the crucifers are concerned. The Bowers in Arabis vary in size, 
some heing large and showy for the genus (the usual size being from 
5 to 7 mm. long), as in A. HoQneUii, where they attain a length of 9 

.1. Hmtatfi which has them only slightly over 2 mm. long. They may 

eomposed of two hinicrous whorls and have four minute nectaries 

The petals vary only glightly in shape and are usually either spatu- 
late-oblong or spatulate-oblaneeolate. The obtuse to subtruncate 
apex is the broadest part and this shows considerable variation in 
breadth, that of the petals of A. Holborllii being often as much as -•-•"' 
mm., while that of the petals of A. pycnocarpa (A. hirsuta of Am. 

tion is fine and delicate except in one form of A. alpina* where it is 

'listinctly coarse. The color of the petals varies from white through 

iif <»ne has succ-ssfulh placed them in the genus!) because they are 



touching it with 1 



70 Rhodora [March 

herbaceous in texture, and are green or yellow or purple, with varying 
hues of these colors. Often they possess a hyaline or a whitish margin. 
They vary in size from one-half to two-thirds the length of the petals 
to nearly their entire length, as in A. viridis. And they may be either 
glabrous or pubescent; the types of this pubescence will be discussed 
under Pubescence. They are always in two decussate whorls, one 
median and one transverse, the latter, contrary to the orthodox idea 

Arber, the outer pair. 1 

The flowering pedicels, ;1 t anthesk are either ascending, divaricately 
spreading or descending. They are so similar to the fruiting pedicels 
in every respect that they will he discussed under that heading. 

Fruit. The most important diagnostic character in Arabia, as in 
most cruciferous genera, is the fruit, not solely in distinguishing 
species, but also in determining phylogenetic trends which enable one 
to place groups of species in sections and subsections. Sen-no Watson- 
grouped the genus into the three sections which are now usually 
recognized, although only one of them (section Sisymbrina) is of his 
authorship. In this paper, however, I have omitted any mention of 
sections because I do not feel qualified to group the entire genus 
into new sections of my own manufacture. The species which occur 
in eastern North America are treated in the order designated in the 
key. This follows in some respects the ideas of Watson and others; 
in many respects, however, it differs. 

The siliques are either erect and ascending, divaricately spreading 
or reflexed and, although some species often may have them in two of 
the al.ove categories, most of them are either of one type or the other. 
I hey are glabrous or pubescent, the trichomes, when present, minute 
and stellate. The nervation of the valves varies in different species. 
In A. virgimm the nerve is apparent only at the extreme base or in 
rare cases is so faint that the silique appears nerveless, while in A. 
canadensis it is prominent to the tip of the fruit. The length of this 
nerve is so distinctive that it serves as a most valuable character upon 
which to differentiate species. 

The fruiting pedicels, like their earlier stage at the flowering period, 
are either ascending, divaricate or reflexed. Although their ultimate 
position may often be guessed during anthesis, frequently they 

> Agnes Arber in New Phytol, xxx. 27-29 (1931). 



1937] Hopkins —Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 1 1 

become more divergent or more reflexed in fruit and, as one might 
expect, they are of greater length in the fruiting state than in the 
flowering one. It often happens that during the flowering period 
they lire quite pubescent but as maturity approaches this pubescence 

The seeds show wide variation and range in shape from broadly 
quadrate to narrowly elliptic or oblong. They may be quite wingless 
or definitely winged; in A. canadmsifi, the seeds of which are more 
broadly winged than in almost any other species, the wing ranges 
from I).::, mm. In I mm. in width. The seeds appear in either one or 



wingless. 






Trkkcf.xc 


E. This, 


a most important 


.11 parts o 


f the plat 


the type of pubes 


h species. 


Most e 


nmm( l 1 f 1 r 



Parallel to the si 
appearance. Tin 
PhyUa. The hair: 



irgans. The ovary is oblong to linear, superior, and possesses 
with curved embryos without endosperm. The cotyledons 



species. Tt prefers chiefly calcareous regions, but 
nized, the known distribution of the genus in that 



region of southern Macke 



since at the present writing it appears 
onged account of this subject until the 
its range has been more thoroughly 



I'.i.t. in and Central : 



To the many persons who have 


so kindb and freeh giv< 


advice and help, I am deeply gi 


ateful. Especially won! 


Professor M. L. Femald, who firs 


t suggested the problem 


whose patience and inspiration h 


a\c iruided me through 


of the investigation; also Mr. C. A 


.. YYeatherbyfornumeroi 


suggestions and for his kindness I 


unl diligence in examinh 


various European herbaria; Y\ke\ 


vise Miss Ruth I). Sam 


brarian of the Gray Herbarium, 


for her alwavs cheerful i 


help in bibliographical references; 


and to mv other culleai 



the National Museum of Canada; Dr. H. K. Svenson of the Brookl} 
botanic Garden; Dr. F. W. Pennell of the Academy of Xatum 



Herbarium (Pom)- The Iniversitv of Wvoming He 
The Herbarium of the National' Museum of Can, 



I Rhodora [March 

North America 

M:ttur<> fruiting pedicels erect, ascending or divaricately 

flowering pedicels at anthesis erect, ascending or divari- 
cately spreading . . . . b. 
b. Mature siliques erect or ascending, often appressed or sub- 
appressed to the mam -pleading, 

straight or curved inward; fruiting pedicels erect or 
ascending . . . . c. 
c. Mature siliques one-nerved only at the base, often only 
faintly so, or more rarely (in A. arenicola) as far as the 

'/. Plants d > 

rows, nam ingless 1. A. arenicola. 

(I. Plants with pubescent stem and basal and cauline 
leaves; seeds in only one row, orbicular to subquad- 
tate, winged all around. . . .e. 
e. Basal ; ;, i :, 

mm. long; sil nnial plants 

of south and southwestern I mted States 2. A. rirginica. 

e. Basal leaves men-lv dentate to subdentate, never 
lyrate-pinnatifid; petals large for genus, 7-9 mm. 
long; siliques 4-7 cm. long; perennial plants of 
Greenland south to Quebec 3. A alpina, 

beyond t j . , ose raC emes (except 

g. Cauline leaves spatulate to linear, not clasping; 

plant much branched from the base 4. A. lyrata. 

g. Cauline leaves lanceolate to ovate, mnplexieaul 

tosubamplev eith only one 

h. Fruiting pedicels appressed or subappressed to 

i. Mature siliques 5-9.5 (rarely 4) cm. long, terete, 

. flowering ^us.. . .j. 



... ... .,.....-, ■ <>Jl nca - 

■ >>tem appressed-pubescent at base. 






Mature sihuues .5-5 cm. long, flat, often appear- 
ing momliform; sepals and flowering pedicels 

n . glabrous or hirtellous ... 6. < 

suiting pedicels not appressed or subappressed, 

merely ascending A;. 



glabrous on upper surface, pubescent on lower 

7 a, ace 7 1 georgiana. 

k. Mature sil auline leaves 

a j j- P ub( ,* >! " '. . ,S. A. paten*. 

■ Seeds distinctly in fa 
'•■ Stem pmfuCeh branched at base- seeds entirely 
wingless; plants of Greenland and th. Yukon 
1 erntory . Q a Hookeri. 






> ]>ink or inure rarely ]>urplish; siliques 



subarcuato; fruiting pedicels ascending or divaricately 



aves finely stellate-pubescent < 



".siC!:, 1 , 7 



Cliques straight t 
slightly curved.... w. 
w. Pubescence of stem and pedicels finely and minutely 
hoary-stellate; petals 6-9 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. 

broad at apex 17. A. retrofracta. 

w. Pubescence of stem and pedicels coarser, louselv his- 
pid to loosely hirsute; petals 4-6 mm. long, 0.5-0.75 
mm. broad at apex 18. A. pendulocarpa. 

1. A. aukn'K'ola (Richards.) Gelert. Perennial from a branching 
cautlcx: stem decumbent or erect, branching from the base or simple, 
low, 12 10 cm. high, glabrous, often purplish at base passing to green 
above; radical leaves firm, tough or subcoriaceous, numerous, spatu- 
late to oblanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, 3-6 mm. broad, glabrous or more 
rarely subciliate, obtuse, subentire to dentate with 2-6 shallow teeth, 
tapering to a long winged petiole; petioles glabrous or more rareh 
sliglnh hirsutulous; cauline leaves few, firm, spatulate to narrowly 
oblancrulate, S 15 nun. long. 2 -1 mm. broad, glabrous throughout, 
entire, obtuse to subacute, the lowermost sometimes short-petioled, 
'be middle and uppermost sessile: flowers in rather close racemes: 
flowering pedicels erect or ascending, glabrous, 3 5 mm. long at 
anthers; sepals membranaceous, 1.75-2.;") mm. long, averaging 1 mm. 
broad, one half as long as petals, oblong, obtuse or very rarely sub- 
acute, glabrous, yellowish-brown to reddish-purple; petal- milk- 
white, 3.5 5 mm. long, 2 3 mm. broad at apex, oblong-spatuktte To 
oblanceolate: siliques 1-3 cm. long, 1.5-2.25 mm. broad, straight or 
lightly curved, glabrous, erect or ascending, at maturity faintly one- 
nerved at base or somewhat beyond, more rarely nearly to top, acute, 
-'"broiis: fruiting pedicels erect or ascending or more rarely divari- 
1 a!, . 1 > J"' | d!iig, slender, glabrous, 5-9 mm. long at maturity; style 
<».2;> ().75(- 1 1 mm. long, abruptly tipping the silique; seeds small, in 
'uo n,\vs, narrowly oblong to narrowh ,-Hiptical, wingless, 1.5-2 nun. 
'""■-• l,; '' "■" """■ broad.— Bot. Tidsk. xxi. 287-291 (1898); Britton, 
Man. II X. States it ('an. 401 (1901;; Simmons, Vase. PI. Ellsmld. 
^> liMM.i; Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2: ii. 179 (1913); Simmons, 
'I.Ntogeo. Aret. Arch. 95 (1913); Vooge, Vase. l'l. Krirk Kami's 
'•and, 21, ( 1932i. Eutrcmu araiicula Kichardson in Hooker, Fl. Bor.- 
Ani. .. (w.t. 24 i|s.>:;; ; T. ,x(;., Fl. \o. Am. i. 112 (1 838); Watson in 

"'V.?'!" 1 ' l'l N- Am. i 130 1.S95 Si^.nbrium humifi^un, i. 
Nanl - ' ' 1);i!l '• --''< (184U);J. Lange, Medd. Groenld. iii Hefte, 51 

' Nsn '' ' 'H okei Out] Vrct PI 315 I860) Arab" 

!'' ' ',7' U , als 1M ' W A "»- Wad.xxx Il'I 1889);Macoun,Cat.Can. 
II. v 303 (.1890); Wats, in Gray, Synop. l'l. X. Am. i. 159 (1895) - 

Sandy or rock s , ,,,., ,,,■,,.,,,. . , ,,_,,, j ., m ,i \\Vst 

Greenland south of lat. 72°, Baffin Island, the Ungava region of 
Ouebe,. and Labrador. The foil, u , GbEEN- 

laxd: Disco, Quannersoit, Fries, 22 July 1871; Sxuterdmk Haho. 



Eastern and Central North i 



Malt,; 



/V.v/W, S Aug. 1934. Canai 
Lake Harbor, lat. (12° 49', 
118,878; Southampton Island, lat. 
10', J/n//,>, no. 120,652. Ungava: V 
srrnliolm, Hudson Strait, lat. 02° • 
Malt,; no. 120,929; Port Ha 
coast of Hudson Bay, lat. 58° 17', 1/a/te, 
nos. 120,786 & 120,826. Labrador : spur 
on southwest side, Mt. Tetragona, Tom- 
gat Region, Abbe, no. 390; easterly slope 
of Bishop's Mitre, Kaumejet Mts., Abbe, 
Fl. June-July; fr. July-Aug. 




it extends as far west as Southampton Island. In Greenland it is 
reported at numerous stations on both the east and the west coasts, 
although 1 have seen no specimens from the east coast , and in southern 
Baffin Bland it has Keen collected by Matte at Lake Harbor. Hooker 
says of Eutrrma armicola (which is merely a synonym for our plant): 
"Hah. deep sand upon the shores of Arctic America between long. 
11)7" and 150°. Dr. Richardson. Capt. Sir John Eranldin and C 'apt. 
Hark."} and Sereno Watson extends Hooker's range to "Glovonin 
Bay. Alaska, Muir, Grinnell Land ? Greely". 2 The Muir and the 
Greely specimens are both in the Gray Herbarium and are very 
immature plants, both in the early flowering stage. The stems are 
entirely scapose (the stems of A. armicola arc never scapose, but 
always possess from two to four cauline leaves at least one of which 
is placed iMi ■ ;., rescence so that it appears almost 

as a bract), and the radical leaves are decidedly oval, abruptly passing 
into a winged petiole (the radical leaves of our plant are spatulate to 
oblanceolate tapering gradually into a winged petiole), and are of a 
much finer texture than are those of typical A. arnticola from north- 
little doubt that the Greely and the Muir specimens belong to some 
other genus in the Cruciferae, most probably to Parrya. But as to the 
Richardson specimen which is figured in Hooker's Flora Boreali- 
Amerieana, it seems only logical to conclude that presumably it was 
actually collected at a much more easterly station than "between 
long. 107° and 150°." 3 Gelert has compared it with typical Greenland 
materia 1 of our plant and says : " it was immediately evident to me that 
this plant \Eulrrma wrmicofa— the Richardson one! is identical with 
Arahis humifma [the Greenland plant.]" 4 And if one wishes further 
evidence, he need only glance at an herbarium sheet of A. armieola 
and compare it with Hooker's plate; that the two are identical no one 
will doubt. 



ntario and northern ! 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabia in Eastern and Central North America 79 

As is quite natural, most writers have followed Hooker and Watson 
in citing the range for this plant. Thus Gelert writes, " The geographic 
distribution is in Arctic America from Alaska to Grinnell Land and 
Labrador, in west Greenland from 61°-70° N. lat." 1 And Simmons 
says: "Occurrence. Grinnell Land: Discovery Harbor (Greely); I 
think there need be no doubt about the determination, as the plants 
of the expedition were examined by Watson among others; indeed 
there is a note of interrogation put after the name (Greely . . .). 
Other students have written similarly, but I cannot at the present 
time and from the scanty evidence at hand, become convinced that 
the plant is to be found west of southern Baffin Island. It seems 
unwise to map ranges without data from herbarium specimens, and, 
having discarded the Muir and the Undy plants as misidentifieations, 
I have, consequently, made the above assumption with reference to 
the plant collected by Dr. Richardson. 

The plate of Si.iti>,',brium humi/usum (A. annicola) in Flora Danica 3 
illustrates a plant which is slightly different from that figured by 
Hooker 4 but, as the species in nature shows considerable diversity in 
the form of its radical lea\es, one can safely discount such small 
variations. Regarding this point Gelert says :" . . • when we 
pare the two figures, that of Hooker . . . and that of the 
Flora Danica we find some difference, the first showing a plant with 
entire leaves (in the description: integerrima vel parce dentate) and 
rather short pods (in the description : pedicello vix duplo longiores), the 
latter showing a plant with deeply dentate leaves (in the description: 
grosse dentata) and long pods (in the description: pedicello triplo 
longiores). However these proportions are variable. The common 
form has entire or slightly dentate leaves, and the pods are generally 
three or four times as long as the pedicels. Richardson has found the 
Phut on sandy shores. In Greenland also the plant is found on sandy 
ground." 5 

Var. pubescent was first described by Watson, 6 who differentiated 
it from the typical form of the species on the basis of pubescence. 
The stem in the varied is usualh hirsute and the radical leaves are 
"kewise hirsute, whereas the typical form has them both always 



80 Rhodora 

glabrous. It is found on the west coast of Huds 



I the Saskatchewan specimen (Tyrell, 






Copenhagen Herbarium. As they are rather hairy in the lower part 
of the stem and in the leaves, they may he referred to var. jiiihisciu^, 
(Wats.) Gel." 1 However, the specimens at my disposal from the 
region around the west coast of Hudson Hay do not rewal siieli 
decidedly dentate leaves as those of which Simmons speaks. One 
sheet (Tynll, no. 100,703, 19th July 1893) from the Xorthwest 

Museum of Canada is labelled .1. nnnicoln var. pubrsrms, and has 

really had var. pubcscn,* from Kllesmereland, or whether it was 
something quite different. 

2. A. virginica (L.) Poir. Biennial from a long tap-root: stem 

- ; n the base, decumbent or ascending, 1 2.5 dm. high, 

furcate hairs, 



or entire, pel „, „, ,n ,,1! 

basal one.-, but smaller, or the uppermost lanceolate and subentire, 
3-i cm. long, 7-10 mm. broad, either short-pet ioled or sessile, nearly 
always glabrous, rarely sparingly hirsute with simple baits: flowers 
small, inconspicuous, in close racemes; flowering pedicels short, 2-3 
mm. long at anthesis, glabrous; sepals membranaceous, I -' mm. I(l11 -' 
the length of the petals, glabrous or rarely with 
a few scattered simple hairs, often tinged purplish or pinkish: petals 
1.5-3 mm. long, white to faintly pinkish, oblanceolate to narrowly 
oblong ami rarely almost linear: siliques 2 2.o cm. long, (1-) 1-25 
-1.70 (-2) mm. broad, nearly straight or very rarelv slightly curved, 
erect or ascending or more rarely somewhat spreading, glabrous, 
faintly one-nerved at the extreme base or more raivK entireh m-rw- 



1937] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Out nil North America 81 

less; fruiting pedicel stoutish, erect or ascending, glabrous, 3-7 mm. 
long at maturity; style short, 0.25-0.5 mm. long, supporting the 
minute bivalvate stigma; seeds orbicular to suborbicular or more 
rarely suhelliptic, distinctly in one row, narrowly and evenly winged 
all around, averaging 1.5 mm. long and 1.25 mm. broad. — Eneyl. 
Supp. i. 413 (1810), excl. description and syn. Cunlam.iue rinjittim 
Michx.; Trelease in Branner & Coville, Rep. Geol. Surv. Arkansas for 
1888; 165 (1891); Britton & Brown, 111. El. ii. 147 (1897); Small, Fl. Se. 
T. S. is:; ! l!l():; i; Uobinson ,V F< niald in Cray, Man. ed. 7:437 ( 190S); 
Rydberg, Fl. Pr. & PI. 38 (1932). Cardamim cinjiuk-a L. Sp. PL ii. 
656 (1753), nee Linn. Herb., nee Michaux, Pursh, DeCandolle, Am. 
auctores. Cardamine Ludoviciana Hooker in Jour. Bot. i. 191 i lS'U ■ , 
T. & G. FL N. Am. i. 85 (1838); Eaton & Wright, N. Am. Bot. ed. 8: 
169 (1840); Walpers. Hep. i. 136(1842); Dietrich, Syn. iii. 698 (1S43); 
Fhapnian, Fl. S. V. S. 26 (18(50). Sisymbrium Ludovicianiim Nutt. 
«\. Honker in s\non. Jour. Bot. i. 191 (1834). Arabia Ludoviciana 
Meyer in Index' Sen.. Hurt. IVtrnp. ix. 00 (1843); Gray, Man. ed 
2:33 (1N57); Wood, Classbk. rev. ed : 231 (1801); Coulter in Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 19 ( 1890; Watson in Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. i. 161 
(1895); Chapman, Fl. S. I*. S. ed. 3: 27 (1897). I'hn,,,,/,,- nm,,i,„n 
Creene, Leaflets Hot. ii. 221 (1912).- Florida to Texas, north to 
Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kansas; also California 
and northern Lower California. The following are characteristic. 
Virginia: weed in cornfield, Williamsburg, Grimes, no. 3,296. North 
Carolina: Weldon, Bartram, 19 April 1908 [Phil]. Sorni Carolina : 
waste ground, Calhoun, Pickens Co., House, no. 3,137 [NY]; Clemson 
College, Oconee Co., House, No. 1,703 [NY]; Oconee Co., A. P. 
Anderson, no. 1,137 (as Canlamine arenkvla) [NY]. Georgia: 
Chattahoochee, Canht,, no. 10: Georgia, T. 6c G. Fl. A. Am., without 
date or number; f|.,i ,-ocU \thens, Harper. March IV»7 llkl.u 
Florida: Quincv, Unh. Chapman, without date or number [N\ ; 
''luittalioochee i„ ,-mI- 1 Mav 1 M»s jUklyu,; 

Monticello ■ MM Ohio: 

iMilunk ,1 ripa ll.,,..i,.i Obi. prop. N'-r.h Bend 

IM,ilV" 1,1 I xi!. """'^.Ii.K s > ,Mll 1 7tloli'plai t | , l , '. t .t l '\Vh 1 t t ' K.''.2ini s ofbed- 
WMd, Laurence C, Kriebel no. 1,617; in open woods in Goose Pond, 
al '"»t 21 ., mi. north of Griffin, Deam, no. 50,053 [Deam]; frequent in 
y'! 11 "* -rnfield, 2 mi. west of Decker, Beam, no. 42,858 IDeamJ. 

Kentucky: Campbell Co., T. G. Lea, 24 April 1838 [Ph. lj; '- 

"I>P««ite Hanover, .1. //. You,,,,, Ma} 1SS0 [Phil]- Lknnks*kf:: 
■;^> ph.c-s around Nashville, daft >,<jrr. no 150: ei.lti 
^-xville, l{ lith , no. :;oii; w.stc -round, summit of Lookout Mt 
yxrrhili. 25 \pri| 1906. MISSISSIPPI: Houston, C. L >^ ™ . 
March 1892 [N\ . moisl Boil, I • "°- 1 ' 04 ' b 

IUS]; Starkville, E. C. Times. 11 April 1921 [Wise.]. Aiulvma. 
Mobile, Mohr, without date or number; Auburn, Lee Co., tAirie a 



82 Rhodora [March 

Underwood, March 189(5 [NY]; waste places, Tuscaloosa, Mohr, 9 June 
L898 US]; Auburn, Lee Co., Earle & Earle, no. 16 [NY]. Illinois: 
roadsides' Grand Tower, (Unison, 3 Mav 1902; waste places. Saline, 
M. S. li,U, April 1S66 [Bklyn]; N. Evanston, Earle, 1878 [US]; E. 
St. Louis, Eqqert, 15 April 1878 [I'Sj. Missouri: moist prairies and 
field, St. Louis, Geyer, April 1842; woods, Campbell, Bush, no. 0,602; 
Davis (reek bottom, near Linina. Demelrio, no. 91; low ground, In- 
dependence, Jackson Co., Hunk, no. 3d. Arkansas: on rocky slope, 
Hot Springs, Garland Co., Moldenke & Moldenke, no. 1,411 [\Y|; 
common in fields, Noark, Clay Co, Bush, no. 39 [NY]; Fort Towson, 
Lena n worth, March & April [Phil]. Louisiana: dry ground along 
railroad, Gretna, opposite New Orleans, Ball, no. 309; waste and 
cultivated ground, Natchitoches, E. J. Palmer, no. 7,031 [l.'S]: Opel- 
ousia, Canby, Sargent & Trelease, no. 16 [US]; St. Martinsville, 
Langlois, 13 March 1892 [Minn]. Kansas: open ground, Cherokee 
Co., A. S. Hitehruclc, no. 610. Oklahoma: MoilVtt, limb; no. 4,561; 
Muskogee, E. Brainenl, 7 April 1908; edge of creek near Crusher 
Spur, Murray Co, Stevens, no. 38; in edge of creek near Paul's Yalle,\ , 
Garvin Co., Straus, no. 1,061. Texas: Houston, E. Hull no. 1',; 
San Antonia, P. Havard, no. 220; sandy bottoms, Columbia, Brazoria 
Co, E. J. Palmer, no. 5,036 [US]; Waco, McLennan Co, llelhr, no. 
1,372 (as Rorl[,a bum. -j, Nueces Co, //<//<>', 

no. 1,467. California: about borders of pools, San Diego. / 
no. 1,644; Point Loma, San Diego, Brandegee, May 1905 jlikhii 
San Diego, Brandegee, April 1903. Lowkk 'c u.ifokm a : Tia Juana 
Mesa, C. fl. Oraitf, no. 1,459 [US]. Fl. March-May; ft. April- 

In 1803 Michaux identified a cruciferous plant from "Canada, 
Nova Anglia et Pennsylvania" 1 as Curdantiitr virginica L. and gave a 
diagnosis. This was not, however, the Linnean C. virginica, a plant 
not found, at least to the best of my knowledge, either in Canada, 
New Kngland or Pennsylvania, but which grows south and west of 
those regions very commonly. Michaux' identification of his plant 
was merely an error, but unfortunately subsequent authors did not 
realize this fact and copied his description almost word for word. 
Consequently, the C. virginica as described by Pursh, 2 by De Candolle, 3 
by Elliott,* and by Darby, 5 is not what we now know as Arabis 
virginica (which is based on the true C. virginica of Linnaeus), but a 
wholly different plant, identified today with C. parvifiora as var. 
«r« nicola (Brit.) O. E. Schulz. 



1937] Hopkins,- Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 83 

The first correct nomenclatorial combination for our plant was that 
of Poiret, but he likewise, was quite ignorant of the Michauxian 
misinterpretation. His description of A. virginica 1 so parallels that of 
Michaux for C. virginica, that it seems unquestionable that he based 
the description on Michaux's own type of C. virginica. Linnaeus' 
herbarium was still, at that time, at Upsala, and the possibility that 
Poiret had access to it is extremely unlikely. It is much more plausible 
to believe that he assumed that the Michaux plant and the Linnean 
one were identical and that his combination was made on that basis. 
Hence, it is quite valid as to name, but not as to the plant described. 
Furthermore, the fact that the Michaux herbarium was at the Jardin 
des Plantes, of which Poiret was the Director, lends further proof to 
this theory. 

The type of Michaux's plant was examined by Professor M. L. 

although examined by Britton over 40 years ago, has again been 
verified for me through the kindness of Mr. C A. Weatherby, whose 
very complete notes leave no doubt in one's mind that it is the plant 
under discussion. Britton says of it: 

The specimen preserved under the name Carchim w "'",'» tU 

Linnaean H< mern Europe, 

lance to the plant of the Southern 
United Stal . J>le, however, b] its 

roughened siliques, those of our plant being p I 
'"liagp of the two species is practically identical. It is perte. 
however, from his desci 

l )l: "it 'I, mind, and this is proved by the types : 
Museum «,f Natural Historv. I > 
«*perum except the one labelled Canlawin, virgnnra. in the Linnaean 




84 Rhodora [March 

Herbarium, and it is clear that this one has been accidently fastened 

down to the wrong sheet. 1 

The habit of A.virginica so resembles that of a ('unlaw iiir or of Cap- 
s.Ilii liunta-Prixtori.*, especially in the flowering stage, that a natural 
confusion as to it- identity in the field is pardonable. In the fruit- 
its siliques often possess a faint nerve at the base (a most important 

In its distribution, this plant ranges throughout the southeastern 
prairie-;, but also commonly in wet woods or about wet rocky place-. 



pools, San Diego, Ingelwood, Car 



sely hirsute !.. simple and : 

' '• hirtelloiis or more rarelv idabroiis: radical 
H nn. long, (I.:, LMcm. broad, oblanceolatc t. 

' -*" on both surfaces with L» i-torkd „ ,'■, 
" ; hroadly wing-margined, sp* 

lrnl;i "'. !i;is ''- ! 1( ) cm. long, ().:, 2.0 ("in. br'oa. 
mbentire, subacute. stellate-pubescent on botl 



1 ' '■ - ■ ■ - : ■ ■■- -■„. • . ;.. ■ ,.. :, . ,;■,-.. ■-■!• 

3-o mm. long, loosely hirsute or hirtellous to glabrous; petals white 
to deep cream color, oblanceolate-spatulate, 7-9 mm. long, 2-4 mm. 
;-• delicately and finely veined: siliques 17 cm. long, 1-5-2 
mm. broad at maturity, straight or slightly curved inwards, glabrous, 



it<\ on a short stocky st\ 
row, orbicular to subqnadratc, 

' : ■ 
Sp. PI. ii. 0(i4 (17^:;; ;<),,!, Tin PI. 
erl. ii. 2U (1772); I. am. Fncvl. i. 21 
22rWl703) ; Persoon, Synop. PI. i 
410 (1S1()) ; Pursb. PI. Am. Sept. 
Scan,!. PI. 22o (lKL>0);DC,Syst. 
ii. 210 (1821) and Prod. i. 142 
US24); Hooker, PI. Bor.-Am. i. 
41 (1820); P. Mover, PI. Labr. 
MiKm-Schhvht.. FI.Fabr. in 
Linnaea x. 102 (1X30); T. & G. 
VI X. Am. i. SI) (IMS); Lede- 
bour, Fl. Ross. i. 117 (1842); 

I'; 1 . 1 "' u,! ' ' , - :n , '^r: ,: 
:' , Ai I .'"i. ,, rs lisii;.; 



ami Central North America 87> 

ly so or if one-nerved then only at 
; so; fruiting pedicels ascending, 
•ity; stigma small, flat-topped to 

■ I). 2."» 0.7.') mm. long; seeds in one 



>an t 02 (1700- Seopoli, PI. Cam. 

(1783); Curtis in Hot. Mag. vii. t. 

204 (1807); Poir. Suppl. Encyl. i. 
i. 438 (1814); Hartman, Handbk. 




and Fl. Alps 1 ( 1882) ; Gaudin , — ~" 


VA> 


Vlh? 


\ y^^h? 




Am. i. 103(1895); Written & •-, 






Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 147 (1897); r 7 ^ 






Britton Man. Fl. ed. 2: 464 1 
(1905); Porsild, Fl. Disko, 


^c^ % 


fM.:^ 


Greenland 83 (1020). Turriti* m. 


lP 3. American 




arnhhjvnnu, Mocnch, Meth. 


,'x Wormskj. in 


enld iii. Hefte, 
Pangc. Med.l. 


alpina var. tyf 








ill's, ledges and 


K^vrl uf 1,'Jio ';„. ..in-umncutrjii 'roel. 


: "or wet spring 


•v hillsides and 
" Baffin Island. 


West side of Disco Island, Ohlin. no. 


77; Qeqcrtars.s 


ninsula of Que- 
on cliffs, north- 

naq. XOgatsiaq 
, Disco Island, 


[ U, U>h llnl !!,„ t r ( ,'| &',■■'> Una. l-i 


t. bor, 50 c ;v)\ 


Lundhohn 1880. 


Baffin- Islam,; Cannon Inlet. Ii. I 




^. we t ground, 


among rocks at waterfall Pake Ilari 


)our. 3/f//^-, ' in 


.' 120.873; Fro- 


bl sher Bay, C. S. Sewall, no. 314. U 


NGAVA: Cape C 


hidley, Hudson 



Hudson Bav, wet sand. Mult,, no. 12(1. 7_M, Wakeham Hay, Hudson 
Strait. .Vo/k no. 120,247; Port Burwell, Hudson Strait. .Vr,//r, nos. 
120.17S, 120,149, 118,876 & 118,877. Labrador: on granitic rock, 
old sea beaches, Northwest Bav at Head of Ryan's Bav, Woodworih, 
nos. 242 & 243; 20 mi. n. of Nachvak, //. S.' Forbes, 28 Aug. 1908; 
Kama. Sornborger, no. 168; mossv bed of a brook, Forteau, Straits of 
Hell- Isle. Fm'whJ A- IVienatni, no. 3,490: stream bank, west of Blanc 

'"' "an.li'dcareou'^a , . ,,! ' H.. : ,.'l. 

,\ \ \ >t fYmnM ((• Witqaml, no. 3.4SS; cast slope of Fishing 

V U:\„\/ ;,-;,"; :;::;;;/•; !-,■ . 

[ Hill, ]Y„,,u„d, (iilhrrf A- Hnlrhkiss, no. 2S.416. 
Q.-Kiu-.r: grassy l.rooksidc, Point.- a IVau. Uiw, 



\-Sept. Map! 
res' usually da 



I'm. -ron.-clif;'. ( lim ^ H.-a.i. -t ' //■.*n" 

1,753 (type in Gray Herb.); thicket on- brook. 

Deep Gulch, Doctor Hill, FmwW, Zo^ <fe F<w, no. 1,754. Map 4. 

In discussing .1. alpiuu in the Svnoptical Flora of Xorth America, 
Watson says: "The A. strida of Pursh's Flora collected in Labrador 
l\\ Cohmstrr, is probably this species." 1 Without a doubt he is 
correct as to the specimen concerned. Pursh 2 copied the description 



1037] Hopkins— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 87 

of Willdenow 1 word for word and, although Willdenow did not copy 
that of Hudson, 2 who is the original author of the name, he deviated 
only slightly. Hudson's plant is strictly a British one, and is not. 
found iii the New World as far as I can ascertain. The ascription of 



Varving considerably in size and in- the degree of pubescence, this 
plant 'reaches its northernmost limit at lat. 73° 16', Kap Franklin, 
Greenland.' It occurs on both the east and the west coasts of that 

to'the Gaspe Peninsula. The variations in stature are considerable, 
plants often being as low as 7 cm. (Labrador: Forhrs, 2S Aug. IMS), 
and as high as 40 cm. (Greenland: Disco Island, «. Robinson, no. nl). 
Some specimens are extremely hirsute on the lowermost part ot the 
Stem, while others are verv sparingly so. and the basal leaves ma\ 
likewise varv greatly in pubescence. However, these and similar 
variations are to be expected in a plant which is so universal^ dis- 
tributed throughout the subarctic regions of northeastern North 
America and, although I have seen no specimens of the following 
varieties cited by Lange: 

a, minor Lange, c. 2" longa, folds minutifl (©. 1 tan longis) 
V rurleralis Wormskj., major, fere pedalis. polyphylla, caule saepe 
ramossissimo, 4 
I can only interpret them as transient variations due to various 

The species is extremely popular as a connncici.i u>< r^ 

Ihibuuin",',,,', Neu iMl li/nn- I Hub Mi V H Norton 
also reports it as having gotten a foothold at Cape Klizabeth, Maine. ^ 
The earliest published record for var. <jh,hraUi appears in Blytt s 
Gorges Flora, where one finds the description, "I alle Dele aldeles 
glat"* (all parts glabrous throughout). In North America the \arie J 
seems restricted to Greenland, and more especially to the region 



8S Rhodora [March 

around Disco. The total absence of pubescence on the plant appears 
to be a constant and permanent character and as such warrants 
\ arietal recognition. 

Forma j>hylhi><tiiht. in which the petals are firm, greenish-white and 

which are milk-white, delicate and obscurely veined, already has 
been adequately discussed by.Fernald. I have seen no specimens 
from regions other than in Newfoundland where it was originally 

simple and I broua above or more 

rarely glabrous throughout: radical leaves 2 1 cm. long. 0.5-1 cm. 

but often merely dentate or very raroh subentire, densely to sparsely 

and forked hairs; cauline leaves 1-3 cm. long, 1.5-5 nun. broad, 

petiole, the lowermost often lyrate-piimat ih'd, more usually dentate 
to subentire, the uppermost entire, glabrous or more rarely sparingly 

ing pedicels erect or spreading, glabrous, 3-4 mm. long at anthesis; 
purplish, usually with a narrow h ,,] I , i t e to pinkish 



XnieflM"^ 




.lanceolate: 
d, slender, 




flat, glabr 




aml'l'i'nn '''^dw!'l' 




the middle 

sending or 


spreading, slender, glabrous, 5 15 




vie slender, 


Up to 1.5 mm. long, or obsolete; seed- elliptic.-. 


|'tn nb'lnllg 


■'. averaging 








Represented in North America i> 




and forms. 


a. Stem and (or) radical leaves somewhat rmhesrent w 

' ■ - ■ .... 


•ith simple, 




b. Flowers 6 !o-) -8 mm. long; sty l e 0.65-1.25 


mm. long, 








var. /'//"'•"■ 


b - Flowers a «;styie rare* 

■ : ,_ . .. , • . 






ile....c 





1!>37] Hopkins. Aniltis in Fasten and Central North America 89 

a. Stem and radical leaves quite glabrous or rarely the petioles 
sparingly hirsute with a few scattered simple hairs; stigma 
sessile or on a short style usually not ev . _ < > ; " 
long; flowers 4-7 mm. long var. qhihra. 

Var. typica. A. lyrata L. Sp. PI. ii. 665 (1753); Gronov. Fl. Virg. 

ed. 2: 99 (1762); Hill. Yeg. Svst. xii. t. 9 ( 171)7); Mill. (lard. Diet. (S.i 
Sp.no. 5 (170M; IVrsoon, Svnop. ii. 21)4 (IS07): Pursh. Fl. Am. Sep,. 
ii. 437 (1814); Eaton, Man. Bot. N. Am. 74 (1817); Nutt. Gen. ii. 70 
(1818); DC. Svst. ii. 231 (1821); Richardson in Franklin's Journey 
App. 723 (1823); 1>C. Prod. i. 146 (1824); T. & (;. Fl. N. Am. i. 81 
(1S3S); Walpers, Rep. i. 133 (1842); Gray, Man. Bot. 35 (1848); 
Chapman, Fl. S. V. S. 27 i I S60i ; Watson in Gray, Synop. Fl. N. Am. 
i. 159 i 1S95); Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 147 (1897); Britton, Man. 
Fl. 463 (1901) ; Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 484 (1903); Robinson & Fernald in 
(day. Man. ed. 7: 436 (1908); Rydberg, Fl. Rocky Mts., 358 i 1917s; 
Rydberg, Fl. Pr. & PI. 381 (1932). A. petraca Lam. scnsu T. & G. 
Fl. N. Am. i. 80 (1838); Gray, Man. 35 (1848), as to description and 
specimen cited.— Ledges and cliffs in rich woods or sandy river and 
lake banks and shores, Vermont, west to Ontario and Minnesota, 
south to Georgia, Tennessee and Missouri; also in northern Albena. 
The following are characteristic. Vkrmont: Manchester. M. .1. lhtu, 
no. 397; Mt. Equinox, Manchester, (iondirin. Rn*shnch, Ih>,Uj,h», ,v 
Vrm\ 19 May 1934. M ass at hi sf.ti s: exposed bdgc Shellield. 
Berkshire Co.. Hoffman, 8 May 1929; dry lodge near Bash-Bish 
Brook, Mt. Washington, Knowlton Y Srhurinfurih. 3U Ma> 1" 9: 
Hanging Mt., New Boston. Berkshire Co., //<<// "". II hii : l ""' 
Coxxf.(tt<«t: calcareous ledges. Salisbury. F.nmhl. 30 May 1992; 
trap ledges, Bluff Mt., N. Guilford, C //. Ihnth if. 3 dun. 
shrubbery on beach, Fairfield, E. II. l-<nnr«, 29 May 1898. Nk.w 
York: rocky soil, n. side of Mohawk Hiver. Little Falls. Hnhnur no. 
<i5; rich deciduous woods. Falcnvillc near West Sanger i, 
Hodgdmi, no. 721 ; growing with 0/>iiiitia mlaur/* and Primus manfiina 
in sand dunes, Mt. Sinai. Suffolk Co.. bong Island. Svmson. no. bin..; 
(i "at Wand, Niagara balls, II"///. Banff, I May lS5SJas Cardan,,,,^ 



J. If ma, v 



bancasTer Co., //,///,-, \S April 1^9. Blue Hill ledge Miyder < o_, 
Wi'-gand Y M, w „hu, no 1 -'60: dunes. IV^ue Isle. /'.,/.*. no. 12.9^,. 
MARYLAND: drv open hillside along the Susquehanna I: ! 
™99, no. 1,900; shalv beach of creek. serpentine barn": ■ 
( 'l»irrh;if :■ \[ ;n p.,,,. sha( l v l, an k above Oakmgton bar. 6. //. 
Moll no m D.sruni of Coumbia neai W -Yingtoi b . M i 
[ ^nd in tin Potomac. (',,, Ih . 9 M.n 1^90: u.-inin ot WaYmuton 
T. II. Kionirv, 11 April 1S97 [NY|." ViRotMA: abundant in open 
rn ^.v woods, Creat Falls, lb. lhaar, 17 April 1915; rich hill, rocks 




Thunder Buy Distr. V,a,r A- linn, no "i V 
ce Co., Krotkoc, no 7 4W- U-,<-h P,-m 
lin Island, 7W ,(•%/,„,„„ »;, i: . 
Croix School, Schoolcraft Co., Peat 

beach of Lake Superior, H,*. Tf . <;,.;., 



1937] Hopkins, Arabis in Pastern and Central North America 91 

(without vear); Fulton Co., Moseley, 23 May 1925 [US]. Indiana: 
on sandy 'banks of Clear Creek, Steuben Co., Beam, 12 June 1904; 
sand hill, Miller, A. Chase, no. 789; sandy open woods, Lake Chicago 
Basin, Pine, 0. E. Lansing, Jr., no. 2. 70.*). Kentucky: Knobs. 
Greenup Co., Short, June I without year) [Phil]; ed-e of woods and 
fields (near Louisville), 0. E. Mueller, April (without Year) j.Miimj. 
Tk.wksski.: in apricis rupestribus ad flu v. Holston, Hut/il. April 
LS42; ad rupes prope Painted Roek intra Wi.rmsprings. liny I. April 
1S42 [XV]; on roek, aim,, Tennessee K.. Knoxville, Ruth, nos. 23."> & 
1,941 [NY]. Wisconsin: wooded hills and on limestone rocks > 4 mi. 
e. of Richland Center, Richland Co., 0. E. Lnnsimj Jr.. no. :-;.!» l-l im 
part); open woods at top of bluffs at Dewey Park, F. II. Suuth, Max 
1935; dry sandstone ledge, Trempealeau bluff, Trempealeau, ra.^tt. 

no. 4,242. Illinois: sandy wood, near Chicago. / /. Mel) ,/,/. 

June 1891; sand in Sheridan Park. Chicago, F. C. dates, no. 16,334; 
sandx b ; ,rren< near (> M nawka. //. V h,tt, r*.m, I'l May l87 ^ N ^" 

) ! 'C [\ ' ^ Mi i ' I Wmona'l // ^'] 

1909; Pake ('in , W. II. Manning, 25 June L883. low \ 

,,n ro! kv' ,'lope.. Valley of Canoe River. 7 mi s. of 
Hesper, liosuulnhl. no. :>>■> [Minnj; Clinton Co., (1. D. liuthi: no. 
19 [Mo]. Missocki: .Jcll'crson Co. in s : „,dx groin,,:. / *;th' '<; 

date or number); Bat Rock, Jefferson Co., Letterman, 22 April 1911 
[NY]; Pacific, St. bonis Co.. //. H\ K-/,^,/., P". Max 192, [M, 
Alberta: Moose Lake District, Wood Hulfalo Park. (..vat Mave 
Dike Potion. /;„„„. no. _\ iSo. H. April May : ./>. Max ^-luly. Mm;., 
Forma parvisiliqua n. f., siliquis 1-2 cm. longis. Ihroughoin tlit 
range of the typical form of the species. Nl-.\\ \o.<K:h,; 
Pake. \\ „ki.i. < ! I Inn. 1*M \.,ucb ( ,gm Pong Island, / ^ 



od Cecil Co Pennine. 

Max lS9l[Minn]. District op Columbia: 

, no. 2,393 [Bklyn].^nu.iNiA:.unn^ lt 
ft near 1 urav >We <k Meele, no. ol [I ^|. 



2 Rhodora [March 

o. Iit;,4t',:i (Can.j. Mi. hicax: Rock Harbor, Isle Royale, Cooprr, no. 
fi [Minnl. Wisconsin: wooded hills and on lime-aoiie rucks, k t mi, 
. of Richland Center, 0. F. Lansing, Jr., no. d.101; dr\ limestone 
litis alona Fairfdas Creek. Fairplav, Fnsstt, no. l().-i_M |\Yisc];drv 
ui.l plain near- Kilhourn, l>elton. Fit™ ft, no. M.ulM [\Yisr|; Danlmrv, 
W/.v ,e #,/,>,/. _>(i All-list MUti IWiscj; south side Lake Wato.ah, near 
^Uvmy.K.K.IIumu, 14 June 1W4 [Wise]. Minnksota: Itasca Co., 
. //. Snndbn-g, no. 749 [MinnJ. Missoi in; san.lv hanks of Meramec 
I., Crawford Co., Eggrrt, April 1NN2 [Mol. 




;1^2i; liusch in R Sih. () nem . I-ixt i-«-iii 



ns Bay, Harrington, 8 June 1S72; Inalas' 



Mi:;: Hopkins. Arabis 



i and Centra] North An 



antment Bav, F. Funston, no. 84 [NY]; St. Paul Isla.nl. Belir 
M. Maroun, no. S<>,r,3<) [Can;; Minn (daeier, JJr/j.^ />7, 
HI. lS!»:t | Ami,!. British C(.l.r.MHl\: Vale, wet -ravel near : 



. glabra (DC.) comb nov. Biennial or rarely perennial; stem 
dical leaves quite glabrous or very rarely the petioles sparingh 
•with a few scattered and >imple hairs; stvle not exceeding 0.7") 
on. long.— J. amhnjuu var. <jlnhm DC. Sy'st. ii. 231 (1821); DC. 




is,,,,,!,,-}*,, „, •< , . Hooke, 1 ■ IW.-Am i 

v ;(I „ ' , ,, I)( Kegel in Bull Mos( 
I Mil i in part .1. hirata var. or, i,l,->it<ih.« Wat- 
| \ \J j |V) ivu • Uritton ,V Broun, ill. 
.'/l-V vY-.J.in-ton 2! 12 .1000-; Krye & Bigg. 



urn a rabidoides, probably an isotype of that species [NY], 
Saskatc hkwan: stonv shore, Poplar Point, Lake Atli.v- 
Harp, r, no. 88 [US]; near east end of Lake Athabaska, ./. II . Ti/irll, 
no. 'l 1)11,741 [Can]; Clearwater River, lat. 56°, ./. M. Macoun, no. 
1,724 [CanJ: ills north of Prince Albert, Man,ttn, 

no. I _',:>*»S [Can]. Montana: Montana, CWs, A'.r. //>/•/,. «/. H'. 
Chickcriny, 1874 [XV]; high reek-slide above Manx Glacier Hotel, 



ark kiver nrar Ml. Baker. What.-. 
Glacier on Heliotrope Hid-r. Mt. Ba 
British Columbia: Lower Allokag 
northwest slopes of Mt. Selwyn, abc 

.lW;,,nos. o,7!)7, 4,l>%& 1,1 .Vi ; ere, 



Unr.n.n.-lt) Aug. I SS.", ; grassy pla. 



vpieal A. lyrak 


t is a plant of Allegheni 


era United Sta 


tes, found in Canada or 


mo, except for < 


me very isolated station ii 


nding from Ven 


tnont, which appears to b 


h through west 


em Massachusetts to No 


ee, west to Mi> 


«ouri, Iowa and Minnesc 


isian .1. petraea 


it is quickly distinguishe 


to oblong seet 


Is, those of the Old Wor 






elliptical to suborbicular, and by its s 

usually shorter and more plump. Busch, according to Hu 
further adds, "In Fl. Sib. Orient. Extrem. iv p. 470 he [Busch] 
that this species [A. petraea] differs from the American A. lyrai 
being more robust and in having smaller flowers and thicker 
longer pods."* Although I cannot agree with Busch that the Ho 



1937] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 95 

of A. petraea are smaller than those of A. lyrata (at least the Old 
World specimens which 1 have examined do not illustrate this <lis- 



ew York Botanical Garden), Nan 
I. In Torrey & Gray's Flora an 

hum His (C. A. Meyer) Robinson. 



OW, seldom exceeding 



specimens from i 



bigua DeCandolle 



Var 


. mtn-mrdia is merely a sy 


nonym 


of A. lyrata 


var. Icamchaiica 


Fischer, to be discussed in a folio 


wing paragraph, and 


I var. scabra is a 


plant 


with which I am not familia 


r; in al 


1 probability i 


t does not occur 


in Xn 


rth America. From the s 


ihove < 


lescription it 


is evident that 


DeCa 


ndolle separated three var 


ieties c 


,f his plant a 


ccording to the 


presei 




« on \\ 


le stem and t 


>asal leaves, the 


most ( 


'onstant character which 1 




een able to fir 


id in this group. 




the t\ 


pical form ol 


" A. lyrata from 


var. glabra merely on the basis ol 


' fruit o 


r flower, but ^ 


(nth pubescence 


as a g! 


aide the task of segregation 


becomes relatively s 


imple. 


Var 


. glabra is merely an earli 




ie for one of 


the two plants 


which 


Watson included under var 


. occulri 


,/„//,•, a varict. 


y which differed, 


accon 


ling to his interpretation, from the 


typical form 


only in having a 


sessile 


or a snltsessile stigma and ; 


i nerve 


oil tlu-silujuf 


which extended 


oearlj 


' to the tip. His complete < 


lescrip 




>ods with sessile 




i or a very short and thic 


k styl< 


!; the valves 


rather thin but 


often faintly nerved to the top. 


" 2 He 


: included under this variety 


every 


North American plant of i 


1 . lyrata not belongir 


ig to the typical 


form 


of the species, quite regart 


Hess of 


pubescence ( 


)r of a glabrous 


state. 


Consequently, Hulten, seeing si 


peciinens froi 


a Alaska in the 


Graj 


Herbarium marked "var. 


oecub 


ntalis S. Wa 


ts.," and being 


famili 


ar with Watson's descripti 


on, wn 


• te: "judging 


from the sped- 


mens 


at my disposal, specimen; 


^ of the plai 


h in America is 


called 


A. lyrata var. ucrldmtati 


s Wats 


i. completely 


agree with our 


plant 


[the Alaskan var. kamchat 


con"!;! 


r!h^. th 4^ = 


te of the flowers 
tical." 3 All the 


Alask 


an sheets of ,J. l yraUt in 


the 1 


rray Herbarii 


nn are labelled 



i the character of a sessile ox 
ation of the pod. Specimens 



:>.;;: Hopkins, Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 97 

a millimeter in length. The nervation of the pods is entirely incon- 
stant. In every case, however, the nerve extends beyond the middle. 
Rydberg records the occurrence in Montana of .4. ambigua DC., 1 
which leads one to the assumption that some or all of the varieties are 
to be found there. But as I interpret DeCandolle's conception of the 
species, no typical form occurs, only the three varieties as listed in 
the Systema: var. glabra, var. intermedia and var. scabra. Apparently 
Rydberg did not concur in this interpretation, else he would have 
correctly taken var. glabra as the name for the Montana plant. That 

evident, however, from the fact that he discarded it. There is a 
specimen in the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden 
"legit Cmm" from Montana, this being the only specimen of var. 

'llubni which 1 have seen from the general region of the Rocky Moim- 






been collected I 



least twice, once bv Suksdorf and once by J. W. Thompson who says 
(discussing it as .1. lyruta var. kamchatira Fisher): "While on Mt. 
Baker last summer [1934], I found this rather rare crucifer in great 
abundance at about N00 meters, just above perpetual snow. Mr. 
Suksdorf's collection cited by Piper [Contr. Nat'l. Herb. xi. 292 
(1906)] must have grown from' a chance seed that had been washed 
down from the higher altitudes where I found it." 2 Both the Suksdorf 
and the Thompson specimens should be referred to var. glabra. 

Var. kamchatica has flowers which vary from 3.5 to 5 mm. in length, 
smaller than those either of the typical form or of var. glabra, and 
develops some degree of pubescence either on the stem or on the 
radical leaves or on both. This is almost always of a hirsute narutv 
with simple or bifurcate spreading hairs. Its stigma is either sessi e 
°r on a short stvle seldom exceeding (>."> mm. in length, lnese 
characters at once distinguish it from var. glabra which has larger 
tWrs, a -lahrou. -ten -m.l radical leave- (except for a few simple 
hairs on the petioles), and either a sessile stigma or a style up to 
ne arly a millimeter long. DeCandolle's A. ambigua var. int, nnnlia 
is merely this plant, but because Fischer's plant was described under 
A - hruta in the Svstema, 3 it is more fitting to use its name, even 
th °ugh A. ambiqun var int, madia occurs earlier on the page. It is 
f °und throughout Alaska and the islands in the Behring Sea, in British 

'Rydberg, pi. Rockv Mts 358 (1917) 



certainly occur there. The plant 

that from Mackenzie was ol.taii ie.l ; 

of them being perfectly good specin 

(To be coi 



106 




Rhodora 




[April 


ARABIS IX EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH 


AMERICA 




Mi 


LTON HOPKII 








(Cont; 


inwlfrompag 


e98) 




."). A. glabra (L.) Bernhardt. Biennu 

base, 6-12 dm. high, hirsute ;it base with s 
in suhappressed hairs, passing to glabrous 
rarely glabrous throughout: basal leave.' 
rarely lyrate-pinnatifid, entire or irregular 
5-12 cm. long, 1-3 cm. broad, those of 


J from a usuall 

e below, rarely 1 
impleorbifurca 

and glaucous a 

Iv'denta'te, peti- 
the first year ] 


^ranching at 
te spreading 

,led,aeutish, 
rather fineb 


stellate-pubescent o 


n both s 


urfaees with 


forked triehomcs, those of 



appressed to subappressed ; sepals membra 
glabrous, obtuse to subacuminate, oblong 
purple, % the length of petals; petals (fresh) 



at base of stem stellate, of trifurrate, appi 



ar. typica. A. glabra (L.) Bernh Svst Yerz Erf. 195 (1800); 
ton & Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 150 (1897); Britton, Man. Fl. 465 (1901); 
inson & Fernald in Gray, Man. ed. 7: 437 (1908); Nelson & 
her. Xeu Man. Rorkv Mt. Hot _"«, !i<)(l<i>- Frve & Rigg. ^ w> 
189 (1912); Piper & Beattie, Fl. x". (.Ws't 170* (1915); Jepson. 



H..,,kii 



- 



Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 428 (1925). Turritis glabra L. Sp. PL ii. 6615 1 7- • . 
■ rl.\ . Kng. Bot. xi. t. 777 (1800); Smith, Fl. Brit. ii. 7I> 

]M»J Per-om,.Svnop. ii. 20.") HM>7>: DC. Syst. ii. 21 1 (1821); DC. 
Prod. i. 142 (1S2C; Hooker. Kl. Bor.-Am. i. 40 (1829); T. & G., Fl. 
\ Vm j 7 s i g ht,N.Am.Bot.ed.8:463(1840); 

,,ur, Fl. Ross. i. 116 (1842); Die- 
rricl,. Sxnnp. iii. OSS , I X-1M i ; Wood. Classhk. ed. 2: HWi (1847); Gray, 
Mtiii. 3li (1X48). Dmtarifi folli.s snniJicihiis Scopoli. Fl. Cam -"'Hi 

17ii0: ; Wagner, Deutsche Fl. ii. ~< 

Cntntz, Class. Crucif. 117 (1700). Turriti* prrfohata Necker. IWir. 
i. 2S3 1773); Bolander. Cat. PI. San Francisco, 5 (1870). .1. /« rtnhafu 
Lam. Diet. i. 210 (1703- Grav, Man. ed. .,: 00 (1S07>; Watson in 
ll.,t. Kind's Rep v 17 (1S71); Porter in Harden, Rep. 478 (18/1); 

i M ,V W it .1 111 (-<n| SlI ( lilt I il 1 SS «» (i ' " ,n '" 

Mini B,„ [[eft ~ 101'M ' Irnhis- 7»/t;//.s- Clairville. Man. d'Herh. 
-MMl nun |,-„/„\ TurrUn 1 Sp PI " 00o 17o3) Sw, , 
V Uns,i],nn„ La Pevn a.^e. 1 /I list . Ahren. 3X2 1 .1X13) : and Suppl 02 

ISIS); l'oir. Suppl. \'-. 101 i INI 7). Turriti* marwmr^ Nutt. ex. 1. 
&G. Fl. X. Am. i. 7S (1N3X); Katun & Wright. X. Am. Hot. e.l ^ v 
463 (1840); Walpers, Rep. i. 120 (1X12V. Dietrich, Xynop. m. o . 

1^3>; Turrev, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 227 (1874). .1. 
T<.rre\ in Hut'. Mux. Boundary, pt. 1 : 32 (1858).- -Sandy held>. <li\\ 
madsides. riv,,- |, :i „k<. Lane ' ledges or eliHs. thickets and woods. 



as? Gienm ° ni 



scrub! 
plain, Southhur 



■/.-//■, 10 Ma> IS'.H [Rkh 



H'.'i.W,. 


;!! k : 


lune's 


field ! 

!Mi [PI: 


iii'!' 


West Y 


";:," 


Co., /•;. /•; 


.5, 




o. 7M 


|Mn 




II Va 






Uwnn II 








/■/•"//. 








Alex,, 




Nipigor 


i Rii 


|Can!:,lr 










s. of Tnl 






/ <C- 


Lnnh,: 


Mi. ii 


i!,l; ; 


: madsid! 


MmY 



Co., fl. J. Wrhh. i:j June I'.HIS; ti.-Jii- l > :iin«-svillo, //rr/>. H". 

no. 145 (as /l. cotfini.s)- Russell, '.. /»'. .l,-/,rro/7, .June IM>7. 
in a fallow field 5^ mi. ne. of Knox, /),«,», no. :i(),SS<> (as 

no. _»:i,74:;. Wisconsin: just inii.li- ihe l>ea"rh line, m-rtl 

Willow Point, Delavan Lake, Delavan, 8. ('. Wiulwnwl, 

m.I, Vilas Co., S ( . Wadrrumd, no. 411 2; Li 

./. //. Nr/mr/fc, 5 June 1898. Illinois: Chicago, A'. //«//, 1. 
open woods, near Wady Petra, f . //. Chasr, 25 Mav ].< 

I'rurlujnnjmK Klgin, ,,V„. Cr,^. without nutnl.er lAtnh.j. } 
St. Lazare. near Fort Klliee, A/,,™,,, <V //rrno(, no. 150, 
Winnipeg Valley, ft.n,,.., |s57 (as ".I. /mv^/„" -in part) 
-ta: along mad. sandy soil near Touriot Canip, Clearwater 
Mojih, no. 51; Good H . :/ „,„ ,,•;//„,„ 



Spearfish Canyon, limestone near Sa\ 
no. 4,127 (as Thrlypodium rhgavs ?); 
no. 517. Nebraska: Hershev, C /) 
Loup River near Norway, Thomas C, 
/''■""•''" iLS: : near Plummer Ford, Dis, 
W no. 1,508 [ISj, SAsK.vrn.KWAx: 
J/. J/«r 0M «, no. 1,757 [Can]; on McHa 



Hopkins, — Arabia in Eastern and Central 



America 10!* 



■ Bonner, HI. 



I ft., C. L. Hit 



Uurhrhl, A- IV 



uihvrri, Mar Do,, gal <(• Ilrllrr, no. XS. \ 

>,'," !L/U\n.':v. emnnum. MamU.'/W;. 
. no. L\(L>:>; Wahsateh' Mts. 'elev.. li.; 



rS]. 'Arizona: IWtt. //. //. A'^/*//.^! M.n 1S ** i N }j 
(Aukmkn.a'' 1 Zii Valley" WanH : r 1 M->.r./, 7''" "<'"' //. .... 



ord. J/. />;. Peel 



Lincoln (V 
„.rum\: ran.pl.ell 1^'> 



/>. June July. 
Var. furcatipilis, n. 



a *NT 



lJra\ H'-rh .J : JT t , K y~- 

Parley's Canon, \V,l,.,t,h M,. s <■ - ^ TW# 

June 1901 [US]. (\i ih.hm v : r..a.lside. Linda .Vista / »'Y £-L^ 

n «»r Pasadena. ./. (irnnn'l!, 11 April 19IW1 |l"S : no L_Jj R-|U 



W-ality. yy„„„„, s Hr;<h,r«m 



110 Rhodora [April 

Arahis glahra is n semicosmopolitan plant of circumboroal range, 
often possessing a weedy tendency, extending throughout temperate 
Asia. I, mope and North America. For a species of such wide dis- 
tribution, one would anticipate the occurrence of numerous varieties. 
But in North America only one such variation seems worthy of note. 
Y;u\ fvrratijiilis is in every way like the typical form of the plant 
except for the pubescence of the stem which in the latter is rather 
coarse and definitely spreading, hut which in the former is decidedly 
fine, stellate and appressed. The range of this variety seems limited 

A. glabra is found in a variety of habitats. In North America it 
throws most frequently along roadsides, railroad embankments, in 
fields or meadows, and in open thickets, habitats which suggest its 
introduction from Europe. One also finds it, less commonly, on 
shady limestone cliffs and bluffs or on the walls of canyons, undis- 
turbed locations where the plant is unquestionably native. With 
these facts of native habitat in mind, I endeavored to separate the 
European from the American material in the Gray Herbarium, but 
without success. The seeds of typical specimens from North America 
were minutely scrutinized as were those of representative European 
mid Adatie plants, but no fundamental differences were observed. 
The midnerve of the silique was studied in anticipation of yielding a 
character on which to differentiate the two, but again the results were 
negative. Finally, the auricle at the base of each cauline leaf was 
examined and at first it seemed that the question of identity was 
solved. But continued investigation proved that both in the Old 
World and in the New, the auricles were of two kinds, those forming 
an acute angle with the main stem and those forming an obtuse or a 
right angle with it and, consequently, it was concluded that the 
plants found in North America differed in no way from those found 
in Europe or temperate Asia. 

acters. For example, the cauline leaves commonly vary from narrow^ 
lanceolate to broadly elliptic-oblong, and their apices may range from 
) obtuse, while their auricles may be either sagittate or 



forming an acut( 



right angle with the stem. 



i may be in a semi-loose raceme or in a compact one, the sepals 
ange from obtuse to subacuminate and the petals may not 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 1 

infrequently be fairly broad, although their most typical form 
rather narrow. The seeds show considerable discrepancy in the 
margins, some being partially winged, some winged all aroun 
while some are wingless. And the shape of the seeds is often ve 
irregular, due of course to their being crowded in the pods. Tho 

only one row in the silique, while those with an irregular or angul 
outline invariably come from pods the seeds of which are tight 

those plants with winged or partially winged seeds from those who 
seeds lack wings, but entirely without favorable results. It is n 
uncommon for plants possessing winged seeds to be found in t 
immediate vicinity of those with partially winged ones, hence t 
futility of any geographic segregation based on this character 
obvious. Other characters which vary considerably are the length 

The extreme forms of the plant have not passed without recogi 
tion. In 1874, Torrey, writing on the plants of Pacific North Amen 
said of Turrltis macrocarpa Nutt.: "not uncommon. Too n< 
Turritis glabra, which it represents on the Pacific Coast." 1 Nuttal 
type-sheet of T. macrocarpa is in the Gray Herbarium, and ditb-r.> 
no way from typical A. glabra except in the length of the sdiqi 
which average 9 9.5 nun. and, although these are unque^tiona! 
longer than most of those of the typical plant, this specimen .iir.u- 

.1. glabra, or which permit its maintenance as a >epaia 
Numerous herbarium specimens of . I. glabra winch aie in a , 
unusual frequently bear a question mark on the label, slowing 



plates of A. glabra in various European 
emphasize this point. In Flora Danica, 
i plant with elliptic-lanceolate cauline lea\ 
ate apex, and which possess long, sagitta 
nde with the base of the stem. These fei 



<im. ahi.. interne dense vcl s]>;irso liirsutis supcrnc liirsiitulis vcl ^l;i 1 >ris. 

■ •e.uk -nli.-i«li>i-< — i^ vcl pjitnitilms: t'olii- r.i.li- 

-" h ;'';il>n-. scrrato-dcntatis vcl intt-^ris, ol.tusis vcl rarius acutis, 

■ \H hirsutulis pilis siinplicihus «•( hifnrcatis 
''''•f'lrcniH. prriulis hirsnmlis; t'oliis caulinis oblongis vel 

~ ,;il,n \ H«»n|)ii> parvis, in racemis laxis; pedicclli. florilVris glahriV 

( ^ J':; ri ' : ~ ..';■,!■'' I ' 1 ; V-' anthesim, 4-9 mm. lonpis. jiracililais, \aM< 

■|l--' J :{ »<'quaiinl>u>. -];i!,ri. \,>\ pane 'liir.u!^: pot.ili.- 

T . ' '' " ! 'I ' ^J>l«-ni iK|ti< plun'i i *, |,i „,;,„ , ,,, f ; s m^isti- 

, , 1 "' 1 .'"' ""''hum vcl parcc ultra; j mm licc-llis t'nietiferi- 

. „■ . ' ■■ ■.;■:■'■- 

a elsuperoe 

' ' - -'-' - -'- -; . , : ^ - ,..!,- '■ 

! ,i,- » Quebec to Yukon, south tuGe^ruia. Indiana. 
^. N'«-w Mexico, Arizona and California. 
u.pitMnred in North Ainer,,,, I,-, f our varieties 



>:CI Hopkins— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 113 
Fuoescence of stem spreading or subspreading, predominantly 



throughout; sepals herbaceous _. ;> var. tyjnca. 

subremote, the mi dab'rous; mid- 

dle and upper part of stem glabrous; sepals mem- 

■ for tli.' >pecies, 1. .")-:> cm. long; plants 

,i eastern l Quebec only v » r - reduda. 

' stem strictlv appressed, often giving a stngose _ 

appearance, predominantly of bifurcate hairs var. adpnsstpths. 

Var typica. Quebec: slaty ledges near Cap Chat River below 
'id.au HI. or, Matane Co.. Frrtmhl A' l'raxr, no. L'o.lU; sandy and 
nnelU bar- Cran-I Ca-raprdia River, Be 






Wivelle, Bona- 

','». elilK headland north of Bap- 



kw Hampshire: west side of Mt 



h,os.r„ 




'\^ZkvM^ 


: a. ft. 






fardwell's Ferry, Sh 


1 1 . 














), ISSN, Hartjrr; led 






Co., Max 


npkins Co'., Eaines t 


; ; i/ 7 


V. Hal., 
71 [l-S|;_v 




\7!-!/*!no n .^ii»i. , ii 


u k . 



B rfer,5July 1907 [Phil]. Pennsylvania: 

lut Hid.eat Hilbide, Westmoreland ( o., 
„,]• limestone IdufVs on ( onesto-a ( reek, 
1909 [Phil]; Kent's Furnace Faston 1. 
Gfok<!ia- vallev of the Coosa [Floyd Co.], 
() j ; batiks id' the Coosa, Home, Raven el, 




Map 9. Range of Arams pycnocar 






1937] Hopkins,— Aral >is in Eastern and Central North Americ 

Fort Ellice, Maeoim, no. 1,703 [Can]; ravine, Brandon, Mace 
12,400 [Can]. Minnesota: slate cliff, northwest exposure, s 
Clearwater Lake, Cook Co., Butters & Buell, no. 411; sand ak 
roadside, near Arago P. O., Hubbard Co., J. B. Muylc, no. 4> 
Snelling, Mav 25, 1S91, Kdqar .1. Mcanis. Missouri: t)ro 
mile, west of Jasper, E. ./. Vuhnrr, no. 2,13,1 [Mo]; rocky 1, 
Eggert, 17 Mav 1878 [Mo]. North Dakota: prairies, Leeds, 
no. 78; Minnewankon. Lonrll, 20 July 11)07 [NV|; dry prairie 
Braiihlr,.hmv I910|l)eani]. South Dakota: run ot >pearhsh ( 






open prairies, Prince Albert, Ma 


ro»». no. 12,398 Can ; th 


well Creek, Cypress Hills, Macoi 


" MO- lo'.inlV^ouP.' ^ 


head, alt. 4,500 ft., 8. Brown, no 


B. l\ Clad; July-August 1905; 


Pine Lake Pist.. Wood Buffalo Park. 




Nest Pass. hit. 49 ; 30'. .hVo<o,.no. 


lS.KI.l. MoviA.\\:~Jack Cree 
Bcsscy, no. 4,211; South End 


k Canvon alt. 7,000 ft.. A> //">'.</ ^ - 

i^s/Mis.iui, Mts.. }I 'i'^%K 


531 (as A. orata) |NV|; grav 


«fl«(//n/,no. 15,313 [US]. Idah 


no. 991 [NY]; Shoshone Falls, 
no. 1,731; Wood River, Haile 


; r 7 f: 11 ;/^/,':^,:^: */p : 


Wyoming: Mt. Leidy, Tweedy, 


"" ; ' ,,, M ' ' Turn. d' '"uiViM "<■ 


T^S;S::;f'i; : ::,;:;:£ l 


^; :; R55 ; r5';?.^^' 



;u, ■■"■ ■ : : . 
■; J Hx 1 ;!'^i*;;;.^l < ^: t ^;v:^ 

hS]; Cottonwood Creek. White Mountains. Mono I «... «< 

EWn, no. 1,809 [Minn]. Obegok 

laeka.nus Co., / II 77m>»,,>.v.>„. no L200 Phil .« «' ' \ v ' k 

'Ih Muhn,,, Co. / U // ,,, -no. 2,084 Phil]. Wa 

ion: Pi e r (e Co., /W, no. 232 [US]; no locality, t. t. znaat 
U07 [US]. British Columbia: dry bluffs, north bank ot 



Rhodora [April 

.it Taylor Flat, Raup & Abbe, no. 3,581; rich low woodlands, 

-lope- of Pratt- River Vallex , \ icinit\ of Hudson Hope, Raup & 
no. 3,(383. Mackenzie: Fort Resolution, A. DutiUy, do. 100. 
x Tkkkitory: Cemeterv Hill, Dawson, Eastwood, no. 437; 
,ss, Eastwood, no. 703; Klontlyke, John Mac Lean, 1898-1901 
Hawker Creek, Mncoun, no. ")«X,3S1 [Can]; moist ground and 
hanks, Fort Selkirk, M . U\ Cor.nnn, no. 1,040 [Can]. Fl. May- 
fr. June July. Map 9. 
. glabrata (f . & G.), n. comb. Slender; stem glabrous to spar- 

*wto, § glabra T. & G„ Fl. N. 




■<^l JW//, no. 13,301) [Wise]; lime- 
:— % stone cliffs, wooded and pa* 
rV-4 tured bluff along Platte River, 
Diekevville, Grant Co., Vam\U 
:. m 2 no. 13,457 [Wise]. Alberta: 

- vieinitv of Basin, 4,000 ft. alt. 



'ormations, Mammoth Hot Springs, Ve 



;:lT, d ^; at cte^T;;:;/:r i j;:::r,;;;': 1 ,;:: 



1937] Hopkins, —Aral »i 






ne, Ely, Duck Creek Canyon, A. E. Hitchcock, nos. 1,389 & 1,391 
|; moist ravines, vicinity of Austin, A. E. Hitchcock, no. 733 [US]. 
r Mexico: dry hills, vicinity of Raton, Colfax Co., Standi, i t , no. 
[US]. California: Cottonwood Creek, White Mts., Mono Co., 
He A Funston, no. 1,807; Santa Ana River, frequent in shaded 

•tie T reek, lie;,- - ■ : .11 rne.v Co., M. F. 

;, no. 1,957; wet rocks, Horsetail Falls, Columbia Cor-e, .1/,,-. 
\ (kites-, no 1(H) [Phil]; hills, northwest of Crooked Creek Valley, 
e Co., M. Loveless, 22 June 1931 [Phil]. Washington: rocky 

es of Constance Uidue. Jefferson Co., 3,500 ft., ./. If. Thompson, 




118 Rho 




Lockport Led-.. Loekport, Shd. 


no. 614; damp open woods near 


Wadv IVtra. 1 '. //. Clm.sr, 2o Ma 


' 1895 (as A hrnrhi/ca j,„); hanks 




c]; railroad track, Romeo. I'mixich, 


4 June ISO.-) [TS|.' Misx'x hi ■ T 


wer Rock, H. A. Gleason, 7 May 


1902 las Stninphrmimn Thallium); 


rocks, St. Clair Co.. Ea<„rt, 7 May 


lS7SirS];Montier, fl«,in.». 32 ( 


rYPE in Gray Herbarium): common 








Mo]. Iowa: woods", Johnson Co., 


'fihi.alrlk-'^ Flhinit rich, -Alunv 1 


900 [DeamJ; Badger, M. 1'. Sumrs, 




uest Creek, Pittsburg, Van Buren 


Co../-. H\ r/rarr 4> no. 2.144 |M«,|. 


Map 12. 


J.^cMOfar^ais.theplantwhi 


•li has pre\ iously passed in North 


America as ^4. hirsuta (L.) Scop. 


The latter is a Eurasian species 


which, although superficially resembling the American one. aetualh 


is quite different from it. These 


differences are best presented in 


tabular form as follows: 




Eurasian A. hihsuta 


North \meric\n \. pycnocarpa 








ler usually imbricate to subimbricate, 


scattered along the st 


m, close together on tin 


dentate with 5 (3-)-7 tee 


th. to subentire or if dentate with 



: ' 

^es of the pod. inent through the valves of 



broadly so at apex. 

silique or slightly beyond middle. 
The pubescence of both plants, however, seems to be similar, although 
that of A. hirsuta is much more abundant than that of its North 
American relative. The former plant usually possesses on its stem 
a great quantity of spreading bifurcate hairs along with the character- 
istic simple ones, while the cauline leaves are much more hirsute than 
those of A. pycnocarpa. The size of the flower and the length of the 
others ls also similar in both plants, and although the sepals tend to 
vary somewhat in the Eurasian plant, in general they are shorter 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 119 

than those of the American and appear to be only one-half the length 
of the petals instead of two-thirds their length as is the case in A. 
pycnocarpa. Fig. 1 of plate 457 shows a typical specimen of A. hir- 
mtu from Bavaria with the characteristic short moniliform pods and 
remote to subremote, dentate cauline leaves; these characters in- 
stantly differentiate it from a typical specimen of A. pycnocarpa from 
Bonaventure County, Quebec, possessing longer and non-moniliform 
pods and imbricated, entire leaves, and illustrated in Fig. 1 of plate 
458. Fig. 3 of plate 458 illustrates the differences in the nervation of 
the silique and in the length of the style, the specimens being taken 
from the above two sheets. The Bavarian plant is characterized b\ its 
short style and by a silique which is one-nerved throughout its entire 
length, whereas the Quebec plant has a longer, more slender s' '" 



Mli M ,„- 



Seed differences 



between the two species are illustrated in Fig. 2 o: 
Fig 2 of plate 458, in which the seeds of -1. hirsuta are shown with a 
narrow wing only at the apex, while .1. pycnocarpa possesses a definite 
wing extending throughout its entire periphery, although this wing is 
much broader at the apex than elsewhere. 

When Rydberg published his Flora of the Rocky Mountains in 
1917, he used the name A. ovata (Pursh) Poir. for the plant conm.o.ih 
known at that time throughout North America as A. hirsuta (L.) 
Scop., and in his Flora .,f the Prairies and Plains in 1932 he continued 
to use it and was followed by Small in 19315, whose Manual of the 
Southeastern Flora erroneously cites Michaux as the authority for 
the name. A. acuta is based on Pursh's Turritis ovata, 1 and although 
Mr. C. A. Weatherby has most kin.ll> searched the nnportaut h.-r- 

Pursh type'i!, ,hj' roumry!'ii' appears cither to he non-extant or else 

Barton HeZriumnl tl !' V.m-ri. an Philosophical Society,* a specimen 
collected by Pursh in "stnuh woods belou Harpers ren m 

labelled by him "Turritis* hirsuta! /'.". which is, unfortunate., 
quite clearly mere. v , I. ,,,„,/, ,m* L. Dr. F. W. PenneH • 
«'- Herbarium of the Academv of Natural Sciences of PI.. 
in a letter to Professor Fernald writes : " We are adding to our loan o 
specimens . . . eight sheets of Pursh's specimens represented in 
the Barton Herbarium of the American Philosophical Society. Among 



Rhodo 
: vou will find Turrit is hirsnfu wl 









on the banks of the ( ',„,-,:, Kjy<t ,„..,,. }> (lIni . ' 1 '[ ! i„' 1 „' ll | l from thereto 
between Pennsylvania and (ieor-ia | |, r ,'■ '.,', i',' m, > >(>ciinens; an< 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 1_M 

not examined any specimens from Arkansas ami Oklahoma, nor have 

as indigenous to the hitter state' and Professor H. M. Jennison of the 
University of Tennessee writes: "With reference to A. Mrsuia (L.) 
Scop., I can say that we have in our herbarium a specimen of what 
answers the description of that specie- which I collected at Savage 



i. ; i average 

1 bv the fact that the 
rmore the basal leaves, 
of pubescence which is 
i Dear pit. It is localized 
iown— both of them in 
From the European A. 



122 Rhodora [April 

Yar. (jhihrntn was described by Torrey &: Gray as "whole plum 
glabrous; leaves mostly entire." 1 However, 1 have never seen a plant 
which was Totally glabrous, nor have I had the good fortune to ex- 
amine the type-sheet: "Oregon, Dr. Snwlrr!" In view of the fact 
that I have not seen the type-sheet, I have found it necessary some- 
what to amend the original description and to include under the 
varietal name those plant- of .1. pi/nmrarpa which tend towards a 
glabrous condition. The present conception of var. f/labrata, then, 
is a plant which possesses few siliques, comparatively few eauline 
leaves, the middle and uppermost of which are glabrous and remote to 
subremote, membranaceous sepals which are often, but by no means 
always, somewhat broader and more acute than those of the typical 
form of the species, glabrous to sparingly pubescent basal leaves, and 
a stem which is almost invariably hirsute at the base but which 
rapidly becomes glabrate shortly above that point and is completely 
glabrous just below the inflorescence. Furthermore, var. c/lahmfn is 
usually simple, slender and rather delicate, and often is very low, 
although some specimens attain the height of var. typicn. It is 
found in the Wisconsin Driftless Area and in the mountain* bom 
Alberta south to Colorado and California, extending as far south in 
that state as the San Bernardino Mountains. It reaches New Mexico 
only locally; in Oregon, Washington and southwestern British Colum- 
bia it is far more abundant than var. ti/pica, which occurs on the 
Sierra Nevada very sparingly as far south as northern California. 
Its presence in the famous Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin 
is somewhat unusual, but quite logical in view of the current geo- 
logical interpretation of that region, which was completely untouched 
by ice during the glacial period. The only two specimens from that 
state which I have seen are from Grant Co., and both plants are al- 
most entirely glabrous, have very few siliques and possess the slender 
and delicate habit so characteristic of this plant in the Rocky Moun- 

7 A. georgiana Harper. Biennial from a thin tap-root: stem 
slender, erect, simple or branched at base, 3-.") dm Midi, hirsute at 
base passing upwards to hirtellous and glabrous with simple and bi- 
furcate subappressed to spreading hairs: radical leaves oblanceolate, 
b.rmm, a flat rosette, denticulate to serrate, obtuse, tapering to a 
ymged petiole, 4-8 cm. Ion,, U IJ nun. broad, finely and 
loosely pubescent on both surfaces with minute bi- or tri-i'urcatc 



1H37J Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 123 

hairs or the upper surface glabrous; canline leaves 2 4 em. long, 4-13 
mm. broad, stibremote to subimbrieate, ellipii< -oblong to ohlong- 
hmceolatc, the uppermost narrower and reduced in size, sessile with 
a Mil.aniplexieanl l.ase, denticulate to subdentate, obtuse, glabrous on 
upper surface, looseh and finely pubescent on lower surface with 

[.act racemes, small; flowering pedicels filiform to subfiliform. erect, 
a ID mm. long at anthesk glabrous; sepals membranaceous, greenish 
to yellowish, one half the length of petals, ovate-oblong, 2.5-4 (4..)) 
mm. long, narrowly scarious-margined, glabrous or very rarely -marseb 

obtuse, spreading above. IS '.I mm. long: siliques thin, 

nm'nerveli;,/ "-V 

fruiting pedicels erect or ascending, glabrous, 8-14 ;T . 



long; seeds uAme mu . oblong t'o Oblong-quadrate! 


Ti 




1 V)- 




Map 13. 


Torr'eva, iii. ss ' \ W :\ . Small. Man. Se. Fl. 571 


Range of Arabis 


(19331— River banks „>oi,t rocks and rich alluvium, 


GEORGIAN*. 


Georgia and Alabama. The following are charac- 








region, Unrp,,-, no. 1.IHH m pf. in Herb. X. Y. Bot. Gs 


ug. 2b, 1841 fas 




A. h;rsutn)\SY\; Mts. of (ieorgia. Ilrrh. Chapman 1 




number) [XY|; bank of < >ostanaula River near Ilesa. 




30, 1903 (merely remnant of p ,mU and stalks) [XY]. 


Alabama: bank 


"f Coosa River, below Wetumpka. Klmore Co.. Cr 




Harper, no S(i- shaded rocks. Pratt's Ferry, Bibb ( 




A. dnitaia). Fl. April Ma v; fr. May-June. Map 1 


3. 



J;"«i^air 


£;5, 


ii. ...•,].,., finally found 

' . , .-,.. . ., ■■ -. . ."■..■■■ :- • ' 


flowers, Ion. 


>er and 


lhm'rr'''i / li«'|iM's longer style, glabrous upper 


surface' of tl 


"ie leaver 


1 ' r fruitiic pedicels and narrower seeds. 


5:'£ 


not Sulliv 


ta longer siliques, and the shape, 

escence of its eauline leaves. In A. patens the 
, att . to „vate-lanceolate, dentate to serrate, 


definitely cla 


spiug am 


1 hirsute on both surfaces, whereas in this plant 


they are ofc 


•long to 


11 1 1 +^ H'onticllhiC tO 

"late, (tentuui.tte 
dexicaul base and pubescent only on the lower 


^sile with i 




surface. 







to be the first Arabia reported from the coastal plain of the eastern 
1'nited States with the exception of A. virginica (L.) Trel. --which, 

But in the light of more 

A. lyrata and A. Drummondi. 

8. A. patens Sullivant. Biennial tending towards perennial: 
erect, 3-6 dm. high, simple or branched at base and above, h 
throughout with spreading, simple or rarely forked hairs, or gla 

surfaces with simple or forked hairs or entirely glabrous; c; 
leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. broac 
sile, amplexicaul with an auriculate-clasping base, acute to acum 
serrate to dentate or the uppermost often entire, hirsute on bot! 
faces with mostly simple or a few stellate hairs: flowers in rather 
racemes; flowering pedicels ascending or erect, glabrous or spa: 
hirsute, 5-10 mm. long at anthesis; sepals membranaceous, 2.5- 




^na small, 



ici, on a conspicuous 
. long; seeds in one ro 1 



narrowly winged all around or more rarely » in<'ed onlv 'it the a 

Am. Journ. Sci. xlii. 49 (1842); Gray, Genera, i. 142, t. 5S ( 

Gray Man. 69 (1848); Chapman, Kl. S. !'. S 27 (1S60); 

fr9 ^° f i 8 . 61: 232 (1861 )5 Wats ™ in Gray, Svnop. Fl. > 

•f 1 (193,K ! - ri era and creeks, Pennsj 

to lennessee and Indiana. The folio 

'■■■■ ^ ■ - " - !:•;.. ......' :.... - ; 

ton, 23 Sept. * 

June 1850. Maryland: near Great Falls of Potomac, Bartrc 



1937] Hopkins,-- Arabis in Kastern and Central .North A 

April 1009; Broadwater, C. S. Williamson, 17 April 
District of Columbia in W i lii i^-n / / >> 

,!:. Wk-t Vih.-ima: on rocky'" 
Hole, Pendleton Co., E. L Core, no. (>,S16 [NY]; Smiti 
//,„■/, r, 10 Antr. 1S04 [Wise]. Virginia: near l-mnt K" 
Allen'-, Cove, Warren Co., &'. S. Mt&r, L7 ■ 
Carolina: Hot Spring. Madison Co.. C. /A N^/A. Apr. 
(h„,h '/. ", Iu.m ls'.«. \\ urn s,, 1Mll . Mi. n <o / 



idge, Buckley without date ,., nun!- ,. i 



JYJ. /7. April- 



■nt. Map 14. 



120 Rhodora [April 

exceedingly dubious. Another doubtful station for the plant has been 
reported from Missouri 1 but this seems unquestionably to be incorrect 
,i- mi specimen from that state is to be found in any of the herbaria nor 
do Palmer and Steyermark mention it in their Annotated Catalogue 
of the Plants of Missouri. 2 

9. A. Hookeri Lange. Biennial from a tap root or perennial from 
n I. ranched root-stock: stem ascending or erect, profusely branched at 
base or more rarely simple. \ arying from 1-4 dm. high, densely hirsute 
below with usually long simple or often bifurcate spreading hair<. 
passing to glabrous above or more rarely hirsute throughout: basal 
leaves in a dense crown, oblanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 3-5 cm. 
long, 3 -7 mm. broad, acute, sinuate to dentate or subentire. finely ami 
densely stellate-pubescent on both surface, with minute forked tri- 
chomes; petioles narrow! ie; cauline leaves re- 



r 7 % 



Map 15. Range of Arabis Hookeri. 

mote to subimbricate. lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, sessile with a 
sagittate or an aurieulate clasping base. usualh entire or more rarely 
Mibdentate with scattered teeth or slightlv sublimate, revolute. 1 - 
cm. long, 1-3 mm. broad, the lowermost finely and densely stellate- 
pubescent, the uppermost less so; the hairs minute, both simple or 
forked: flowers in loose racemes, small; flowering pedicels erect or 
- -1-7 mm. long at anthesis, sparingly pilose or more rarely 

length of petals, pilose with simple or more ra'rcK forked bait's, siih- 
hyahne or yellowish along margin; petals small, white to pale cream 



[\y;>,7] Hopkins, Arabis in Kasteru and Central North America 127 
nearly to tip; fruiting pedicels erect or ascending, sparingly pilose to 



mm. broad. (on,|i. ['I. (Troc-n. iii. ..0 (1SS0); Warming in Bot. 

Abromeit in Bot. Ergelm. ii. 27 (IS!' 1 .' ; Simmons, Kep. _n<l. ^ ,,r 
Kxped. is«)s HHV2, no. xvi.(i.S(l!HK));I»<.rsild.VaM-. PI . \\ 
Wl.ll.l-J : I'msiU. 1-1. Disko, Si! ,l<)2.i). Turriti* mollis Hooker, Id. 
Bnr.-Am. ,. I0.IS2!. ; I lornein.. Id. 1 >an. xiii. ,. 22!Hi 1 1836); Torr & 
<ira\ Id \ \m i 7s I vis : Walpe,-. Krp- ! ^M^; Dietrich. 
v,:,, n ;',;ss iVr -• -n in Mem. Soc. Nat. 



Puecincllias, wh 




th e native boots 


k;i 


places may eas 


il\ 


Like Aloprcurus 


1 ' (/ / 



There are, in the Herbarium of the National Museum of Canada, 
three representative sheets of the plant from the Yukon Territory 
and there is every good reason to believe that it should be found in the 
arctic regions intermediate between this locality and Greenland. 
Hooker states: "Shores of the Arctic Sea between long. 107° and 130°. 
. . . This plant exists in Dr. Richardson's collection from the shores 
ot the Arctic Sea, ' which would be exactly the region anticipated. 
But Mr. C. A. Weatherby, who has been kind enough to examine the 
type of Hooker's T. mollis, writes me: "labelled in Hooker's hand 
>ca ( oast A re! ic America, Richardson". " He further informs me that 
there are no other specimens of the plant in the Hooker Herbarium, 
so the exact locality of the Richardson plant remains unknown. The 
Yukon plant seems typical in v\<>ry way. 



Lange's description of Arahis Hoi 
ant which Hooker had previous 
ntains the following: " Biennis? (v 



with simpler" 



nore probable that the plants w 
niltiraulis have taken on that hab 



7] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 1 

ictance to maintain the variety is increased by the use of " mul 
lis" in the original description of the typical form of the plant. 
\or can I conscientiously maintain Abromeit's f. bnriramom n> 
arate form. His comment and description read: "Namentlich c 
• y g a 1 s k i schen Exemplare erwecken den Eindruck unv< 
slter einfacher Pflanzen, wodurch sie betraehtlich von der Trac 
typischen Form abweichen. Die kurzen blutentragenden A> 
I stets kiirzer als die Stengelblatter, in deren Achseln sie ei 
ingen. Im iibrigen tragen die Exemplare den Charackter der 

i to attempt to segregate these as \arieties and forms, especia 



at base or above or simple, finely and 
>ase with appressed simple or forked 

radical leaves oblanceolate-spatulate 



ly pubescent on both surfaces with minute - 

;; cauli'ne leaves narrowb oblong to linear-lanceolate, im- 
!. subremote, erect or strongly ascending, 1.5-l> cm. long, 
. broad, sessile with an aurieulate or sagittate base, acute, the 
lowermost subentire to entire, the uppermost quite entire. 
on both surfaces or very rarely the extreme lowermost 



, rarch while, ohlaneeola tr-pat ulate. ■ >..< •' ■ m ■ 
ng, 0.5-1.5 mm. broad at apex: sili 
mermost and voun-est stiberect. t 1 ■ ■ 
^.id.-preading „r subarcuate or subreflexed, glabrous, -■•' " '"'■ 

ng, 1.25-2.5 mm. broad. ,,. ,1 one-net ed two tlnnb u 

ieir length or often to ri 

tH\ spreading or more rareb suhdetlexed, gla> 

»g at niaturin depending on robustness ot pi. ; 

short style 25-0 5 (0 75) mm. long; seeds when young definitely in 



) 




Rhodora 








[Apk.l 


EH 


tc/obloi 


y usually only in 


dian, 


rth ': 


3 abortion 


^in-'ed 


^SiSl 


S^ad road ::::: 






■.'.'.var.'IS 


V dn, 


wir. typica. 

rk\ Mi.. 362 


(1017). 


ricarpa Nelson in Hot. Gaz. 

. Uoekv Mt. Bot. 220 (HID 

Turrit is hracht/rarpa T. .V 
*ht, N. Am. Bot. ed. 8: 463 

, Alan. :-!7( 1848). A. Drumn 


xxx. 193 (1900); 
9) ; Rydberg, Fl. 

I 1840); W a 1 pers, 
londi var. &rac%- 



mrpa Gray, Man. ed. 5: 69 (1867). A. confinis Watson in 1W. 
Aea.l. xxii. 466 (1887) in part; Watson & Coulter in Gray, Mai 
6: 67 (1889) in part ; Watson in Gray, Sj nop. Fl. N. Am. i. 163 ( 

<■<!. 6:07 (isv. YAm. i. 163 (1 

.1. hmrhnrarpu Britton in Mem. Torr. Bot. Club v. 174 (1894); 
& Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 150 (1897); Britton, Man. Fl. 46-1 i 1901 I; Fe 
in Rhodora v. 231 (1903); Kobinson ,V Fernald in Grav, Mai 
7: 437 (1908); Rydberg, Fl. Rocky Mts. 361 (I'll 7) and Fl. Br. 
381 (1932); Marie-Victorin, Fl. Laurent. 261 (1935); non . 
hnirhnvurim Huprecht, Fl. Cane. 73 ( 1809). - (Quebec to central 
\ork, west along the Great Lakes region and Great Plains, ther 
Yukon, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California. 
following are characteristic. Quebec: common in sand dunes 
dousac, Saguenay Co., Collins ,v F.muhl. I Sept., 1904; drv 
blurt' above Riviere du (umpire, near Baie St. Paul, Charlevi.P 



'•■ M.-nimag,'" clJTS,;? /',',/ ','„' i,,',',' , '"v'i, m'.P ^ 
A.ule. .l/„,-„„„, lu ,ow;.ow . ., „f K,,LV, 

l's Head Mountain, Lake Meniphrenia< / Faxon, 27 & 

1885. New Brunswick: Eel River Resti' >uche Co John 
1 Aug. 1888 (as A. cmfi rocky banks, 

Campbellton, CW^r, ,„,. I.U74 fas J l) r ,un,nJ,h ' \iu Hamp- 
Miiu Wdpole IV. H. Blamharcl, no. 75 ,„ s A. In, vi.ahr-. Hanover, 
. //. Ihtrhnn-k, 20 June 1883) [NVj. Vermont: lln san.lv soil, 
1 b-<'i.d,.,nkmen,. Burlington. \ . . |VasV Mt., 

Charlotte i „/,,,/, , PI. Fxsiee. Gray. No. 554; Ferrisburg, F. IF Uor*- 
;; '• ! \ '""e Ism, tU) . 1. New York: lake-shore, Port Henry, 

',"_: •;-')•" ,ss! U " IUI - ' <""" 

4,do/ IXMiJ. Ontario: dry banks of the Moira, \l,tc,„ t ,,, no. 134; dry 






1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 131 

rocky soil of talus, Ferguson Mt., Temagami Forest Reserve. W. B. 
WoUon, no. 976; drv limestone boulders, foot of cliffs, Barrow Bay, 
Bruce Co., Strbbins rt ,//., nos. KW and 134: Dunk', Hay. Tnl.rnnnry. 
Bruce Co., Krotknv. no. 7,401; sandy beach of Lake Superior, Agawa 
Bav Pmse no 17,979; dry cliffs, Gore Bay, Manitoulm Island, 
I',',,,, ,v {),,,{, //. no. L>:».()19; rocks and sand, Jack Fish, Thunder 1'.,:.. 
District /W» A- />'"» no. 2:1,478; barrens, Schreiber, Thunder Bay 
District! /Wc <v lirun. no. L>.i,o4L>. Michigan: Isle Royale, II . S. 
('oo/;r/\ no. 27 S- crevices and talus of greenstone bluffs in dry woods 




near ( lift, /-, rnnltl d /',</.*, , no. .>,•>-.'; .u» " 

UkT 'i'ric * ne^slnduskv''' A. "/•• ^ W.! !'."':> ^h 



Missi 


ssippi banks, J. //. Schuette, 1 Jul 


y 1881 (as 


\A. 




S.H-ll 


ing, E. A. Mcams, 11 May 1891 








ma cli 


Iff, Grand Portage, Cook Co., But 


t'rr* <v ' H,„ 


n 






'«). Iowa: dry wood, Iowa Lake 




Co. 


, f'w//-/, 19 






mon, Bla< 




Hills, e le\. 




i) h., Rydbng, 29 June 1892, (as A. 


llolln, lill 


}\) 


Sj; Custer, 


k Hill 


s, alt. 5,500, Rydbcrq, 5 June 189: 


I (as A. II 








.: hillside, Kiwa Valley, Scott's Bli 


iff Co., Ri 






[US] 


. North Dakota: on rocks in 


open woe 


•da 






//. F. Bergman, no. 1,446 [Mo]. 


Mac KI,\Z 






*'""] 


•s Mackenzie River, Ml,, /•.'. ] 

[Can]; Fort Providence, Macke 


'o///o,-, 11) 


fel 


y 1899 (as 


1 -'; 


Saskatchewan : Saskatchewan, 


r River, 1: 
^es Creek, 


, U 


v-,.s"'.'-.s If'". 




in. 1 .005 [Can]; prairie, Old Wv 




16 (as 


A. confinu) [Can]; thickets, Cyj 


MVSS Hills 




lurotm. no. 



Lock.\ Mis, 


Boi 


( /7/,„„; is.-.s , 


as T. ret, 


■nlnirta' ; 


vicinitV of 


Banff, 




k.alr 




0. AfcCofla.no. 2.254 


i[rs;."M<. 








Middle Creek 


:, Bozemai 


i, 4,500 ft 


., HI,,,,!;!,,*, 


Up,no. 


'■>' ! S :'un ( 




road>ide, Hu. 


lson Bav 


Divide, al 






i' lh-..\\iiin^ 


. GU 


Her Co., alt. 


about 6,1( 


X) ft., //Of 




issbaeh, 


.',';,;, ;; ,r ( >,.; 


u l.il 


lsidesahovei: 
ft., C. L. Hiti 

ar Clayton, ( 




lYPF.i; Kl , 


.ho lload, ( 
,v /U, 

<s of Velio 


acksoa 




ii G 


., alt. "n>()U ft 








(as A. 






bars in Horse 


■ Creek, 7 


miles' we: 


j't of Merna, Sub- 




'ot/«o 


// <(• I'lll/.S,,,!, 


mi. l\74" 


. Color 


ado: open 


forest, 




'.""" 


>, 10,000 ft. / 


'randail & 


Own,, n. 


,. 12; open 


rockj 



»ocA, no. 7; Clear Creek, Ho// A Ruth rock, no. 650. 
, Young's Springs, Uintah Mts (iooddinq no. 1,198 
); Weber River Valle . //-., ■ ,. Mav'.June 1S70 
West Humboldt Mts 000 ft alt N Watson. June 
3art; Martin Creek, Elko Co /' ' li Kennedy, no. 
liforma: near Castle Peak, Nevada Co., //'/At, no- 
'"'[nana); Wheats Meadow Ranger Sta., Stanislaus 
' Co., Eyijluttun, no. <i,js_> [TSj; Farewell Gap region, 



I'.i:i7| Unpkir 



\ra!^ 



i and Central North 



//r//<r, no. 12.030 (as .1. Lii'illi!); hill near Dixie Statin,., Bin. Mi.. 
Grant Co., 5,500 ft., Henri, rson, no. 5,291 ; Ashland Butte. //, nri, nan 
no. 18 (as .1. /i/w/to var. ?). Washixgtox: Clemen, Mts., Vakini; 
Co., Ilnuhnon, no. 2,388 in part (as 4. Cv*icl:ii); sandy soil, ope. 
ri.Iue and in brush, Godman Springs, Blue Mts., Columbia Co., Cm- 
xtuiuT d (//., no. 1,178. British Columbia: Ska-it Valley, hetutvi 
lat. 40" and 49" 15' and Ion-. 121 - and 121° 21)', 5.500 ft. alt., ./. .1/ 
Mucuun, no. 70,S24; Lakr Ilou>e, Ska-it liiver, ./. .1/. Man,,,,,, no, 
70.S22 and 70.N23 (as .1. culttmbiana) [Canj. YrKox: Cenieten Hill 
Dawson, Eastwood, no. 246. R May-June; /r. June An-. Mac 10 
Var. stenocarpa, n. var., siliquis 0.75-1.25 nun. latis. — Caleareon- 
ledii'es, (Quebec and Saskatchewan. The following are eharaeteri-nr 
Qi-kukc: ridges east of the village, Bie, Frniulri it (W/ovtf, no. 1.05; 
dvi'i: in Gray Herb.); limestone and limestone conglomerate ridge: 




to Cap Caribou, Bic 
059; sur le conglomerat nu, P< 
391; Le Bic, Louis-Mam ,t a 
■ Prince Albert, lat. 53°, Macoi 



specimei 


is, included the Torrey & Gray plant 


in ii 


J Two 


year. 


ice, how 


ever, he and Coulter 


segregated var 


. bra 


-hi/nirpa 


from 


)ical A. i 


xmfinis* but it was no 


t until 1894 whe 


n Bri 


tton ma( 


le the 


nbinatio 


n A. br achy car pa, ^ base 


id on the Torrey 


&G] 


•ay plant 


. that 



it was again given specific rank. Fernald, studying the " ronfinis- 
brurhiicariHi-DriniDiiundr group in 1903, clearly elucidated the fact 

Watson had used the name A. run finis to include both plants. 4 Fer- 
nald also included Nelson's A. divaricarjxi as a s\ non\ in for our plant, 
but the homonym rule was not in existence at that time, so he was in 
no way obligated to discard the name brachycarptt in favor of dirun- 

Graham's description of Turritis patula 5 so exactly fitted this 
plant that I asked Mr. C. A. Weatherby if he would be kind enough to 
compare it with the Graham type at the Royal Botanic Garden at 
Edinburgh. Furthermore, the fact that one very old sheet of this 

(Bourgcau, collected in Saskatchewan in 1S">N) suggested the possi- 
bility that that name might actually be the correct one for the plant. 
But Mr. Weatherby, returning from Europe in November 1935, 
sadly informed me that no specimen had been preserved at Edinburgh 
by Graham. Gray misunderstood the Graham plant, incorrectly 
determining Fnttilcr's no. 27 as Turritis patulu: which specimen has 
since been included in A. Fnidlrri (Watson) Greene; and Torrey, 
following Gray, but going one step further, made the combination 
Ambix piifulti.' Nevertheless, in the absence of any type specimen 8 
and in view of the probability of Graham's plant being any one of 
several Rocky Mountain species, 1 am discarding Graham's m»nie 
entirely, even as a synonym, until I am more certain just what plant 
he described. 



i'.».;7 Hopkins. Arahis in Kastern and Central Xorth America b>.~. 

rather delicate, having a fragile appearance (in which case it would 

slopes). The position of its fruiting pedicels and siliques also varies 
to a great extent, the former being ascending, divaricately spreading 
or even slightly deflexed, while the latter usually are suberect when 
young, hut as maturity approaches invariably become widespreading 
and somewhat deflexed. The pods may be either straight or somewhat 
arcuate and their apices may vary from slightly obtuse to subacum- 
inate. The length of the siliques also shows considerable variance, 

as 2 cm. long) and, although every effort has been made to segregate 
the plants into two -cries, those possessing short siliques (3-4.5 cm. 
long) and those possessing longer ones (4.5-9 cm. long) the efforts were 
finally abandoned. The name " hniclu/rarpu" itself instantly suggests 
plants belonging t„ the first series and the type specimen of T. brachy- 

<>ne of these. But when we find specimens possessing both long and 
short siliques on the same plant the futility of separating them is 
obvious. The explanation of this fact, that some plants possess both 
short and long fruits, seems to be, that, after the original fruit of the 
main raceme has matured and the seeds are ready to be disseminated, 
several secondary branches arise from the axils of the leaves on the 
'■lain stem and quicklj bear flowers and fruits. The fruit of these 



^'«ls. \\h, 
very irregu 



i some specimens displaying tufts 
; quite glabrous, although the old 



slopes, hut it als., -rows abundanth on sandy beaches and in various 
alluvial habitats. 

Var. stenocarpu has very narrow siliques (0.75-1.25 mm. broad), 
whereas the typical form of the species has them broader (1.25-2.35 
mm.). Except for the station at Hie, Quebec, where both forms of the 

katchewan. 

11. A. Drummondi Gray. Biennial, becoming perennial in western 
part of its range, somewhat weedy in appearance: stem erect, 2-9 dm. 
high, simple or branching at base and above, glabrous throughout to 
somewhat glaucous or very rarely scantily appressed-pubescent at 
extreme base: radical leaves spatulate io oblaneeolate, in a basal 
crown, 3-9 cm. long, 5-20 mm. broad, dentate to serrate or subentire, 
acute to subaeuniinate, tapering at base to a slender winged petiole, 
glabrous throughout or rarely sparingly ciliate on the petiole will' 









iringly dentate to entire, glabrous on ll,lll! 
maces: nowers m loo., racemes; flowering pedicels glabrous, erect, 
-10 mm. long at anthesis; ,epals linear-oblong, V 2 as long as petals. 
-4 mm. long, glabrous, acute to subacute, herbaceous; petals pm* 
. purple (often white when dried), 5-10 mm long, 0.5-2 mm. broad 
: apex: siliques straight or very rarelv slightly curved, normally 
ittish, erect or ascending, often subappressed, 1 10 cm. long, 1.5-2.^ 
m. broad, obtuse or rarely subacute, glabrous, one-nerved at least 
?yond the middle and frequently to the top; fruiting pedicels strictly 
■ect, appressed to : . g ,- mm , l ong at B* 

inty; stigma flattish, on a short style not exceeding 1 mm. long, or 
•rely sessile to subsessile; seeds in two rows broadlv elliptical to 
•'"< -"lar. averaging 1 mm. in diameter, winged narrowlv all around. - 
very variable species, represented by six geographical varieties: 



1937] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North 

o. Siliques 1.5-2.3 mm. broad b. 

b. Plants tall, not alpine (except rarely var. oxyphylla), 2.5 

either stellate or pseudostrigose . ...>/. 
d. Basal leaves and stem appearing strijjose or strigill< 
"I'^.'ilate'-puh 



subcaespito 



an-r'^I ; muai a '«Ml' 5: ('»!!"( ISliO); 

Brown, 111. FlVii/ioO (1897) i 
I'.hk;.; |{(,l,inson&Fernaldin< 
& Kelson, Man. Rockv Mt. I 
Rocky Mrs. 359 (1917) and P 
Sierra Nevada, 206 (1921). An 
43 (1829), non Poiret. Turrih 
Phil. Jour. 350(1829); Hooker, 1 
Walpers, Rep. i. 129 (1843); Di 
Fl.N.Y.i.53(1843);Grav,Mar 



138 Rhodora [April 

ney, Mt. Mattaouisse, Dodge, Griscom & Prase, no. 25,806; dry 
schistose crests and talus of Razorback Ridge, Mt. Logan, Pease & 
Smith, no. L\-),N07; slatv ridges oast of the village, Hie. Hiniouski Co.. 
fYnwW A" Co///,,*, nns. I. OIL* and LOW; heaeh below Middle ('amp. 
Riviere Sir. Anne <\cs Montes, frr/;»W <v fV//„.v, no. 572. New 
Hhinswk k: drv ledges, St. John River, Connors, Mndawaska. Pratr, 
no. 2,o(i0. No'va Scotia: Margaree, Cape Breton Island. Mmww, 
no. 18,997 (as A. larrigata). Maine: shaded gravelly hanks. St. 
Francis, Ftrnald, no. 13; banks of Androscoggin R., Canton, Parlw, 
no. 2,040; Gardiner. Ru hards, 12 Max 1S99. New HAMPSHIRE: 
roekv cliffs l)v railroad, Crawford Notch, (irrnnaan, no. 1.107 (as 
A. laevigata); near Willey House, White Mt. Notch, C. K. Faxon, 7 






iS^H 



rV 



Map 18. Range of Arabis Drtjmmondi, var. 
S; west base of Fall Mt., Walpole, Fmm/r 



. 11 Mav 1933! Conxe.tktt: 

i'nmock at mouth of Connecticut R., Old Lvme, (iram, no. 

sandstone ledges, East Granbv, Weatherby, no. 4,442. 

^ t)- V? RK: m ° 1St rocks ' Can ton, 0. P. PAr/™, no. 528; Lewiston. 

( ' v "-<l"'f»» ; lM',4(as 7\ .^;,/ f/;n)( . k , wno( ,;,, , )imks , ! 

Wattttown //. D. ffotue, no . 8,94) inc beyond 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North Am 

Point, II'. Sfonr, 10 Max 1024 (as .1. qlnbrn); sand hills. 
Point. Mnrhnr.ir. 20 June 101 [NV| ; drx open sandv thicd 
.limes. Cape Mav Point, hmt,, no. 21,517 [Phil]. Dela\ 

near Cnnmnl Station. Wilinin-inn. r ((WWWS , June 1897. 



38,778 (as J. / 




>. Mtrun; 


an: at foot. 




dgen 


ear Ha 


ville. AleonaC 




. /Wr/,,no 


. 11; Isle Ho, 






July 1 


Sauinaw Ha v. 




/W f/ ,. no 






13 ( 




Cedar Point, 


Ottawa 




, lo Mav 1 

■/,>,/. 25 Max 


s ist..r' 


Wis, 


Max 1 














11,. xV, 


Fas,s'<it, no. .'i! 


,o2s : \,Y 


Lite Pish 


Ha>. ',;//,- 






r. »<« 


Eagle ClifV, F 








|8.()3Ik 














Undge. 




pan 


■Joseph, /'^/.v, , 


no. 17 


.7..I; For.', 


it Clen. /•-'. 


7\7/flrj 


wr, 4 


June 


|Wis,-|; Kljrin. 




without n 












of St. Joseph's Ri 


ver. ll 2 nu 






ol. K!k 


Co., Dcam, n, 




5 [Deam]. 


MlNMX.T 






. Mam 


25 June 1883 


[Minn]; 




, Hat. Rod, 




1 nth; 




[Minn]; St. C 






CnwnLll, 


no. 141 


.Mi.. 




June IS'.m'ui.. 


.1. Iwri. 


( 


:-les City, ./. 


o|; Faye 




... /;. i 

ISO" 








Rhodora [April 


no. 4,560 (as / 


1. phihnipha) [XV]. UTAH: Big Cottonwood 


t, Salt Lake Co 


., r.Vmr//, 12 July an.l 3 An-. 190..; fork slide. 


Mts., Grand Cc 


>., I'di/snn <{• Pni/smi, no. 3,9-|.V, Alt ;i . \\ali>alrli 


■/. E. Jones, nc 




Cam-on, Elko 


Col, E] Humboldt Mrs., fhlhr, no. 9,372 las 


,,,ii>ha) [XV]; a 


imong rocks, Pine Mt., vicinity of Gold Creek, 




173 IT'Si. Akizoxk: north rim. Gn.nd Canyon. 


ul d- Iluwri n 


o. 067. Xkw Mkxico: orassy slopes, Costilla 


, //,•//, r," no. 13. 


319;Y>'eat'h vVlle; n< ,. M .mm d Kin-. 1'ullm 



<;i,iiiiv 


vaek 


Lake, 


./. M. M 


'nronn, no'. 33, 






Mt.. 


KoMtfl 


mv Lak. 






to Jul 


v;/r 


. May i 


o Augm 


It. Map 18. 




Y.-ir 




ina We 


itson. F 






ripital 


: pll, 


nt often eaespin 


■ mv.s -dal.rou 






ipetiol 




>us or often ci 










rs.— Watson i 


n Bot. ] 


I'arail 








rt; Porter &C( 


miter, Syi 










son in Proc. 1 




r ;in i, 


1 v'. 


vet k 




Hot. Calif, i. 


32 '.1ST 



189 (1912); Rydberg, 



UO ft. lanby, no. 19; McDougal Peak, vicini 

■*.J.( h-mrus 31 duly 1908; Old Hollowtop, 
liydbcrg & Besscy, nos. 4,215 & 4,216 (as 
lho: ridge south from Wiessner's Peak, Coe 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eas 



Rocky Mts. at 7,000 ft., Dr. Lyall, 1861 (as T. stru 




Lyallii). Wyoming: Dunraven Peak, SrJson & W 




[NY]; upper fork to head of Du Noir R., C. C. Curti 




Sept. 1899 [NY]; crevices of rocks, Teton Mts., J 


aokson's Hole 


Mrrrill ((• Wilcox, no. 1 ,2M [US]; Red Mt., ne. of Smo( 


)t, Lincoln Co. 


Payson & Armstrong no. 3.038 [Mo]. 




Colorado: Berthoud Pass, L. Johnson, ... w , 




no. 9S4 [Mo]; rocks about Berthoud, ^&> / 


j%^KH 


Engrlmann, 2 Sept. 1874 (Mo], Utah: /Vfec- 


Motto Peak, Pintail !\L.. elev. IO.oOO / I /•(^ 


®'~£p^X. 


ft., Pn V .w». <(• Pmimu, no. :>.043; Alta, ^A^T 


A 7 /r 


Wahsatch Mts., alt. 11,000 ft., .1/. K. / / r "~> 




Jones, no. 1,248; Mt. Barette, Ryd&er^ I - ./. / 

<fe Bc*^, no. 7,326 [NY]. Nevada: / // f~v/- 


V^S^T" 



J''" 7 " Kwil'r,^ ^vi.. t:;7(1907);Ky(lber 

H Rockv Mts 3o9 ( 1917) .1. /.w///7 Watson in Proc Am. Acad. J 
!22 (1876) in part. Alberta to Washington, aloujr the mountai. 
to Colorado. The following are eharaetenstie. Alberta . Ihm 
-,; Brazeau, opposite ( atara 
"The Saddle," Lake Louis 
Dougal's Peak, mv Montan 
nt-dn sides Midvale, I what: 





i Vallev, 


S #ro«» no 


5'a-s, N. /},, 


»m, no. 


L044 [Phil]; 




Ivl.oK). 


Montana: 


D - T. MacD 


vuyal, n< 


x 606 [NY]; i 



Rhodora [A 

77jXY|. Idaho: alpine slopes, He 

INV!; mis. ot''rem'r-d'ldaho. lT.'i. 



Nevada: Clover Mts., near Deeth, Ilrlh 
no. 10,231 [US]. Orkcon: Kastern. Orego 
i [US]. WASHINGTON: Sheep Mt, Oka 



I'nrrst. Okanogan Co., ]■],,(/ ..tnn. no. | :;.:■; | 1 iVsi-'nU ' 

K;,ini, ' r - J _ #• /;"/'//. 2!) August |S9(i |rs|. i',uni>n ('humbia: 

■;_, ; . s ■' x , iii ' } . M t u> ^ e ' ur ^ ess Pas *> herald Lake, /V, M , , no. 
Var. pratincola (Greene), comb. nov. Base of stem and radical 

leaves minute!; stellate-pubescent , otherwise similar to var fi/pim.— 
in Fedde, Rep. Spec. Nov. v. 244* (1908).- 

Alberta and British Columbia south to New 

M,Xh " ^dCali/crni I iar . 

11 < ' t -!'' St " i : AlHI - R rA: La^an, M„r„„„. ,„,. f;, /* iJTPk 

,,l - llS: I'-'vui-i.,- Hilh. |f. /,. r , Y „„ ,- June - .^ UfT 

) [) - { \ n ;y Mi ;^w •-'-,„ .,di„m(M, )/rn>&h 

■■ '« M«y HHMl: Middle Creek, 4L / W ^feT 

ssssistf* /l • •• 

hillsides vicmitj Glaciei g : • 

'."; ■ «-:-«>i-i frs] : i,iiu, Mi.ivaie. r,„w, „;, A^SCW.^ 

"- V\H Idaho: alpine slopes, Henry Lake' '*.■* 'Kjjtr 
•remont Co., Vnyson & Pmisoi 



-Kl.le. 



'ek,' Horse Creek, 7 f\ X iy~T~j~qzk 



1937] Hopkins, Anil.i, in Eastern and Central 



part, the other specimen on tli 
summit of Horse Pasture Mt., 
M. E.Prck, no. 2,708; sandy .- 

Blue Mts.. Grant' Co., L V 


Mhni.s.'nf' Mckenzie Bridge, Lmic Co.] 

.'nT'nlrr.son, no. o,o7<). Wasi.iv, Ton: 
■les. Clallam Co.,./. If. Thompson, no. 


r/."/V / ,s'o' ) ! n no! < !).S4i : |NY1. 

Var. oxyphylla (Greene), 
pressed-pubeseent with bifui 

A.j,hiIoniplw Nelson ex Ry< 


BRITIBB Com m'bia: northern British 

:iO[rSl;()l«l (dory Mt., between Kettle 
mUi:i.4«»:»a|rS!. Mac 21. 

comb. nov. Basal leaves closely ap- 
Vi ,t (inalpighiaceousi Iiain. apponrni- 
,,/,„//„ Greene in PitTonia.iv. |0fi . .1!H)() '. 
Iherg, Fl. Colorado, 165 (1906). 1 — High 


Mexico i.ml California. Son' 


fi% - 'Wl 






Mr.. Ma,,,,,,, no l.»if>7 iCani: 
slopes, Kockv Mis.. 3/m W( »,lio. 1 
[Can]. Montana: Cedar Mt 
10,000 ft., Kudhrrif A- H, ■*.«< //, no 

Madison Kanue, ' Flo,! man , no. 
ih-idger Mrs.. /M/,,7/ «(• oY.v.v, 



Mem# * I['/7ro.r, no 



Beaver Creek, ] 

ts & Clem nt n 
(isotype in Herb« 



v II at*,,, >, no. i I m part; 
• Ramie. lln<l (l ,hm <(• linss- 
Stillui.tcr Fork, Uintah 



son, no. 4,980; open flats, Young's Springs, I 'intah 
,197. Nevada: East Humboldt Mrs., N. Watson, 
Sray Herbarium, but not the plant in the U. S. 



>r. typica.— Rhodora 
in Calif. 206 (1921). / 
•dberg, Fl. Colo. 165 
id Quebec, northern 
west to Washington 
racteristic. Labrado 
i, Blanc Sablon, Stra 



\ERMONT:onlnL ,|, iUj D L Dvfton 

mcK crevices, Hock Harbor, Isle Royale, C. S. Williams 
rnu. albert x ,-rCitv, Macoun, 

mif'nfB "il" " li: ' Ui ' k Hudson Bav Div'i 

mi. w.ot Brown, n_ 

° f Cracker Lake, GlanVr National Park, Stand „] no. 



1<i:$7| I lopkins, Aralns in Eastern ant! Central North America 14.") 

Hast IV Liicv'^ Creek, Yellowstone Park, Rydberg & Wr.w//, no. 

4210 1d\iio- aloiit: creek, above Redfish Lake, Custer Co., /'t///.s'o>, 
,!• l/,„7„ ■;,/, ,,«. :;,(io9; Wood River, 5 mi. above Keteham. /.. F. 
M, ■, ;;.lM1 i - Wvmin.. parks, lii, Horn Mts., If. //. 

/„,,■„,/ .", \,j.r ISSI-SL' ! rS|; Gardiner, Yellowstone Park, P. II. 
Mud-i,,*, 7 \2 Anu. PL- [rS|; Cnion Pass, .1. Xdson, no. S7o. 







,a Plata Mts.. Ku 

foCo., Heller',* 
HUeheoc 



cod-, no. 8,091 irS|. Wa 
NYhAyled Kp^no "" 

no. L'OOX; Mt. An-eles, ./. 7". llourll, no. ', 

F F. Hcndrrson, no. L\o97. Hhitish Con mbia: near »u<-. ..„..., 



,.t Mt 



146 


Rhodora [April 


The 


identity of typical Arabia Dnuiimonrii has heen thoroughly 


discusa 


■d bj Fenfald, 1 and our conception of it has no1 materially 


change. 


l in the thirty years since his paper appeared. Through the 


kindne- 


is of Mr. C. A. Weatherby, the type-specimen of Turritis 




iraham, on which our species is based, has hern examined, and 


I'iven'l 


■ms me that it complies in every character with the description 


"'Vn'tl 


ic llowering stage in the field it is very easy to confuse this 


species 


with A. glabra and with A. diraricarpa (A. brachycarpa). 


From 1 


hem both it may be quickly distinguished by the almost 


glahrou 


s stem and basal leaves, A. glabra having a hirsute pubescence 




<rpa has a stellate type of pubescence on these parts. From 



>ra the plant may be further differentiated by its pinkish to 
h flowers (rarely white), those of J. glabra always being yellow- 
•ream-color, and by the fact that it comes into full flower about 

eks earlier than A. glabra. 

•iver banks, open fields and open sand dune- (at Plum Island, 
ry, Mass.; white sand among cedars and beach plum, Bay 
Cape May Point, New Jersey). Here it flowers as early as the 
■ek in May and continues until early June, by which time it is 
always in mature fruit. But in the Rocky Mountains and 
iid it tends to become a perennial, although still frequently 



' ' Thi- is one of the besl 

"'!'!' "i th< similarity of species of Arabia in the flowering stage. 

n fruit, however, the two can be easily distinguished. 
I 1 "' type of ,1. oxyphylla Greene, on which I have based var. 

rupiuillu, ,s in the Herbarium of Notre Dame University. As it was 



1937] Hopkins— Arabis in Kastern and Central North America 141 

not possible for me to visit that institution to examine the type itself, 
and as I felt that a photograph was inadequate, I was able to borrow, 
through the kindness of Professor P. A. Munz of Pomona College, a 

[Colorado] at 10,000 ft. [collected by] C. F. Baker, LS99." 1 This 
variety includes all plants of .1. Drummomli having a very character- 

'on those of the first year's growth, and plants still 



cis so that they lie flat and p 
Ibescent. East Humboldt and 



more 


noticeabl 


retail: 


ling old : 


subse 


quent lea 


rous, 


but the < 


part, 


so that n 


To rl 


le naked 


hairs 


are exam 



glaucous, or somewhat villous below with spreading 
<"» 11'" maruins oi the petioles; rarely more or less 
stellate hair-: -tern- -lender froin' r a branching base, 



inches high, often i S ' •.n.-eolate, on slender petioles, 

acute, entire: the cauline oblong-lanceolate, clasping and sagittate at 
base: petals light pink, about three lines long, twice longer than the 



ngly blunt at the apex. In New England only two i 
o me, one in Vermont, and one in Maine, where it 



VRABIS IX B4OTEBN VXD CENTFAI NORTH AMERICA 



"'' '' ,' ( '' l ", < ! '.■' iM'V'^.urr. u'lal'i-niis throughout, 



156 Rhodora [May 

to spatulate, those of the first year dentate to laciniate, glabrous, 

persistent, those of the second year strongly laciniate to lyrate- 

uiabrous on both surfaces, 2-9 cm. long, 5-15 mm. broad, 

petioled, the petioles glabrous: cauline leaves imbricate, numerous, 



" ' '■■ i 'laie siliques at first erect, soon beeoi - t Icate-arcnatf 

recurved, 6-9 cm. long, 1.75 2 mm. broad, dabrotis. one-nerved to 
vo-thirds their length; fruiting pedicels erect 

J <>" 1 ^- I' { '~'> I mm InnguiAT rar'el !,'b'', ' ,| ,'"'',, ,j" 'inone'row 
in the pod, broadly elliptical to quadrate-oblon-. 1.5 l.s mm. long. 
a\erauii, u 1 mm. broad, u in-ed all around the win- a\erauinu < )..'>■"/ 
0.5 mm. broad.— Represented by two geographical varieties. 

' J '~~ 1 and cauline leaves and pedicels quite glabrous var. typiai. 

' I « ulin. leaves and pedicels pubescent with 



short, stiff h 

Var. typica.— Arabia viridis Ha 



111. FI. ed. 2: ii. lsi (HHM); Tax lor i 


u Mem. X. V 




r. & G., Fl X. 


Hritron.Man. 4o4<HN)U- ('litis, h 




and, eastern Xew York and eastern 






irrn Missouri 


Kansas and Oklahoma' Tin- ioiloun 


i<j are charac- 






s, local, South Berwiek, /'//'/„ ,v h 




-' l;,t,lesnake Mt.. I 




■*. no. 23,976; fwis M 


hiutbiji. ii' 


■ bOoO. MAs.s A <nisK-n>: v\et elifl' 






v Brook Ke->ei" 




Ii'-, Horn Bon' 1 


//. Moon, no. 2,697; B 






, (Jill!*/. .i»h» 


^•;> HH2, rrap l, L e. MiHe,'! V\,'l 


:|s, Montague, 



"^ Mr. Tom, Hampshire Co /■ W-, , ( HbW"'. 
f rocks of I)evil\(; ar ,|, n . H ( ,i..,,ke Kat.ge, T. <>■ 
■ Khodk Islaxd: Johnston/./, lb. (W,^'<- ! ' 



Hopkir 



-Arabis in Eastern and Central North . 



May 1878 [NY]. Connecticut: dry crevices ot trap . 
Hargcr, no. 5,322 (type); Wethersfield, C. Wright, 
Farmington River, Tariffville, Window <£• Hill 17 
woods, South Britain, Woodward, 31 May 1909; dry 
mel, Hamden, New Haven Co., Bit icitt, no. 3,476; in c 
soil on trap ridges in half sli; 



r i ck uthen 

Peaked Mt., southe 



i \\ !•' 



Ann, Burnham, 16 June 1918; 
rocky places, Delph Pond, 
west of Comstocks, Washing- 
ton Co., Burnham, 19 June 
1900; rocky woods, Glenmont, 
Albany Co., House, no. 7,872; 
on dill's. Snake Hill, Saratoga 
Lake, Muenschcr cv Eindsci/, 
no. 3,335 |Mo|; Troy, //. //. Ma, 

Eaton, June 1817 [Phil]. typic* 
Pennsylvania: drv wooded 
slope along Schuylkill River, Linfield 
Geoegia: KennesawMt 
large knob, Kennesaw Mt., Cobb Co., L. M. fet 
no. 913. Michigan: Muskegon, C. D. McLouth 
A. confinis). Missouri: rocks, Iron Co., Eggert 
A. confinis) [Mo]; in crevices of granite along 
Monterey, Re> 






[US]; 




■Jack's Fork 

, woods. Dexter, Stoddard lo.. 
il es north of Piekle, St. Gene- 
( J. limestone ledges, wooded 



h> tiro phi,! la F;, 
Northern Indii 



niles west of South Bend, 



Rhodora [Mas 

^U-V-i D < am > no - 36,351 [Beam] ; on cleared gravelly slope on 

:~^ra east side of the old tamarack bog, 5 miles east of La 

A) Grange, La Grange Co., Dram, no. 36,370 (type in 

t ..i Herb. Gray); in sandy Mack oak woods, 1^ mi. 



" l/f P - southeast of Mongo, La G 
,\i-\ ifc^-s 40,698 [Deam], all as A. Mrs 
"1 •VuV-- Lake, Oconto Co., J. J. Dm 
4771^ Mosinee, J. ./. /)„m, 21. In, 

MAr25 > ^S Ul, ^sorKi:"°alon; v, 
\rawsviridis Howe's Mill, Dent Co., K. J. i 
* var. Deamii. ' Map 25. 


'/,/<!. ' Wis. 

" ( M,dnl''V,hitr> ot'rm'k 
!W,«,r.m..:J4.!»50[Mo] 


This plant is most easily mi 


staken fur .1. lart'igatu. 


chiefly due to the fact that the habits are verj 


■ similar. The puds an 


flowers are similar and the seeds Ire essei 


; glance the leaves and 


A. riridis: J^J^^^^^"^J^ 





witl.4iO.-t, >i., . . ,!„,.,. ,,f the mtoik! year 



"iriilis Miggests .1. lhinnmoiui't, haum,' 



lormer has them ^picadiim : 
leaves merely dentate whera 



1937] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North An 

type nor did they give any information relative to its ran 
led to assume, consequently, that it is found wherevei 



ly describe A. h,t, m,,!,,,!!,, " Radical leaves some- 



whirl, I have not vet hem able ,o lin.l and .1. Iwrhjaia var. laciniata 
T. & G. are not identical. 

.1. viridh is found locally in eastern New England, where it is 
rather rare, but becomes more common on the trap ledges and cliffs 

mont and New York. ' From Pennsylvania I have seen only one 

Cobb County i.i northern Georgia with, so far as I have been able to 

learn, no intermediate stations. In Michigan it is extremely local, is 



;ltt . (! in ,|„. Wichita Mountain* <>f 



a plant of All, . 

Var. Drama, is characterized bv a pubescence which is found on the 
«tem, on the basal md e-mlinr leaves and on the Howcring and fruiting 
Pedicels The h air. on' the Mem are short and stubby, but on the 



Rhodora 
r. C. C. Deam, being 



perfect match for A. ririfhs. The habit ot the Indiana specimens 

In 1917, Farwell described a plant which he collected in Michigan 1 

as A. laevigata var. hrtrrophylla, his combination being doubtfully 
based on Xuttall's .!. hrtvrnphijUa. Although I have not examined 
Farwell's specimen, his description strongly suggests that it is A. 
riri/iis var. Dtamii. Since I am interpreting it as resting nommch- 
turaUit in part on A. InirroiJii/lla Xntt. and, consequently, a mixture, 
it seems unwise to perpetuate the confusion by taking up the am- 
biguous name hrtcrophyUa for the pubescent variety. 1 am, therefore, 

13. A. laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. Biennial from a somewhat 
branched taproot: stems 3-9 dm. high, branched at base and above or 
simple, glabrous and strongly glaucous throughout, averaging 13-15 

' rhe firsr flower: basal leaves insulate, soon disappearing, 
spatulate-obovate to narrowly oblanceolate, those of the first year 

■Hose with short simple hairs, those of the second year 
roiis, dentate to serrate, 3-11 cm. long. 0.5 2.5 (-3) cm. 
broad, acute to subaeuminate, petiolate; eauline leaves oblong- 
lanceolate to linear, spreading to subappressed, imbricate, 3-20 cm. 
long, 3-15 mm. broad, sessile with a sagittate or sometimes auriculate 
base, glabrous throughout, serrate-dentate to entire, acute to obtuse 
or somewhat acuminate: Mowers small, in long, loose racemes; flower- 
ing pedicels ascending, often divergent, glabrous, 5 9 mm. long, at 

the length ol iloiig; petals white, 3-5 



5-10 cm. long 
divergent, glabi 


. 0.7 


tHmTlong^n 


;.;;■/- ;■ 


or very rarely 


'the 


stigma subsessile; 


seeds ^in o 






:1mm. long, 0.5 mn 




Kncvl. Suppl. i 


M 


I (1810) as "Inigat 


r»"; DC. S\ 


DC. Prod. i. 1 




1824); Hooker, PI. 





opkins, — Arabis in Fastem unci <<nrr.il North America 101 

& M. States, 30 (1833); T. & G. Fl. N. Am. i. 82 (1838); 

Fl. X. V. i. .V) ( IS43); Fa ton & Wright, X. Am. Bot. ed. 8: 
10); Wood, Classic. Bot. 39 ( lN4o) as "Irriqata"; Grav. Man. 
<0; Chapman, Fl. S. V. S. 2N (1*00); Watson in Gray, Synop. 
Am. i. 102 (1895); Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 149 (1897); 

Man. Fl. 404 (1901); Robinson & Fernald in Gray, Man. ed. 
190S); Rvdberg, Fl. Pr. & PL 382 (1932); Small. Man. Se. Fl. 
33). Turritis ia, rir,ata M.ihl. Index Fl. Lancastr. in Trans. 

R^s.Tv.Tx^VvTn!!.' 2.MN19'. ' Tw-rlfi, lu'rata \l»L in Am. 
v Mag. ii. 44 (1817). Arabis p ndvla Nutt. Genera, ii. 70 



as to plant described —Rich rod 

southwestern Quebec to South 1 


ky woods. 


u.T/;. 


hillsides and ledge 
, Georgia, Alabama 


Arkansas and Oklahoma. The f< 


" 






dry rockv woods, limestone, I 




. Mis 




Knmdton W 10 1 1 19">3 (as 






New Hampshiri 


Hinsdale, Kmnrdi/, 29 Aug., 1< 




mhati 


i. Rockingham Co 


d. A. Eaton, no. 444; Walpole, CI 










M ; Mi. I'll 




harlotte, Kennedy, 








\ E. Faxon, Aug. ' 


S^^kf^ed ^ 


d.les. Mid 


'i:: 


, 1903. Massachi 

ops, Sheffield. Berl 



{--,, no. 1. _.!',; ro,k' ^""t'V! 

^^:1 [] Y'n'n\\i! Is:,, iVkhn' iToir'ibii. /-- 

May issi | Hk i vn!; m( . k , ; v „ods, Hamburg, W. M.l'an >■ 
May 1X92 iiklv, I'KNVsvtvAMA moi>trocb woo, ed slope 
I'Hauare Riv,r. \,u Hope. Rm k^ < V . ^ •/"'"' * /■"».'/• »»■ 



162 Rhodora [May 

1900. Delaware: rocky woods, Wilmington, A. Commons, 8 May 
& 16 Aug. 1897; shaded hillside ,-il.ini: Brandywine, Granogue, A. 
Commons, 15 May & 24 Aug. 1896 [Phil]. Maryland: Harper's 

l-Vrrv Heights. N. Watson, 17 April 1890; rocky wooded slopes along 
Susquehanna River, Bald Friar, Cecil Co., St. John- & Long, no. 1,010; 
rocky woods, Cabin John Bridge, Montgomery Co., Pease, no. 7,403; 
wooded hillsides, Glen Echo, Montgomery Co., J. H. Painter, no. 
1 ,.'H7 [Mo]. District of Columbia: rich ground on Potomac River, 
Mnmtxj, May 1S77; ad vias, frequens prope Washington, T. Holm, 
April & Sept. 1S8S; hillsides. Steele, 16 April 1897. VIRGINIA: Bed- 
ford Co.. Curtis*. 1 May 1**7; Natural Bridge, (i. (i. Kennedy, 7 May 
1887; on roeks, Difficult Run. vicinity of Great Falls, Klllip, no. 
7,418; about Mt. Crawford, Rockingham Co., Heller, May 5-13, 1893. 
West Virginia: Snowy Mt., Pendleton, Pydherg. no. 9,064 [NY]; 
wet rocks. Morgantnw n. M Uls/xiuqh , no. 12 [XV|; New ("reck, Hamp- 
shire Co., ./. I). Smith, 28 June 1880 [US]; Upshur Co.. Pollock, 24 May 
IS97 [Mo]: Lewis Co., Pollock. 21 April 1MI7 \VS}. North Carolina: 
rich ravines, Great Smokv Mts.. Swain Co., Iieardslee & Kofoid, 5 
Aug. 1891; woods, Linville, Avery Co., F. If. Ihwnnrrll, 21 July 
li'.I.'i; Catawba River, near Morgantown, M. E. Ih/aiim, April 1897 
[NY]. Georgia: cliffs of Coosa River, near Rome, Canity, no. 7: 
Stone Mr., Dekalb Co., Small, Max 1 is, IMC j\Y|; Rome, Ravenel 
[Mo]; Cave Spring. C. Mohr, June 1881 [US]; Stone Mt., Hilfmore 
Herb., no. 1,033 [Phil]. Ontario: rocky woods, Talbot's Woods, 
Elgin Co., Macoun, no. 141; rocky woods along streams, Picton, 
Macoun. no. 1,722 [Can]; drv or ror-kv margins of woods, Port Stanley, 
Lake Erie, Macoun, no. 1,723 [Card. Mi< hi., an: Detroit, (ilatfrlter, 
5 Aug. 189S [Mm ; near Landing. /,. //. Bnih ,/, 25 Mav 1888; moist 
v.<^\>A dopes west of Ann Arbor, Khlers, no. 2,815 [Phil]; near Port 
Huron, C. K. Dodge, 13 Mav & 15 Juh 1SU1; Huron R., Uns.Iy. 30 
Mav iv>:> [Mo|. Ohio: near Cincinnati, C. G. Lloyd, 17 April 1SS2; 
Ueveland. I, ./. Hicks [Mo]; rocky soil, N. Amherst, Lorain Co., 
W <!>)>. no. 5.255; rich w.x.ded hillsides north of Columbus, Cleason. 
13 May 111(15; south of Swanton, Fulton Co., along Wabash R. R • 
Mrs. It. Fmilr, 4 July 1927 (as .1. hraelnjcnrim). Indiana: wooded 
dm Millport Hill about 11 miles north of Salem, Dram, no. 
23,233; wooded base of bluff of Ohio River about miles east nt 
Cannelrnn. /;,.„,„, no . 24/)f ;;> fI)pam] . W()()(](i(1 1)]uf} . (>f ,„,.,,„ m ,,r 
Lake Mielngan. Tremont, f. If. Johnson, nos. 1,729 & 1,804 [XH 
Kentucky: Boone Creek, Favette Co \V 1 Anderson, no. 423; 
Shell,, vide, .1/ ,, .1/ /; //;, ,. K!khorn cH ff> Stamping Ground. ./. "'• 
•Sm^r, no. 23 [US]; Blue Lick Hills in earlv spring, near Lexington. 
Short; High Bridge, banks of Kentucky R.>. T. McFarland, no. 20 
a^.l./w^/Zid-S.. TENNKsMa'ue; Imn-t ,,,e 1 duffs, Turnbull 
< '''"K. Kingston Springs, .S,v/i,v,,,,. no. 7; rich woods Ki . 
no S .l,94(K\_ , /v , „,„,,,. 

3 April 1893 [M]; Cumberland Mts., Franklin I'.,.. /.':/,</"''■ « M »- v 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 163 

1898 [Mo]; vicinity of Knoxville, Lamson-Scribnrr, April 1S90 [US]. 
ALABAMA: Havana (Hen. /.. M. I'vd.nrn,,,!, May ls'Hi |NV]; 1'lnm.c.. 
C. M. Wilson. 5 April ISM [1'S]; rocky hanks. Warnoek Mt„ .l/o//,. 
J2 M;iv 1S0S [I'S|. Wisconsin: moist hillside. Ferr.x Blutf. h. II. 
Smith.'nos. 23 & 200; moist hillside, Pewitt's Nest. f. //. .SW//i, no. 
8; Egg Harbor, Door Co.. Srhwttr, 6 July 1SS2 [I S|. Illinois: on 
rocks in shady ravines, The Sag, Grrniman, no. 3,601; alln 

ion River, White Heath, Piatt ( o., !'<ast. no. 1-..L1 . rich 
sl'unh woods, Grand Tower, Glrason, 5 May 1902: wooded hillside, 

eason, no. 2,364. Mi: 



16 June 1 SO 1 [PS]; Center City, 


/>'. r. y 


Wnr.J».nelS92[rSj:Wi 


bago Vallev, Houston Co., W. 


.1. 117/ 


,v7rr. no. 154 [Minn]. Ic 


Bentonsport, E. W. Graves, no. 




i [Mo]. MlssoiHi: on hi 


Noel, Bvsh, no. 0,753; Montier, 






woods, Centerville. E. J. Palm 






Wayne Co., Eggcrt, 17 May ISO: 


MM,,:: 




Monroe, St. Charles Co., J. Dcm 




r.232[Mo]. Arkansas: si 


creek banks, northwest Arkansa 


s, V. 1 


.. Harm,, no. 23: Benton 


E.N. Phnk, 1899 [NYJ; akmg i 






Shirley, Van Buren Co., E. ./. F 


aimer, 


„„. 33.20S(XY!._t)KLAH< 



1.341T; Sapulpa. Hush. no. 1.01S [Mo|. < 

/:. 7\ Harp, r. Mav I SS0 [Wise[. J7. late Apr 

Var. Hchkii Porter. Cauline leaves line 



Torr. Bot. Club , I ." VM) U u^n in (Inn ^ nop II 

i. 162 (1895); Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 149 (ISO, ;; Britr<>, 

464 (1001.; Robinson & Fernald in dray. Ma 

'tfjrf ' r-. i, ir. ~''^:\m) a T 

Natl. Herb. xiu. 3 m . >. •' 
. ,. Fl. Se. P. S. 5,2 (1933). -[>.. 

gW Pennsylvania to North ( arohna 



. BurkU Small. 
■ hillsides or 

. ,n c.».. />»;"• 
1S.V2 inn: in Herb. Phil. Aead. i.-onn m 
(; rav -; Harnsbun:. /• />'»7.. Ma> -bine. 
1) lipli i Co.. / />• '• I s '""; ^ 

NerhA: sha!.- ' - 



164 Rhodora [May 

P. D. Strausbaugh, 24 June 1932 [Minn.]. North Carolina: rocks, 
Hot Springs, Madison Co., Churchill, 5 June 1899. Map 26. 

Willdenow described Turritis laevigata (ascribed to Muhlenberg 

in lit t. 5 as having erect siliqiie>.' 1'nfort una td \ , Muhlenberg sent 

written a description for it in his i . ncastriensis, 2 

tions of the American Philosophical Society for the year 1793. and on 



a of the I 


ndex is merelv 


a nomen; 


the description 


first publ 




ich we mi 


y refer. 


cing of t 


e Muhlenber- 


type in 


the Willdenow 



eiore me seeds mature, and any attempt 
This emphasis of Willdenow's on erect sir 



1937] Hopkins ,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North At 

linear, narrow & elongated, recurved-pendulous." In 
facts that the siliques of A. lacrigaia do not become p 

fruiting pedicels are always ascending, the descriptions of 
DeCandolle may satisfactorily be attributed to the fact tl 
plants in very young fruit— as did Willdenow. 

That the T. lyrata of Rafinesque is merely the plant u 



the Catskill Mountains, the habitat of Rafinesque's T. lyrafa. 
rocky wood, from the southernmost part of Quebec, just above the 
the northern 1 nite I States and southern Ontario, and is reported as 



e quite entir 


e. Although the seeds are in e 1 


rery case fully 


•ound, the breadth ol 


' the wing differs greatly. 


it was first cc 


-ll.rted 1, 


y Isaac Burk in 1852 a 


iul wa- named 


by T. C. Poi 


rter. It 


was raised to specific r 


ank by Small 1 


since it differs from 


A. laevigata only in 1 


wo secondary 


: cannot con 


sider it 


other than a localizer 


1 geographical 


lat species. 


Its caui 


line leaves are quite s 


essile and are 


lear-lanceola 


te, while 


! those of typical A. 


laevigata are 


or subampli 


exicaul a 


,nd lanceolate to obk 


»ng-lanceolate. 


re one-nerve 


d to the 


middle or slightly bey. 


ond, but those 


1 form of the 


s species 


are one-nerved only al 


xrat one-third 


It occurs c 


»nly in tl 


ie Allegheny Mountai 


ns from Perm- 



which it resembles in several {particulars of the description, but Doctor 
■ '■ - - material at the 

New York Botani two arc not the same. In any 

case, it is out of th< fchig in any way to A. laevigata. 

Kyen if we disregard the fact that it i> in perfectly normal bloom the 
middle of August while .1. Inrrigahi l.lossoms in' April or May, the 
differences are fully of specific worth. The most striking are in the 
small flowers of tl ■ .,,,*., oonsagittate, leaves, its 

rhe "differences" are almost impossible to ascertain. The flowers of 



discern, any larger tht 



1937] Hopkins —Aral. is in Kastern and Central North America 167 

Shenandoah County. Virginia, and which >how considerable branch- 
ing, although by no means as much as that of the Steele specimens, 
and which bloom in July. She says of her collection: 

An Arabis.— On May 24, 1934, I found on the shale banks near New 
Market in - ■■■■■' then aUmt two inches 

in height, which looked as if it were one of the Crucilerae. I planted 
two of the plants in mv garden and in July when the plant began to 
bloom, 1 made another trip to the shale banks to collect it. The plant 
looked definitely like an Arabis. Of the species ot Arnbi* m (.rays 
Manual it resembled most .1. hurigatn (Muhl.) rW. However, its 
u„,r QC . ,„ Q ™ ™t o^r.^ w _ s haped at the base; they were much narrower 

laevigata. The plant was just beginning to flower 

„. laevigata has a much earlier flowering season, and the 
vei « noticeably smaller than those of A. laevigata 

Mr. h. I . 
Leonard checked them as Arabis laevigata . . . The plant seemed 
to me to resemble 1 s.rotiim Steele in Bntton and Brown, i sent 
specimens to Dr. Wherry of the Department of Botany at th- 
sity of Pennsylvania. He checked the plant as A. serotina bteele. 
ut again, I can view these plants of Miss Artz' only as var. BurkU. 
he flowers of .1. hnviquta and of var. Burkii vary from 3 to 5 mm. 
ng, and as those of the Artz specimens slightly exceed 3 mm., they 
*e quite within the limits of the two above-mentioned plants. 
14. A. DENTATA (Toit.) T. & G. Biennial from a simple tap-root. 
.■mbran.-hi.ua. ha-orrareh from th, t..,. ^ 



length « 


m-cllh.red^'fi 




linearT: 

duhth 
eniirelx 


very slightly cm 
nerveless; fruiti 


tig 


'Lena 


Artz in Claytonia. li 


to 



: pubescent with simple and forked trie-homes, 2-3.5 
rity; style short and stocky, 0.25-1 mm. long, often 
seeds oblong to subelliptical, in one row, wingless, 
long, 0.5 mm. broad— Fl. X. Am. i. 80 (1838); 
V Am. Bot. ed. S: 130 (1S40); Walpers, Rep. i. 133 
. X. Y. i. 54 (1843); Dietrich. Svnop. iii. 690 (1843); 
i. 2: 107 (1847); Grav. -Man. 35 (1848); Chapir 




/-■//, 14 : 



cool woods near Lansing, Ha 
;r, near the Soldier's Home, Grt 
number; open woods, sw. of Gr 
" iMinn]. Ohio: South Florenc 
icinity of Sandusky, Mn,,h „, 2 



Max 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North A 

Short, 1860 [Mo]; sandy border of Ohio R., Wihlhrn,,,- 
Short, no. 7.". [XV|. Tkwksskk: Nashville, f,W,,W,r. 
[Mo.]. Wisconsin: Madison, Dane Co.. o'„, „ .V, /„„*.' MM 
cliffs east side of Cake Winnebago, F. //. 




Rhodora [May 

■ same characters but to a less degree. The stellate pubes- 
te lower surface of a typical stem-leaf is less dense than that 
1 one, while its upper surface shows considerably fewer 
i may not infrequent!) he practically glabrous. 

ugly escaped comment in the past. Torrey & Gray un- 
noticed it, although they failed to describe it completely, 
ay in their description of the plant, "the pubescence (par- 
)f the under surface of the leaves) short and rather scab- 
rhis is probably some slight implication that the lower 
the leaves is different from the upper, 
ques of var. phedacrocarpa lack the minute pubescence so 
stic of the typical form of the species, although its leaves 



: and branched appresscd hair-, gradually becoming glabrate, 
labrous beyond the 10th internode, or more rarely in shade 
ily the 1st and _!ml internode stellate-pubescent: radical 
sulate, narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, entire, 2-8 cm. 
mm. broad, subacuminate to acute, miniiteh and densely 
ubescent on both surfaces with hi- and trifurcate hair-, 

to short narrowly winged and stellate-pubescent petiole-; 
»ves oblong-lanceolate to narrowly oblong, remote to sub- 
>, often subrevolute, entire, acute to subacuminate, 1.5-4 

•i '.) mm. broad, sessile with a suhamplexicaul sagittate base, 



■tals, oblong, sparingly .-tellate-pubcscent with minute 
ore rarely glabrous especially in shade forms, 3-4.0 
i mm. broad, obtuse, purpli.-h with a white or subhya- 
tals white to pinkish or lilac-purple, 7 (6.5-)-9 mm. 
mm. broad at apex, the limb rather spreading, narrow- 
tte to spatulate-oblanceolate; siliques 'A i_'."> ' »'» <•'"■ 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 171 

outward or ver\ rareh m irl\ straight, -lightly reflexed or somewhat 
descending, Tiu.'stly srennd. glabrous, Uuniish at apex or rarely sub- 
acuminate, prominently one-nerved only at base or slightly beyond, 
the nerve soon tapering into obscurity; fruiting pedicels short, sub- 
uenirulate to geniculate, 4-9 (-11) mm. long at maturity, sparingly 
stellare-pubesrent with minute trichomes or some of them glabrous; 
stigma sessile or on a very short style not exceeding 0.25 mm. long; 
seeds in one row at maturity, orbicular to suborbicular, narrowly 
winged all around, 1-1.5 mm. 
in diameter.— Fl. Dan. xi. t. 

) (1828); Walpers, Kepert. 

!2 ( IS 12); Dietrich, S\ nop. 

393 (1843); Lange, Consp. 

Groenl. 4!) (1SS0); not A. 

'xullii of mam. American 




172 Rhodora [May 

sula, Prase & Ogdni, no. 25,181. hi. June-Aug.; fr. July-Sept. 
Map 29. 

A. Holbocllii, although actually having a very limited occurrence 
in North America, has long been treate! as a Rocky Mountain species 
with outlying stations in Greenland, and almost every AmU'ts which 
possesses reflexed dliipies am! a stellate type of pubescence has been, at 
one time or another, referred to it. In reality, however, the plant is 
limited to the coasts of Greenland as far north as latitude 72°, and 
to very local stations in Charlevoix, Rimouski, Matane and Gaspe 
Counties, Quebec, as well as on the Keweenaw peninsula in Michigan 

secund and prominently one-nerved only at the extreme base. In the 
pubescence of its stem, however, it is like the eordiileran .1, r< trufntria 



1937] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North I 
from that of cordilleran North America. He discusses 



I have made repeated careful and laborious efforts to ascertain I 
what extent genuine Arabis Holboellii, a Greenland plant as to tl 
original, is indijjenom To hnu-ii America and the I nited State 
And while the results attained can not be considered final, I think 
well to put them on record. 

And for one thin . " ,l,,t ' s I1 " t " ,vl1 

upon United Stat.- territory; nor have I yet met wit 



i be expected from very far northward, along the shores ot the Arctic 
seas. Our Rocky Mountain and other far ■ •' 
plants that have been so referred must, it seems to me, be tn a 
subspecies at the least. A number of segregates have already been 
proposed, and I shall here present the characters of several more. 

But first of all. 1 shall attempt, what seems nevei ye' 

■...-.. , ■ ■■ > . ..-. . ■■:■,..; _.■■■■: • ■ " ■ -:■ ■' - ' ■ ! 

been recognizable only by means of the plate in the Flora Damca. 
His description of A. Holboellii "drawn from Greenland material in 
the herbarium of Mr. Theo. Holm" 2 is clear and concise and following 
it is one of J. ntrufrarta Graham, which brings out the essential differ- 
ences between the two plants. Although I have not seen Macoun's 
no. 18,110, which is cited by Greene as being typical of A. ntrojrurta, 
■ nos. 18,109 and 18,108 (collected at Crows Nest Pass, Rocky Mts. on 
July 28th and 29th, 1897, no. 18,110 having been collected from the 

NaTi, Jd" MuM-mH^r Canada, ami are before me at the present 
moment Th.-e two plants possess the fine and hoary stellate pubes- 
cence of the stem s„ typical of the Greenland plant, and if Macoun's 
no. 18,110 is at all similar, it is not clear why Greene regards it as 
ore hirsuti.U. 

, _ r - 1 | rit ( . (lllinu . n t> >uch as "A second 

llorn.-m . the second collection of 



plant outside Greenland, the first being . 



lift's cast 
i Charlevoix Co.] was 
Irubis Hulhoellii llornei 
i Quebec. The other t 



St. Paul 
'find', 



is the third station for this species 
ns at Bic and at Cap Rosier at the 



J4 Rhodora [May 

p of Gaspe, are both much farther north and in areas which escaped 
Wisconsin glaciation. It is, consequently, interesting that, in his 
udy of Pleistocene deposits about Baie St. Paul, Coleman should 
ave found that 'the proofs of YYiseon.Mii glaciatioti are confined to the 

ist and west'." 1 The evidence that stations for this species in 
►uebec have been untouched by Wisconsin glaciation has been thor- 



A. HolborUii 


".Iv weluherell tni !Zl\ con -Ion 


if there ever w 


greater assemblage of remotely 
s&demics than any other botan 



Hooker's var. "&" of ,1. pahila is merel ir r lmt 



7] Hopkins, — Arabis in Eastern and Central North Ann ru 

. £ f rom Greenland," 1 Moreover, Mr. ('. A. \\ ta e ti« t!>\ In 
illy examined the specimen in the herbarium at Kew to 
oker referred and assures me that it is an e\<- 



attenuat. 


! tO 


a sessil 


e or 


subsessi 


le l,a. 


se or the low 


ermost short- 










ulnte or 




rarely subent 








'., uppen 














> gin 


brous: f 


InU.T 


- small. 


thelo 


wermost often 


pendulous, in 




- loo 






pedicels 7-10 (-12] 


i mm. long at 




glab 












youth In 




pelid 


ulous al 


: antl 


tesis; sepals 2-4 mm. long, 








i.rnib 








, vellowish or 




hiiv 


llllll..U> 






and 1 


lil'urcate hairs, 


only slighth 


















to obi,,,,: 






,„',,; 




I'alean 


e to arcuate, i' 


teNer straight, 


pendul,,,, 


Lte 




l :'l 




umM,i 


)rt™u> the't 


op or slightly 



roadlv win-e.l all 



176 Rhodora [May 

(1908); Rvdberg, Fl. Pr. & PI. 382 (1932); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 572 

(1933). A. frilniiu Michx. PI. Bor.-Am. i. 31 (1803); Poir. Kncyl. 
Supp. i. 414(lMOi; Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 437 HM 1); Bigelow, Fl. 
Bost. ed. 2: 251 I 1S24). .1. mollis Rafinesque in Am. Month. Mag. ii. 
i:; UM7i, n«n Steven in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. iii. 270 (1812).— Rich 
woods, thickets or rockv hanks. New England to Minnesota, south to 
Georgia and Texas. 'The following are characteristic. Maine: 
Skowhegan, Somerset Co.. f'« /•/,/.*//. 3 Julv I'M):;. N,;\\ 1 1 uirsiiiki;; 
Nottingham, .1. I I'aton, 1X00 Ykkviovi- dr\ woods aloii- West 
Ki\er. Brattlehoro, Windham Co., L. A. Whirl, i; 19 Aim. 1915; 
Manchester. Blnnrhnnl. no. 35; roekx woods, Pawlet, \l\ athrrhii. S 



\l»: 1 


rovidence, ()h,n,\S\\. Oonxk< mcut: rocky woods,Frank- 




/v//v/, ii June & 19 .Julv 19()li; rockv woods, Southington, 


//. n 


». fil; Wethersfield, C. Wriijht. 1S7.S; Greenwich, 7,. a/. 




June 1SS(1. Nl,W YoKk. west end of BeeOe Lake, llhaca, 


ham 


oek' Ra'vine and'vicmhv, V'h sse! '''I'oinpkins Co'V . L J. 




. 4,220: calcareous M,il, H;nn,-> Hill, so,,,hern West Fort 


Was 


hington Co., Bumhum. 2 Juh 1020. N.-.u Jkksfa : \ icinity 




Passaic Co., C. V. S„sh, 10 June 1S!.() jl'S;; rid, woods 


• Ott 


er Brook west of Somen la le, //. B. Mnrtlith, 27 Mav 1921 




vood road on slope of Second Mr., \\ atclmmi, Somerset Co. 


. /(/.■, 


no. 1,692 [US]. Pk\\.sylv\m\- mountains Fast Dauphin 


/. 30 


•June INNS; Faston, .1. .1. Tain; 23 Juh lx<)6 |NY|; Krie 


;r, 8 


\ug. 1x74 IN Y|; wciniu of McCall's Frrrs . York Co.. Ho*.- A 




>.\116a [US|. Dki.au are: loamv wooded slopes, Gu.ven- 




wcastle Co., /,„„,,, no. 27,530 [Philj; loamy wooded slope 








s Island in Potomac P.', near '( 'aim, John. Mont-omen Co. 




V Muxon, no. 65 |US|; n,ck< « k Garrett Co., ./. I> 




ul> 1SS2[US!; wooded „;, K..C0110- 


'■ ( ! 


•ilCo., Ln„j A-Burtnn,,,^. 1 ,266 [ Phil] ;( Yomley's Mount 




T^VUship, /,„„,//, 11( , 1,-s;; 1 Philj. D.STHKT OK CoKKM- 








•'»»«''& ii J U 1 : is,',,; ' Milm . Pl , im ;. M'iii'//;. /.. To fl ,jint, 




iV.HJlMin.,!. Wkst ViinuM,- near Varnev Sci !, Ming. 


/»■ ,•/. 


;.'/• \-'uly 1930; Shown M, . IVndleton (V. Cur,; 13 Aug 


|M 





: dr\ woods 


near Waynesville, '/i//////on //"'/'■ ■ 


B. L. Robinso 


n, no. 68; on ledge, upper slope, Ba 


ossbach, no. 7 


1; dry banks, Swain Co., Great Smo 



1937] Hopkins,— Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 177 

Mts., Bravdshr d- Kofoid, 20 Julv 1891. South Carolina: summit 
of Paris Mt., Svtall, Julv 1896 [NY]; Andersonville, F. K. II., ISSti 
fT'S]; Same.. R. I»,u„m. u . of St. Paul, Clarendon Co., !»'. Nmm, no. 

woods near Crier's Cave, Randolph Co.,'/C 3/ ; 

wood, near Oconee River, Athens, Harper, May 1897 [NY]; Wilkes 
Co., Chriiiniftn, ISS.'S [NY]. Ontario: gravelly hillside, Port Stanley, 
Lake Kric. Mnmiw, no. 11; drv open rockv woods. Niagara Kalis. 
Manmn, no. I ,(io9 [Can|. Amherstluirgh. \tucoun, no. :«,777 [Can|; 
on rocks. Lincoln Co., McCalla, no. 43 [Can]. Michigan: woods, 
Saimatuck. f'mharh, 27 Julv 1 SOS [PS|: Jackson Co., N. //. cO />. /i. 
Cr,,,,,,, 12 June 1X<>7 [Minn|; dry sandy soil, Grand Rapids, K. J. 
Coir, 20 June 1SJM [Minn]; dry wooded slopes. Ann Arbor. Ilmnann, 
no. (i„SH. Ohio: Columl.us. Sullimnt, Is 4(1; Bradv Lake. Porta-.' 
Co., L. S. Hopkins <{■ l{. ,1. }V,U, no. 1 ,2.">3 : near Cincinnati. 7'. C 
/--/ jPhilj; Svlvania. Lucas Co.. /.. R. Wilson, no. 1 ,47o [Wise]. 
Indiana: mck\ soil on top of "knob." \\\ , mi. nw. of \ew Albany. 
Floyd Co., Draw, no. 2o,272 [Deam]; Lake Maxinkuckee, li.W. 

of Mon-o. M„/„, ,io. _'«')' 70.S !i)cani;. Kkntc ky: hillside woods west 
of Olive Hill, Carter Co., IVmtlirrbi/ S: IVrathrrhii. no. H..SS7: Star 

Uo.kdal. . /,' /,'„ .,„ ,„, !..l('is | s T> N n f"w i . woods. Shen\ I. 

Franklin Co.. V. w , rt. S June I S97 [Mol; border of thickets, Knoxville. 



May 1SP7 (Minn!. Wisconsin: wooded san- 
Slouyh. Alma P.uilalo Co /A,.v.sv// t {- /A,/r/,/,-/.> 
//• /•'. flu,,,; 12 June 1SS4 INY1; cascades of 1 



on, Havana, //. 

;. /•:. McDonald, . 
o.I5l9(i|Minn|^ 



U ne is<>9 [Minn]. Iowa: rocky 
land woods, Decatur Co.. hfz- 
; V i: Fort Dodge. 4/. P. Sonus. 
, Highlands, II. A. Mason 25 
'WrA/7/. 2(1 May 1918; rocky 
\rk\xsas: Rethesda Spring. 
r'.unnnif ofWestMt.,3mi. w. 



li [Hklvn]. Oklahoma: LeFlore Co., T. K, 
, Sapulpa, Bush, no. 1,196 [Mo]. Texas: 
tllas, Itarrchmi, Mav 1S7<»; sandy upland 
:o., E. J. Palmn; no. 7.S47 [T'S]; rocky 



tooth: flowers on long racemes and long peduncles, calyx hispid, petals 
cuneate obtuse, entire, longer than the oa.li\. -ili. ju^s drooping, sickle 
shaped compressed— Obs. This species has perhaps been overlooked, 



■i i»s been overlo 
J.S-/.S- or A.falcnht of which 



I- widely 

Hiii-hhnds.''th -. Ilud-on. 

kill, <fec. Mr. Torrey has found it also on the Island of \e\v-\ ork; 
ossoms in June and Julv. The stem rises without branches, from 
to throe foot, the loaves are thin and soft. Perennial. It vanes 
smooth and hairy stem, sometimes branched, and a variety has 
ng leaves. The flowers have the glands as in A. alpina. 2 









ssess hairy' leaves and si.-klt-slmp.-d dliques. In the 
of J. pyenocarpa in this paper, I have stated that the plant 
i perhaps the basis of Pursh's Turritis ovata is quite clearly 
isia ; but whether A. ovata (Pursh) Poir. should be correctly 
i synonym for A. canadensis can only be surely known « befl 
■ type specimen of the Pursh plant is found' DeCandolle 



1937] Hopkins —Arabis in Easterfl and Central North i 

reduced it to a variety of .1. sagitfata, 1 and Torrey & Gr; 

us a variety of J. hirsutar which they considered to be i 

' In the Herbarium of the Cubed States National Must 
specimen from Oklahoma collected in LeFlore Co., by ' 
and supposed to be a hybrid of A. canadensis and A. k 
plant appears to me to be typical A. camidmsi* in every 



hoary-pubescent with minute stellate trichomes. becoming less hoar 
upwards and passing to glabrous; radical leave: 



to oUaneeolate 



date, 2-5 cm. long, 3-9 mm. 
broad, subacute, pannose to subpannose on both surfaces with nunute 
stellate trichomes, tapering to short narrowly winged mmuteh 
iwolute mar- 
gins'. l.:> :, <-m iZ', ■ - ith a'suhamplcxieaul 
sagittate l»,sr. acuminate, the Uvermnsi finely pannose on both 
M.rtaces. ,hc middle one M.bpannose or merely minutely stellate- 
pubescent, the uppermost nearly or quite glabrous: flowers at first 
ever but becoming reflexed at anthesis, in loose racemes;! 



g, l-l.;>(-1.7o) nun. broad, ■>"■"«[<" 



1'iickly becoming obscure 1 



«"" ^ oeeomm^ oomuic .k,>.m„. 

l»ng. stron-K retiexed. geniculate to subgc-- 
pubescent with minute trichomes or some • 

'in "one voi ai"maturiTy. orbicular To ^uborbicular, 



Rhodora [May 

lv winged all around. 0.75-1.2 nun. in diameter. — Edin. New 
/urn. 3-1-1 (Julv-Oet. 1829); Howell. Fl. Xw. Am. i. 45 (1897); 
, Pittonia, iv. 188 (1900); Rydberg, Fl. Rocky Mts., 362 (1917) 
Pr. & PI. 3S2 (1932). Turr'itis nirofracta Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. 
829). .1. Holborllii var. rrtwfmrtn Rvdberg in Contr. U. S. 
ierb. iii. 484 (18%); Jepson, Alan. Fl. PL Calif. 429 (1925), the 
ation erroneously ascribed to Jepson; Munz, Man. So. Calif. 
).-> 193.5). .1 Knrhi F.Li.kin-', p in Mont. Agri. Coll. Sci. 
i. 57 (1905). — Northern Michigan; Mackenzie and Yukon, 
i the Mountains to Colorado and California. The following are 
eristic. Michigan: sands, north shore of Thunder Bay near 
Alpena, C. F. Whuhr, 3 July 




1937] Hopkins,— Ara bis in Eastern and Central Xort! 

Rothrock, no. (>55 (as A. patula); Ojo, Rydbrrq & Vn 
[NY]; Mancos. Eastwood, June 1892 [NY]. Utah: 
0. /I. GWtf, no. 1,004; Logan, A. I. MulfnnL no. 4!. 
micranthvm) [NY]: mountains southeast of Silver 

headwaters of Big Cottonwood Creek. n>//„ , T/ <(■ C, 

l)ottonilan.ls. .larbridge, .\V/w» t (- Mnchridr, no. 1,02 



summit of Blue Cra^ Uidge, Mt II I .It I MM) ft ' N 

"ains.'-west Kliel tatT', N '<dnrl\Vu I SSI \ h.i 1SS.", ,s L 
M . 1„ is.,1 Mmroe Mt>. //<-',//. June 

1SS1 jNV|. P.h.t.sh' Com -mi'ma: Kicking Horse Valley, vicinity of 
Field. N. Hmwu, no. iiol ; shore of Howser Lake. C //. Shaw, no. < 11 ; 
dry Muffs, north bank of Peace H.. at Taylor Flat, about oh S .V, 



Root branching, fibrous. Stem erect, scarcely branched, hoary, 
especially below, where also purplish, green above. Leaves soft and 
hoary on both sides, revolute in their edges sosile, dilated at the base 
and stem, r iirplish, entire 

or 'slightly toothed at the apex only, spathulkto-linear, higher up 
lanceolato-linear, and towards the top subulate, entire and sagittate, 
those lower on the stem having small auricles. Raceme terminal, 
elongating while flowering; pedicels opposite, but frequently solitary 
(from abortion?)^ bent down, with a very acute angle at their origin. 
turned to one side, hairy, hairs branched. Cahjx yellowish-green, 
leaflets ellip- ■ -ssed, half the length of 

the pedicel, sparingh c vered witl <\\ nlai 1 iirs ( nmlla nearly as long 
as the pedicel, white, or with a very fain! purple tinge; petals spathulate, 
somewhat oblique at the apex, and slightly emarginate. Stamen* 
rather longer than the calyx, the longer exceeding the shorter bv the 
length of the anthers; filaments colorless, smooth: anther- pale vellow. 
Pistil rather shorter than the stamens; germen linear, Eighth swollen 

:,t lts l,;lsr '- dmhfh n|»ressfd. :..[.■:. elongated before the flowers fall; 

style near! sma H ) blunt, simple, glandular only 

onitsuppei ... (i iM ., Mnu | ( , „ IVV ,„ ,, l( . h loculament, 

bordered; cotyledons flat, embryo applied to their edges. 
Raised at the Botanic Garden from seeds collected in Captain 
: ti-.n. The station of the species i> stated bv Dr. 
■ ■- - Bav to the Cocky Mountains. 
and from Canada to Lat. 68° at Mackenzie's River. 

Because his description so adequately fits the plant of cordilleran and 

aeihe North America, although no actual type-specimen seems to 
exist, and because Hooker and subsequent authors well understood it, 

ta\or ot a new one and have cited the Bourgeau specimen as a "sub- 
stitute type, m ease the true type should come to light in the future. 

stem, \\ iieh normally appears hoary. The radical leaves range from 

revolute, tapering to an acuminate apex; the flowers are large for the 
genus and somewhat secund; the sepals and flowering pedicels display 
the same minute (hoary) stellate pubescence as does the stem; and 
the sdiques are long, straightish, narrow, and prominently nerved to 
the middle In its pubescence the plant closely resembles A. HolbocUH, 
although that of the latter is usually less pannose on the radical 
leaves, being merely minutely stellate. 

; Ithough a majority of American authors have consistentlv con- 



li»;;7] Fb>pkin.>, Ar;il»is in Kastern and Centr; 
fused our plant with the Gre 



1 northern Michigan, extending through- 
nd Pacific coast regions. In southern 



the present interpreta 



Nelson. Perennial from a subljgn. 
dm. high, branched at base c 
ely hispid or 1" 



;ith simple or 
I:. :r trif;:m't/, prying to r.<..r*pr«i.l!...<i > •-. ,»^i|' ■ ■"■= , ; ■ ■ 
U»,ly-his P idulous and glabrous: radical leaves densely ™>uUu. 
oblanceolate to narrowly obovi 
4-10 mm. broad, entire to subd 

the apex, pannose on both suriaer.> » ■■■ 

petiolate, the petioles hirsute t< 






icels hispidulous to glabrate, .V 7 mm. long at anthesis; 
>ous, oblong, one-lialf to one-third the length of petals, 
. ().."> 0. 7") mm. broad, green or greenish with a white or 
le margin around the upper periphery, hispidulous to 
simple and bifurcate hair-; petals white to pink or 




rocky thickets, Hie, Quebec; western ( 
northwestern Nebraska and Wvnmii 
^^- Quebec : Jim,-Mon.M-nnd„mr 



1937] Hopkins — Arabis in Eastern and Central North America 

water R., Lake Nipigon, Macoun, no. 1,685 [Can]. Max 
prairies north of Carberry, Macoun A- Ilcrriot, no. 69,860 I 
lignipcs) [Can]; Pine Creek, Macoun & Ilcrriot, no. 69,859 

Macoun, no' lL^Tl" |Can]. XoKTH Dak.. I a : Towner. Mcilenr 
J. Lundl, 29 Mav 1908 [Phil]; Mandan, J. T. Sarm, 1915 [I> 
gravelly soil, Minot, Olqa Lakda. no. 451 [Minn]; Dunseith. 1 
Co., f. Lundl, 1 -lime 1911 [NV|; in sand\ soil on hillside, C 
Ball, //. F. Bergman, no. 1,556 [Minn]; blutis in Bad Lands, Man 
I. rt. J/oytr, no. 452 [Minn]. South Dakota: rocky shaded I 
Custer Peak. Lawrence Co., K. ./. Palmer, no. ^7.545; Klk C: 
Black Hills, alt. 1 5.001) ft. Rmlbcrq, no. 520 |\V]; Redig, ./. II'.. 
no. l,5:i> IMiiinj: hilLide.. Mayo. Custer Co., Over, no. 1,849 
tirassv hillsides, Bear Creek, Washabaugh Co., Over, no. 2,087 
Nebraska: Fort Robinson, J. M. Bates, 4 June 1890. Sask.* 
wax: prairies, 12 Mile Lake, near Wood Mt., Macoun, no. 
[Can); drv thicket.-, and in sparseb wooded country, Pheasant 
Macoun, \u). 1,691 [Can]. Moxtaxa: exposed slope of Watei 
Hill, North Missoula, :*,600 ft. elev. C. L Hitchcock, no. 1,592; 

no. 1,551 ; drv rockv slope near second bridge above Bonner, 
foot Valley, 'Missoula Co., C. L. Hitchcock, no L0N0. VYy. 
Maniinoth* Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, F. T 



ikota into the Black 
,-oming, and, locally 
he Canadian Rocky 
ret rofr acta Graham, 



186 


Rhodora 


[May 


from which it c 


liffers in its loosely hispid stem-pubeseen. 


:-e and in its 


smaller flowers 


, and with the Greenland A. UolbovUli 


(which also 


occurs at Bic), 


from which it is easily distinguished by 


the pannose 


pubescence of i 


ts radical leaves, its narrower petals (in 


,1. Holboellii 


the petals are : 


L.75-2.25 mm. broad at the apex; in A. \ 


onuluhrarpa 


they average 1 


.5 mm. broad), and its narrow, straigh 


tish siliques. 


The type-specii 


uen of A. Collimil Feraald matches Nek 


son's type of 






ocfidontnlis, ;>:!, '.til, D' 
typica, 88-90 
f.parvisiliqua.SS,; 



adpressipilis, 1 13, 1 


117, Ludovic, 


MMum^l'u: 


typica, 113, 114,' 1 


122 ttK 

121 Stenophragm 
20- Streptanthus 


a Thalia. la, 1 
ai.giMitoliu, 






1. Studies in the limnn-lian a,— VIII. By Lyman B. Smith 

2. Notes on Plants of northern Brazil collected by Dr. Francis 

Drouet. By Lyman B. Smith 

3. A new Genus of Eriocaulaceac. By Lyman B. Smith ••••••■ 

4. Notes on South \nii'n<;i « <> >■ <''"<<" , — IL By Lyman B. 

Smith and Stuart K Harris 



THE GRAY HERBARIA { NIVERSTH 

CAMBRIDGE. MASS., L. S. A. 

1937. .. 



LAY HERBARIUM 



ISSUED JUN 2 8 1937 



Studies in the Bromdiaceae—YIII. By Lyman 
Notes on Plants of northern Brazil collected 1 

Drouet. By Lyman B. Smith 

A new Genus of Eriocauhic, a, . By Lyman B. 

Smith and Si u i K Hxkkis . . .' 



Published by 

THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 



By Lyman B. Smith. 
{Plate* I-II.) 

Aechmea Kienastii E. Morr. ex Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 243 
(1896). ?Ae. tillandsioidcs Bak. sensu Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 
242 (1896), as to Central American material. Ac. bractrata (iris. 
sensu Standlev in Pub. Bot. Field Mus. x. 126, t. 17 (1931), non Gris. 
(1864). 

MEXICO: without further locality, 1880, hort. Jacob Makoy (Liege, type; 
phot (, ; i ivx v. v: Tcpn.up... alt. 200 m.. 1919, fako ',<>.;.; (US); Tabasco: 
Rancho Juarez, Tenosique, alt. 120 m., 1892, Beristain 7909 (G). BRITISH 
Hi >\ I H I: AS: on forest trees, Big Cro » Kl Cayo, 1931, 

Bartlett 12081 (Mich); Yal6ch to El Cayo, 1931, Barilett 12860 (Mich); 
Gracie Rock, Sibun River, 1935, (Ivvlh l-'\; Mi.-h ; mi in-<- 
mil.-<ri..rtlM.t Ma^.aiL VXH\. <>\\, ill x;>;n I'athl <il \T KM ALA: eastern 
portions of Vera I'a an-M ,' v*5 II *»>i -if,.} (G ); Peten: Uaxac- 

tun, 1931, /*«»//t// /*W2/> (Mich); LI Paso, 1932, /.«/ M \i" 

Vehapaz: Cubilquitz. alt. 350 m., 1902. ■• / ■ " ■ ■/ " s ' " 

8324 (G); I /.a, -. 1SS9, ./. D. Smith 1823 G . HON- 

DURAS: Aiixm.ov I meet I,\ I >.. a- I . la. alt 20 1,00 m l'L\ n 
Stin„ll,u :,j:>:>s IS, I'M I'WAMA: lMilt. //,//,.* iNY'.; ■■- -' 
ijueb „] - ! , ,„ , It 75 in, 1934, Dodge, Slei/ermark A Allen 17030 
iMo) Co|.iiMli|\ -w ,1(1 ' ■ ... ' i 'en Carare and 

Magdalena Hut.-, alt Mil) 700 in.. 1935, //,/</{//'' /6*39 (G). 

Mez contrasted At. Kimuxtil with 15-30-flowered spikes with the 
earlier Ar. fUhnnLsiui,/, ,v with 1 2-Howered spikes. 1 Under both species 

thing but reduce! material «.f those with many-flowered spikes. 



1 Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 185 (1896) and in Engl. Pflanzenr. 



Aechmea multiflora, spec, nov., epiphyta, acaulis, 5 dm. alta; 
foliis imperfecte eognitis, inflorescentiam superantibus, laminis 
ligulatis, acutis, pungentibus, ultra 1 dm. latis, supra glabris, subtus 
densissime minuteque pallido-lepidotis, spinis atris subrectis ad 2 mm. 
longis laxe armatis; scapo erecto, valido; scapi vaginis dense imbri- 
oatis. foliaceis, basi atro-castaneis et dense badio-lepidotis, supremis 
valde reductis et in eas florum transeuntibus, recurvatis, era sis, 
rigidis, denticulatis, involucram formantibus; inflorescentia simplicis- 
sima, dense spieata, valde multiflora, crasse subcylindrica, late obtusa, 
15 cm. longa, 11 cm. diametro; bracteis florigeris rectis, oblongis, 
acuminatis, 45 mm. longis, flores subaequantibus, 1 cm. latis, parte 
superiore subcoriacea, brunnea, denticulata, sparse lepidota, parte 
inferiore tenui, pallida, integra, glabra; floribus sessilibus, valde com- 
planatis; sepali- subtriangularibus, valde asymmetricis, 2 cm. longis, 
pungentibus, crassis, atro-castaneis, dense appresso-lepidotis, petal* 
oiiinim. involventibus, liberis; petalis oblongis, acutis, ex sicco alius, 
basi ligulis binis obliquis auctis; staminibus inclusis, serie II cum 
petalis ad 3 mm. connata, antheris linearibus, 1 cm. longis; ovario 
gracili, 25 mm. longo, tubo epigyno infundibuliforme, 5 mm. longo, 
placentis fere toti interno loculorum angulo affixis. PL I, figs. 1-3. 

BRAZIL: Bahia: forests of the Rio Grongogy Basin, alt. 100-500 m., 1915, 
H. M. Curran 297 (US, type; phot. G). 

'■ ■ ■' ■ ; ^ related to A>. Frrmmdw and Ac. ■mbighnuta. 

It differs from Ac Fernandae in its elongate scape and from Ac 
rubighumn in its basally thin floral bracts and strongly asymmetric 

Catopsis delicatula, spec, nov., solum juvenilis cognita, 28 cm. 
alta; i'oliis paucis, subfasciculato-rosulatis, ad 27 cm. longis, obscure 
bnmneM-puiictulatis, extimis valde reductis; vaginis parvis, ellipticis, 
hand distinetis; laminis lineari-triangularibus, longo acuminatis, 
basi 12 mm. latis, planis; scapo erecto, gracillimo, glabro; scapi 
vaginis erectis, internodia multo superantibus, angustissime lanceo- 
latis, subfiliformi-aeuminatis; inflorescentia laxe paniculata, sub- 
mulnflora. 13 cm. longa; axi geniculate); bracteis primariis eis scapi 
similibus, iiifimi^ .piea^ ju\enile> axillaris -ubaequaiitibus, supremis 
valde reductis; spicis patentibus, ad 4 cm. longis vel paulo ultra, laxe 
paucifloris; bracteis florigeris late ovatis, 1 mm. longis, quam sepala 
brevioribus, perobscure punctulato-lepidotis; floribus patentibus; 
-palis ellipticis, valde asymmetricis, 5 nun. longis; petalis lingulatis. 
late acutis, 6 mm. longis; staminibus valde inaequalibus. PL I, H$- 



in Felipe, alt. 670 m., 1923, Rojas 44» 

From the material at hand it is impossible to tell whether the lower 
primary bracts equal the axillary branches or not at maturity, but in 
cither case Catopsis rhtimtula is separable by its small indistinct leaf- 
sheaths and filiform-acuminate lower primary bracts. The stamens 
and pistil appear about equally developed, but the flower is still too 
young to show for sure that both are functional. 

Catopsis floribunda (Brongn.), comb, now, 4-7 dm. alta; foliis 
multis, dense rosulatis, strictis, 2-4 dm. longis, obscure punctolato- 
lepidotis, nullo modo cretaceis; vaginis clliptick la minis dimidio bis 
omnino aequalibus, basi pallide castaneis; laminis anguste triangulari- 
bus, acuminatis, basi 15-30 mm. latis, planis vel per aetatem involu- 
tis; scapo erecto, 2-4 mm. diametro, glabro; scapi bracteis erectis, 
internodia superantibus, infimis foliaceis, supremis ex ovato angustis- 
sime triangularibus; inflorescentia laxe paniculata, 15-40 cm. longa, 
plerumque multiflora, glabra; bracteis primariis scapi bracteis su- 
prcmis similibus, plerumque quam ramorum axillarium bases steriles 
multo brevioribus; ramis strictis, simplicibus vel infimis divisis; 
spicis graciliter longeque stipitatis, subdense 8-36-floris, ad 16 cm. 
longis base inclusa; bracteis florigeris subpatentibus, late ovatis, ob- 
tusis, 3-5 mm. longis, quam sepala bene brevioribus, pmuimcnter 
nervatis, viridibus, margine lato per aetatem atro-brunnco; flonbus 
suberectis; sepalis valde asymmetricis, late ellipticis, 4-6 mm. longis; 
petalis ellipticis, obtusis, 7 mm. longis, albis; staminibus dotincte 
inaequalibus; serie II cum petalis ad 1.5 mm. connata; ovano crasse 
ellipsoideo; stylo subnullo: capMila graciliter ovoidea, acuta, 9-11 mm. 
longa.— Southern Florida, British Honduras, Costa R.ca. West 
Indies, Venezuela.- Pognsp, rmum florlhmnlum Broug.i. in^Ann. Ni. 
Nat. ser. 5, i. 32S (1864), nomen provi 



•/ ,l»); Braupertnis (P). MARTINIQUE: PUe 

i in this paper, the name Catopsis nutam » was 
r name now available, Pogo- 
nea as a nomen provisorium so that 
seems best to ensure the validity of the new combination by append- 
? a Latin descriptim Kortuuatcl. Kronen md.cated clearlv 
b specimens on which he based Pogosp r> .) . '< 

i-re is no confusion in its identin a- there has been in tha o 



-applied to this species. 



Plee collection. 

Catopsis Lundelliana, spec, now, 25-30 cm. al 

dense subgloboseque rosulatis, 1 dm. longis, dense <>!>.- 
lato-lepidotis; vaginis anguste ovatis vel ellipticis, 11 
nullo modo inHatis: lamini.- liiiearibus, acuminatis, 1 
ex siceo ad apieem versus involuto-sulmlatis; scapo e 
glahro; scapi braeteis erectis, internodiis longiorihi 



»tusis, tenuibus, prominenter nervatis, quam sepala 
bus, obscure punctulato-lepidotis; Boribus suberectis; 

s, obtusis vald<" asvmmetricis. 5 mm. longis, tenuibus, 



late elliptic!: 
BRITISH 



■ . ,,1.,1,-d u>(\ j<n,c,foha,hu 
he description of that species in its small narrow Ha 



Catopsis moi 



flonbus subpatentibus, vt 
ellipticis, valde asymmetri 

petalis ellipticis, obtusis, i 

9-10. 



Jlorihinida, hut differs in having the leaf-blades suhligulate instead of 

Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Oris. Fl. Br. W. Ind. :>W ( IMih: Me/, i„ 
DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 620 (1896) and in F.nd. I'Han/.cnr. iv. Fain. :{2, 
426 (MKi.l). Tillandth, nitida Hook. Fxot. Fl. iii. t. 21S (1S27). PI. 
I, % 12. 

The presence or absence of a very short style has been used l>y Mez 
to distinguish C. nitida from C. scsxilijlont. Not being able to follow 
the distinction or to substitute clear-cut habital characters. 1 reduced 
C. nitida to synonymy. Xow I find that there is a definite distinction 
in the form of the sepals which correlates with the habital tendencies. 
('. nitida has sepals that arc straight on the lower right side and the 
wing higher than the apex while C. srxxilithra has them well ro.imlcl 
there and the wing even with the apex (cf. PI. I, fig. 11). In habit 
C. nitida tends to have relatively large strict leaves in a cylindrical 
rosette and a fairly ample inflorescence, while C. scssiliflora tends to 
have smaller leaves that curve outward toward the apex and a simple 



Catopsis 



ellina Lk., Kl. & 1 


Jtto, Ic. PI. Ho: 


'ulgcns Oris, in Goe 


tt. Nachr. for 186 


Journ. Bot. xxv. 1 


76 (1887). 


about 1785, William 


: Wright (BM, tyi 



orescence of ('. lirrtrrouimm. The V.'juUjcns specimen lias the 

plant's base, so that " nutans'" would !,e one of the most natural 
eifie names to choose for it. Then notice how much better the 
^nal<les(TiptionfitsC'./ M /flrH M : 

'Spicis" is used in the sense of the whole inflorescence and "sub- 
isis" means few-branched. Compare the Wright specimen with 
inflorescence of two branches with simple or few-branched C. 
gens and then with the usually much-branched ('. licrfrroniana and 
floribunda. "Foliis ovato-lanceolatis" implies that the sheath and 



tfosculos includentes" is ne; 
('. fulgrns than those of C. ft 
alba," Swartz evidently used 
is so old as to have lost its c 
In making the combinat 



showed perfect flowers. So far as known 
Guzmania guatemalensis, spec, nov 



li fere rec 


ra; bra 


cteia th 


.rigerislatissimeel 




M-pillil 


mult.. 


brevioribus, infla 


iU-..n;M-i-i 


s, laevi 


bus, ex 


MCCO stramineis; 1 


His (Ti.Ssi, 


.. 1 nun 


. lonjris 


; M-palis cllipticis, 



Schn-jrimia, but differs in having 

Guzmania Sneidernii, spec. 
(Teans;l'oliis,)lurimis. ere«-tis, { .(i: 
lepidotis; vaginis densissime imt 

basi atro-cMsijineis liici(lis<|iie; lai 

><api bracteis erectis, dens 

camlati.. viri.libus. nibro-striutis. nullo modo folia* 
ereeta simDlieisMma, pauritfora l"".etei< Honoris 



lense imbricat.s, supremis ellipticis, breve 



Guzmania stenostachya, sp 



lbglabra: scapo erecto, gracili: scapi 
is, infimis foliaceis, supremis late 
oivscenti;! shnplicissiina, graciliter 
! cm. longa, verisimiliter ca. 15 mm. 



COSTA RICA: Hem 



COSTA RICA: Or axacahie 
Valerio 45110 fl'S, p[,ot. ( I ; \ ;i 

COLOMBIA :'e/. Vau.',',: 1',^ 



Guzmania Wrightii, spec, now, e fr. 



Hechtia k: I 

Tl,, U i> tnmkh artilirial. pnn-nrnllv m.tl 



,ral bracts and sepals drying uniformly roseate 
gSdSyflow^rfloralbracte equaling or «<^ ^^ 



i. Flowers distinctly pedicellate A 

cence very lax. 

7. Sepals ovate, broadest about ' ;i above base: Mower; 



3-parted at base, not over 12 cm. long and usually 

, Branches densely flowered. 
10. Rhachis compressed, even or faintly sulcate: 

branches usually 3-parted from the base 7. //. po<lui>lh<i. 

10. Rhachis subterete with line ridge.-, decurrent 

■ ,1-cct . . . .8. //. tvbaiato, 

■< y, 3-8 mm. 

long . 9. //. pedicellata. 

nfloreseenee pyramidal or if -ubrvlindric then lax 



Racemes 10-15 cm. long: flo 

Raeemea 3 -7 em. long 

l-'Iorai bracts shorter than 
cemes evenly flowered in mc 



Floral' 






pedicels at anthesis: ract 
Rhachis slender, everTc 



Pedicels 0-7 nun. lonu;: primary bracts I 

PeliSls^oTmore than 3 mm long.' " " 
JO. Sepals acute. 

21. Stamens included 

21. Stamens exserted. 

1-1. Sepals much thickened toward 

■ - - : li ■■: ■ - slightly or n< 

- 
23. Petals r 

23. Petals 1.5-4 mm. long. 

Rhaclns -: 
25. Stamens ' ' 

ing or si 
25. Stamens exserted 
ng the pedicels . 



21. Khnehi 

2(>. Rhachis slender. 



■-".''sta 



27. Stamens exserted 
26. Rhachis stout, deeply sulcate. 
i. Floral brae- le, always excee( 

i '■■.. ■ 
28. Flowers S 111 inn l,.ng Ho, ,1 bracts s t , min 
roseate with broad scarious margins. 

30. Sepal 

29. Sepals much longer than broad. 

31. Sepals elliptic, ohtuse: leaves splashed witl 



faint lateral nerves. 



.21. //. spluurc 






38. Leaves all coarsely son a 

38. Leaves (onlv the inner ki 

late 


!!;,„ 


ii* 


.3:1. 


'/. (ihictibnyhtu. 
II. (jatnopetala. 


1. H. dichroantha , 

PI. I, figs. 19-20. 


I. ]). Smith in 


Hut 


(iaz 


d 


i. 299 ( 


1906). 


GUATEMALA: Baja i 
Rosa, alt. 1600 m., 1905, 0. 


Tc"!,t p a-s 


'rvn 


'<;% 


iiiui, 


la near 


Santa 


2. H. Desmetiana (Bak.) Mez in DC 
Dyckia Desmetiana Bak. in Bot. Mag. ex 


. M( 


7340 


(189 


fc.651 ( 


1890). 


MEXICO (?): plant fro 
(K, type; phot. G). 


• ta« colle, 




cult. 


K,» 


■ Garden, 


i, 1893 


3. H. rosea E. Morr. 


ex Bak. Brom. 1 


40 ( 


INSOl. 








MEXICO: cult. Liege (L 


i£ge, typk; phot. ( 


». 










The exact origin of be 
4. H. Meziana L. 


lem Mexico or a 


£ 


it'^'i 


3 




, tlu-N 



States National Museum specimen collected 

Purpus. It may even be part of the type colle< 

5. H. Purpusii Brandegee, emend floribu 

late subtriangularihus, obtusis; petals ellipti 
minibus inelusis.— Braiuleyer in Pub |{,,t Ci 
(1920).— PI. I, figs. 21-23. 
( MEXICO: Viha Cm:/.: on steep rocks, Barr 
l/r( . ( -'l. ( i\ I .,.;(, ! ;P :iso ,lelaMilpa, 



laTimiis anuuste trian-ularilni-. 

adpresseque pallido-lepidotis; s 
tripinnatim paniculata, glabra 



irllisgracillimis, 
uninerviis, subh 

stylo subnullo. 
MEXICO: Vet 



nearCuernuvara. alt. -M' 



The pet! 

Pringh- W 



mm. longis, pedicellos superantibus, erosis, laevibus, basi incrassatis, 
pallide hrunneis; Horibus erectis vel suberectis; pedicellis validis, 
triquetris, sulcatis, cum rhachi articulatis, 2 mm. Inngis; sepalis late 
ellipticis, obtusis, 3.5 mm. longis, laevibus, marline liyalino excepto 
pallide brunneis. erosis; petalis late triangularibus, acutis, 4.5 mm. 
longis, alius; stylo subnullo; capsula ovoidea, acuta, 11 mm. longa; 
carpellis laevibus; seminibus linearibus. a pice longe caudatis. PI. I, 



MEXICO: Jalisco: 
2970 ( - " 

10. H. guatemalensis Mez, auct.: planta feminea vcrisimiliter 

femineis reflexis; pedicellis validis. 1 mm. longis; ovario fere omnino 
infero; capsula ellipsoidea, 5-8 mm. longa, glabra, prominenter 
reticulata; seminibus brevissime caudatis.— Mez in Fedde, Rep. 
Nov. Spec. iii. 14 (1906). PI. I, figs. 32-33. 

GUATEMALA: Zacapa: in thicket on north side of the Rio Motagua, 

-; Guatemala: San Bernardo, between 

Irapiche Grande and Las Canoras, alt. 600 m., 1905, //. Pittier VV, (J US, 

SAL\ \\)()\i: \.„, u ,( x: iirji. />,„/,//„ ./ , ? US); along 

" !'J. Si„,„U,„ J<>.;;! I S. G ;Su.- 

(9 US, phot, G). 

H. epigyna Harms in Xoti/blatt, xii. 531 (1935). PI. I, figs. 



naterial than the type. 

12. H. montana Brandegee in Erythea, vii. 9 (1899). //. prdi- 
x'Hsii I. M. Johnston in Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 4, 
oi. 995 (1924), non Watson (1891). PI. I, fig S . 38-40. 

MEXICO: Baja California: San Jose del Cabo, 1897, Brandegee s. »■ 
a v u^ai, type; phot. G); same, l'i!i,/,v„ ;r,',,i ,9 IS); rocky ledges 






//. Hin'llnta wry lax.''' 



alhis; capsula o\ 



15. H. reticulata, 
•ineari-triangulari, 3 c 



ricis, laxe multifloris, ad 15 cm. longis; bractois Horigeris late del- 
lideis, aenminatis, pedicellos aequantibus vel ris biwioribus; Horibus 
atentibus; pedicellis teretibus, gracilibus, 4 mm. longis, profunde 
llcatisjsepalisd.-hoi.l.Ms, iilifnnni-anmiinaTis, basi incrassatis, 4 nun. 



irregulariterque : 



10. H. stenopetala Kl. in Garten/., iii. 101 (is:$5>. //. I>< ssn-lana 
Hort. Versehaff. Cat. n. IS (1874). //. rnnh/linnnlr, Uak. in Bot. 
Mag. cvii. t. 6554 (1881). II. Prnujln Robinson & (ireenmun in Am. 

MEXICO: 1880, Hort. Kew (c? K, tvpe of // a.nh/linoi,!,*; phot. (S); 

I' M \ hill, h 1 n,l 1 i llu^ , 1,1 u i. ,i . pii'i /'■ - I s ,<K\\c \ 

( ; t\ pc of //. Pringlei; 

• • 20(11)1,. . lv.M. X,!s,m h'.'.il i -■ Ci); 

near Cuicatlan, alt. 550-750 m., 1894, Nelson 1601 i 9 (1); between Totolapa 

and San Carl..- \,i,,„ ;7^; ■ CS ; Santa Catarina 

■■: '- 

1906, Ros ( A- R, n.;,n (,,!„-., \\ l , m(1 () axa ca, 1906, Hose & 

Rose 11296 (9 US); Dept. Etla, Las Sedas. i.lt. L'ooo ,„.. |«»o7 
(9 US); Altui ■ i7(i(i „,.. [mi,;. r,„,zntli nam i 9 (!, 

*M);Tomolln. ! 07 tfonwitfi aoflg , ' FM); 

high mesa east oi I l 5 ; j 9 US) 



(1896). PI. I, fig 53. 
MEXICO (?): 1882, Fort, h 
19. H. reflexa, spec, nov 

cognita, 2 m. alta (! Langla: 



p;ir\-;i snbi 
glabra; bract 
bases steriles acquantibus 



, acutis, quani sepala paulo brevioribus, n 
ltihus; pedicellis gracilibus, 0.5-0.7 mm. li 
'atis, acutis, l.o mm. longis, subliyalii 



20. H. Conzattiana, spec, no v., e fi 

solum cognita, verisimiliter 1 m. alta; I 
laevibus et mox glabris, subtus prominei 



H. sphaeroblasta 



" , ' Starr oi 

H. mexicana, 



lucidi 


i, castaneis; lainini-. anguste t riaiigularibus, a< 


•urn 


inatis, pun- 


gentil 


•us, supra glabris lucidisque, subt 


us uiveo-l 


epi< 


lotis, saepe 


repan. 


dis, dentibus validis, rectis vel un< 


^inatis, ad 


1 


cm. longis, 


brunneis, 2 4 cm. distantibus; scapo ca. 






etro, aetate 


glabra 


i; scapi bracteis triangularibus, a 


cuniinatis, 


subchartaceis, 


dorto 


minutissime denseque albo-lepidutis, 


supremis . 




ii internodia 










paniculata, 


anguste pyramidata; bracteis priinariis eis 


scapi simili 


bus 


, ad 15 mm. 


longis 


: rncernis patentibus, subdensis, sae 


pe interrupts, 


ad 15 cm. 


longis 


, inflmis stipitatis; bracteis norigeris 








subdi] 


nidio aequantibus, brunneis, bya 


liiio-mai-ii 


iati- 


;, nervatis, 


dense 


pallido-lepidotis ; floribus subsessi 


libus, pat( 


■ntil 


>us; sepalis 










;, brunneis. 


acuta 


tis, lepidotis; petalis ovatis, 6 mm. lor 
, 1 cm. longa; carpellis atro-casta 


;^; ',!;;:;,; 


Z. 


"^■"■hirfliis'. 


sparse 


: lepidotis; seminibus apice longc ; 


iimiistr<|iic 




ndatis. PI. 


I. fig. 


60. 








ME 


XICO: San Luis Potosi: Dent, Valles. 






•ilt "00 300 


m., Maury 6593 (FM, type; G). " 








5 dm 


H. elliptica, spec, nov., e planta m 


asoulinaso 


bun 


cognita, ad 


flavfe 


vel castantMs, serrulatis, glabris; lami 


r'ds IniiuM, 


.i-H, 


mgularibus! 




natis. pungentibu.s, 12 cm. latis, 








pictis, 


dense adpresseque niveo-lepidotis se< 


1 supra mo 


x _!, 


ibris, deiiti- 


bua J 


ixis, 4 mm. longis, rectis vel uncin, 




ast; 


meis; scapo 



silibus; sepalis ellii 
hyalino-marginatis ; 
pallido-lepidotis, ad 
01-62. 

MEXICO: Coahuii 
' 25. H. scariosa, 



scapi bracteis 


; late ovatis, a])iculatis, snpmnis pat 


florescentia la 


.xe hi- vel tripinnatim paniculata, pa 


lepidota; brae 


tcis primariis eis scapi similibus; ramis 



28. H. capituligera Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. o4b (lS«ty. 
I, figs. 67-68. 

MEXICO- San Luis Porosr sandv soil near Morales, 1877, Schafftur • 
(G)j near San Lui m., 1878, Parry <* P<*™» 877 



MEXICO: Vera Cruz: Barran. 

fai Mim.lui, IS 12, Lu\„u,nn< ,. „ 
hot. G); Carrizal, 1901, E. A. Goh 
hot. (J;; l-'ortin, KM'.), I'urpus Sn> 
" C; I.j. I'almilla, 1934, Purpvs 
rtaxcanu, 1865, Schotl n.',n , 7 I'M 
7S (c? FM); Maxcanu, MM 7, f,V, 



30. H. confusa, spec, nov., ca. S dm. alta; folioruni lamini- sul>- 
linearibus, acuminatk |>iiii.u-«-n t iluis, _>."> cm. Iiniyis. fi 7 mm. latis, 
crassis, supra fdabris, subtus dense adprcssc<|iie ni\ endepidotis; scape 
7 mm. diametro, tereti, albido-floeculoso, mux <dal>r<>; scapi bracteb 

cylin.lrica, ca. 7» dm. lon^a, albido-Hoi-ciilosa. mux -lal.ra; bractei- 
primariis c latissime ovatis vel sul.orl.ieularibus acuminatis, * cm. 

suhcapitatis; l.ractcis Honoris late matH. obni^is vel late ae.ltis 



MKXIO): IVkh 
Wntfe 7479 (tf | 

The above plai 



31. H. glomerataZucc.Pl. Nov Hon Monac iv 

IhmjUmn, pUraimhvfnUmn Kanv. & /„'.■«• i'„'<;, 
(1838), non Ilnhfn, ^..umi,,, u,li„ \ < -Hot ' l.srs 'l 
M« Hort. ex Ziur. I,,,-, .-it. L':,V insvnnn PI Y'fJ 



32. H. Ghiesbreghtii Lem. in 111. Hort. x. t. 37S (lS(i:n ; Hook f 
in Hot. Ma- xc\i. ,. ; )S | L > , I.S70). //. Mnrmnnnn Mez in DC. M,, n . 

> s '/>•< "'•> C'».^ gravel soil on hills midway be- 
- 



ll Carlos, Cerro Tres Vetas near San Jose, alt. 

00 m., UYM), Bnrtlrtt HUIS > , IS, phot. C.i; -run.. .' 

dnt » } , ; San Luis Potosi: D'Aoust 681 (P, phot, G); Hacienda TeotiUos, 
905, Palmer 609 (rf> 9 G, FM, Mo). 

The original description and illustrations are so vague that I am 

■■Kin-larireh onfheplat<.intheH(»tanicaLMauaxinr,n,-l,ara<-t,Tizin- 



Pitcairnia amblyosperma, spec, nov., s dm. aha; basi et 












Pitcairnia calatheoides, 






arin l 2 iniVm 
I'M '• "m 



Pitcairnia cubensis (Moz) comb n 
^/;,/, Mez in DC. M„„. pi m „ ix '! 
taeuschelvar.r M /«- M ^Mez,W.cit.il74 



Pitcairnia cylindrostachya, 



Pitcairnia densiflora Brongn. in Hort I mv. 



Pitcairnia oaxacana, 



glabris, rubris; petulis lingulatis, ad .~>S mm. lnngis. !>asi ligula am 

rubris; ovario semisupcro; ovulis limge raudatis. PI. II, figs. 16- 

MEXICO: Oaxaca: Cafetal Calvario, alt. 600 in., 1917, B. P. Reko Z 






Pitcairnia pteropoda, s 

t'oliis iniiltis, bulbose rosula 
atro-castaneis, lucidis; lair 
spinas brunneas aculeatas 
transverse deeiduis, linearil 
latis.moxglsd.ris.siiprn lim 



Pitcairnia Purpusii, 



Pitcairnia Roseana, sp 



Pitcairnia Samuelssonii, 






nthocalyx, with whicl 



Pitcairnia saxicola, nom. nov. P. fitlq 

in Otto & Dietr. Gartenzeit. xix. 137 (1851 
splendent Warsz. op. cit. 176 (1851), non Ho: 
iii. 157 (1836). 

Pitcairnia spicata (Lam.) Mez. P. fu 
Cat. 18 (1850), nomen; and ex A. Dietr. in C 



Pitcairnia sylvestris, spec, nov., e fragment! 



COLOMBIA: CATC 

alt. 1200 m., 1936, Kjt 

1 Mez in DC. Mon. 



Without the scape it is impossible to place it in Mez's treat- 



Thecophyllum acuminatum, spec 



as. PL II, figs 



Thecophyllum Standleyi, 



'_'■■■■■■•" i Jerro de las Vueltas, 



Tillandsia Andrieuxii (Mez), comb. nov. 
ar. Andrieuxii Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. be. 731 
Tillandsia Mauryana, spec, nov., pulvina 






Tillandsia melanocrater, ..pec nov., acaulis, hand ultra : 



I primariis scapi supren 



sque, 20-25 mm. longis, 9-12 mm. latis, sepala superai 
ternodia .'! ti-plo longinrihus. valde carinatis, eoriaceis, 
>ris vel ad apicem versus parce lepidotis; floribus subsest 
anceolatis, acutis, posticis aire connatis; petalis tu 
angustis, 30-35 mm. longis, violaceis; staminibus st; 
cap>ulis urarilittT cylindricis, acutis, 3 cm. longis. 



GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: Cot)., Tmrckheim II 

I!"- It l.'ii'O 7iH) in \\Y2\) l> l(/ ( & Thomas 5425 (G); Guanacaste: 



Zone or vicinit\, ui-tnlv ami of 



Tillandsia (§ Platystachys?) Mexiae, spec 



1 Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. ix. 680 (1896). 



MK.\ 
del < Ho 


[ICO: Jalisco: c 

lal, Siena Maiire 
1838 (US, type; 


Til habit, Tilhmdxit 
but its relatively sho 
species. In Mez's kev 
l)ii t differs from it a 



Vriesia Tuerckheimii (Me 



(Plate 

In 1935 in connection with his v 
Technica de Piscicultura do Xonl« 
large collection of plants in the stat 
Pteridophvtos and Phsinerogams t< 
He included with them plants of so 
of Dr. Stillman Wright from Para t 

These plants have yielded a num 
which for the most part arc recor* 
collection, however, lies in the light 

I'ummI „ii material of such collectoi 



s of Para i 



plete list of the collection. For a general account of the collecting and 
the region which it covered see: "Seis niczes <le estudos botanicos no 
Xordeste" by Drouet in Bob Inspect. Fed. Obras Contra Seccas, v. 
pt. 2, H7 (1930). The following arc recommended as aids to a floristic 
study of Ceara and adjoining states: "Travels in the Interior of 
Brazil" l»v Gardner, London I L846); "Plantae Cearenses" by Huber 
in Bull. Herb. Boks. ser. 2, i. 2110 H90I ; " Xotas Botanicas (Ceara)" 
by Loefgren in Minist. Viacao e Obras Publ. Inspect, de Obras Contra 
as Seccas, ser. 1, A, Publ. ii. 1 (1910) and ed. 2 (1023); and "Estudo 
botanico do Nordeste" (3 vols.) by Luetzelburg in Inspect. Fed. 
Obras Secc. Publ. n. 57, ser. I, A. (1922-3). 

Sagittaria Sprucei Michel! in DC. Mon. Phan. iii. 80 (1881). 
PI. II, figs. 39-40. 

■elcm, Drouet 1958 (G). 

. and is correspond- 



Para: shallow water of fish pc 


►ols, Museu 1 


The above 


specimen agree 


•s closely w 


Sagittaria N/, 


men, but read 


ics a heigh 


ingly larger i 


n all its vegeta 


five parts ; 


occurrence in a semicultiva 






nee the vein- im 




to illustrate t 


ind clarify the s 


peeio. It 


S. rnonh-ridvn 


sis, but differs f 




heads. Also 
make the he 


ads appear' bri 





Syngonanthus (§ Dimorphocaulon) Drouetii, 



albido-pilosis; vagmis 
capitulis applanati>, 1 
spathi 



aureo-brunneis, int< 
bus; receptaculo villoso; Horibus 
-pathulatis, ohtusis, -lahris; petali 
3; Horibus feinineis sessilibus: se] 



Para: sandy banks and flat- -I km. x.utl, m \ i^..,, j> ril , u! ;>\\;> { c,, typhi. 

The strikingly large inner bracts of its involucre distinguish S>/n- 
(joiiaiithu.s Droit, Hi from such near relatives as S. simpler and ' N. 
gracilis. In fact its habit much more cl<»elv resembles that «.f > 
nirrus in the Section Kulrpis than it does that of any species in its 

Notylia sylvestris Smith & Harris, spec, nov., radicibus numero- 

cuntractis et breviter conduplieatis, superne plana; scapo brevissinio, 

dense itnbricatis; raeemo deflexo. fere 2 dm. longo, densifioro; bracteis 
florigeris anguste triangularibus, acuminatis, infimis ad 5 mm. longis, 
supremis quam pedicelli brevioribus; Horibus patentibns, aureis, 

H connatis; petalis sepalis similibus; lal.ello sepala subaequanti. 



flowers. 
Mimosa litigiosa Man 



A s,//, . - M ; ,,, i.dy coast, Una 

do Mosqueim, m,,i I'.-n.i. I'.fj'., A •" .. ,\- <■ " v<7 ! \\ ; ' 

, ...,, ; v;; G); Pbbnambuco: Tapem, 

l'«l,/Ve/,v7.W0(G). 

In his treatment of the J7/«f in the Flora Hnoiliensis. Hentham 
reduced Miumm lUiqloxu Mart, to the synonymy of M. vnsiticu IJ 



conceal the buds and give the flowering heads the appearance of burs. 
On the other hand typical M. .fcnsitica (PI. II, figs. 4(5-47) has floral 
bracts that are entire except for the terminal macro and so short that 
the flowers usually have to be pried apart to disclose them. Compare 
Breyn. cent. 31, t. 16 cited by Linnaeus. 

Martius failed to note the floral bracts of M . Utigiosa but Bentham 
in describing the species in Hooker's Journal of Botany wrote: "brac- 
teolis peetLiato-ciliatis corollam aequantibus vel superantibus." 

Helicteres heptandra, spec, now, arbuseula, ad 3 in. alta; ramis 
a« lu hi- glabris, cortice atro-brunneo obtectis, apice supremo pallide 
stellato-tomentosis; foliis disticbis, usque ad S mm. petiolatis, petiolo 
graeili, stipulis Iinearibus, 5 mm. longis, lamina 50 75 mm. longa, 
35-45 mm. lata, late ovata \ el elliptiea. abrupte acuminata, basi late 
con lata, supra sparsissimestellato-tomentosa, subtus dense minuteque 
stellato-tomentosa, irregulariter vel dupliciter serrata; inflorescentia 
e diehasiis \~\\ bi- vel quadrifloris 2-8 mm. longe stipitatis; pedicellis 
1-3 mm. longis; prophyllis Iinearibus, integris, 7 mm. longis; floribus 
erectis, androecio excepto actinomorphis; ealyce stibcylindrico, IS -21 
mm. longo, 3.5-4.5 mm. diametro, pallide rubeseenti. extus pilis 
stellatis et longe stipitatis vestito; lobia triangularibus, filiformi- 
acuminatis, 4.5 mm. longis; petalis inclusis, II mm. longis, limbis 
cuneato-spathu latis, 2.5 mm. latis; gynophoro recto, 35 40 mm. Iongo, 
-nnili, minimum,- [dh.Mib.; .taminibu. tertilibu- 7, alteri, omnino 
abortivis;filamentis2mm. longis; antheris 1.5 mm. longis, staminodiis 
2 mm. longis; frueto spirali, ad 24 mm. long..; t'ollieulis dorso earinatis, 
longe rostratis. PI. II, figs. 48-49. 

Ceara: woods, Ayude Sao Bento, Municipio de Maranguape, H. W. Cumin 



Clusia Drouetiana, spec, now, arbor, 7 m alta; ramulorum 
internodiis 25-30 mm. longis; foliis sessilibus, <,blaneeolatis, latissime 
acutis, basi cuneatis, 14 cm. longis, li em. latis, opaeis, nervis laterali- 
bus patentibus, ex sicco utrinque cum nervo collectivo a margine 1 
mm. remoto prominentibus, margine angustissime cartilagineo pallide 
Mnareo; panicula terminali, quam folia breviore, pauciflora; ramulis 
compressis; bracteolia late ovatis, 5 mm. longis, earinatis; floribus 
nmx-uhs solum cognitis, 55 mm. diametro; sepalis S, late ovatis vel 
elhpticis, ext.mis 5 mm. intimis 11 mm. longis; petalis 8, obovatis, 



ccis, aureis; receptaculo leviter convexo; synandrio carpellorum rudi- 
mentis destituto; staminibus liberis, numerosissimis, 2.5 mm. longis; 
thecis antherarum angustis, connectivo lato separatis, parte '■<■ , 
superiore rimula longitudinal]' dehiscente. PL II, fig. 50. 



According to the treatment in the second edition of KnglerV 
PHanzenfa milieu' tins species should helong to the Section Cliiitiasfriini. 
It is unusual in a number of characters, notably the sessile vinaceous- 
margined leaves and the large number of sepals. The perianth looks 
much like the illustrations of C. viscidu and C. hisigni* in Martius's 
Flora Brasiliensis 2 at first glance but the sepals are more numerous and 
the inner ones irregularly imbricate instead of decussate. 

Jacquemontia asarifolia, spec, now, suffruticosa, magna; minis 
ad 6 dm. longis, leviter curvatis, dense fulvo-tomentosis ; folds late 
vel latissinie ovatis, late obtusis, basi cordatis, 4 cm. longis, ad 3N nun. 
latis, concoloribus, utrinque dense fulvo-tomentosis. petiolo 2 I cm. 
longo; pedunculis lateralibus et terminalibus, 50-65 mm. longis; 
cymis laxiuscule 7-13-floris; bracteolis minutissimis; pedicelhs 
gracilibus, ad 2 mm. longis; sepalis ellipticis, valde inaequalibus, 
exterioribus acutis, 4 mm. longis, tomentosis, interioribus 2 truncatts. 
2 mm. longis, glahris; corolla late iniundilmlitormi. 7 mm. longa. 
caerulea, lobis brevissimis, obtusis; stigma bdobo, lohis angustis; 
capsula ignota. PI. II, figs. 51-52. 

Ceara: dry rocky hillsides about Acude Cedro, Municipio de Quixada, 
Drouet 2395 (G, type). 

Because of the welter of unorganized species in Janjin ■ mnntm it is 
impossible to assign any position in the genus to ./. asiinjnlin or to t ie 
following species. Simply they do not. fit any known species that an 
exhaustive check can bring to light. .... • 

Jacquemontia saxicola, spec, now, veri 

bus, utrinque dense fulvo-tomentosis. petiolo 2- 4 cm. Iongo; pe uncu- 
Hs ad 75 mm. longis; cymis densis, sine corolhs 2 cm. diametro, 
bracteolis linearibus, quam sepala paulo brevionbus; pedicelhs 
brevissimis; sepalis ovatis, acuminatis, tomentosis, valde inaequalibus 
exterioribus ad 7 mm. longis, interioribus multo minonbus; corolla 



1 Pflanzenf. ed. 



Bacopa cochlearia, comb. 
lull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, i. 323 ( 

Clara: sandy flats about Lagoa 



Comanthera, & mi. now 

edieellati: peri^onia ad v: 
tamen unicum; anthera lc 

'lores ieniini sessiles: sepal 

Comanthera Linderi, 



( closely resemble the flowers ot 
ind free petals. The staminate 



Neodryas latilabia, 


spec, no 




.■piphvtira, 




r brcvi; pseudobulbis ovatis, 


compressis, 


nun. hiti- 




-ini, folia- 


•cis ( 


Jistichis ob 


ligulato, 


apiculato, 12 ci 


n. longo, 1 


6 m 


m. lato; s« 


ad 18 cm 


. alto, valde co 


napresso; s< 


:-api 


vaginis par 












1-2 mm. 


lun^i.-.; floribus 


glabris; sepali 


is rubris, in 


apiculato 


, 5 mm. longo, 


carinato, 1 




dibus in lai 




iter cxcisam "> 








apiculatis, 6 mm. longis 


, rubris, li 


ite i 


iiirautiacn-i 


ambitu h 


ire obcordato, 6 mm. lon£ 




.") mm. lato 




nguiculo late cuncato scd 






formi; column a 2..J mm. 






drica, basi 


in pedem 


i brevem produ 


eta; ovari< 


» cum podicello 


Figs- a c 











Neodryas reniformis, 






40 




SMITH AM 


) HAKKIt 


ES? ^ s d 


avifun. 


•: fl :™r b c' 


;;;;;'■";;:;; 


Figs. d-g. 

BOLIVIA: La ] 

(G, TYPE). 


*.:N« 


Yungas, Unc 


,„.,.. 



of its lip and the short ventrally produced column. 

Notylia Amesii, spec, nov., epiphyta; folio ligulato, obtuso, 14 
cm. longo, :i.") mm. lato, piano; scapo gracili, 6 cm. longo; sctipi vagims 
parvis, ovatis, remotis; racemo recto, 3 dm. longo, dense multifloro; 
brncteis dcltoideis, 1-4 mm. longis; floribus reflexis, glabris, viridibus 
et albis; sep.ilis patentihus, intermedin oblongn-elliptico, obtuso, 
curvato, obtuse carinato, 6 mm. longo, lateralibus in laminam ellip- 
ticam bicarinatam breve excisam f> mm. longam connatis; petalis 
deflexis, anguste ellipticis, acutis, 5.5 mm. longis; labello supero, 
unguiculo gracilitcr subeylindrico, latcraliter compresso, 1.2 mm. 
longo, limbo late cordato, acuto, 0.8 mm. longo, lateris erectis, 
apice decurvato; columna cylindrica, gracili, 3 mm. longa ; ovano 
cum pedicello 7 mm. longo. Figs. h-k. 

BRITISH GUIANA: between the Demerara and Berbice Rivers, hit. 
about .V .')()' N., iic_>'_>. Cruz ta: J ,(;, tyi-k; NY>. PERU: Loreto: Mishuya- 
cu, near Iquitos, alt. 100 m., 1930, Khig 999 (Ames). 







column X 5, fig. c, extei 

i io. t, extended lip X ."), no. ir. eulunn 

;;x r ; ; ;';'l u - n ;:v; , : 1 1 , l ;: , 1 ;: , ' 1 :'i; 1 ^r 


irXl, fig. e, lateral view of lip X 5, 



COM'IUB. Ck.W IlKKH. C.WII 




*/ 



m% 






# '" '' i '-"^' 



Jm At 



■ '■ § 



n 



4tP 



'\ 



v i b 



K 






T 5 s [4 J 



6. Cvroi'sis Lundklliaxa L. 15. Smith (Lvn<lrll H256), i 

7. Same, primary bract and spike X 1. 

8. Same, sepal X 1. 

9. Catopsis Montana L. B. Smith (Ekimm W555 K U \ 

and branch X 1. 

10. Same, sepal X 1. 

11. Catopsis sessiliflora (It. & P.) Mez (Shafer 8688), t 

12. Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Gris. (Shafer SaOS), sepal > 

13. Guzmania guatemalensis L. B. Smith (H. Johm 

14. Guzmania Sneidernii L. B. Smith (Sneidern 695), 

upper scape X Yi- 

15. Guzmania stknostachya L. B. Smith (Si>n«llrn 

16. Guzmania subcorymbosa L. B. Smith (KiBip 5059), 

17. Guzmania Wrightii L. B. Smith (Wright 1523 c. p 

18. Same, expanded sepal X 1. „ „ „ . 

19. Hechtia dichroantha J. D. Smith (0. F. Cook), i 

20. Same, sepal X 5. . 

21. Hechtia Purpusii Brande^ec (I'urpxs s.',2<h, Moral l 

22. Same, sepal X 5. 

23. Same, petal X 5. 

24. Hechtia linduanioidks I, B. Smith •Lu-hmunn ;.»■> 

9 flower X 1. 

25. Same, sepal X 5. 

26. Same, petal X 5. _ , . 

27. Hechtia podamha Mez I'm,;,!, ( sv7 ( \s\), floral bra 

flower X 1. 

28. Same, floral bract and <? flower X 1. ^ 

30. Mi.:cmMA l,1 |'|.:nirKi!i.ATA Watson U'ringlc 2970), flc 

31. S;,niM/Vi>«//, ■::>.;', , floral bra.'t and <? flower X 1. 

32. ilMiiin . i immii -i~ M. />«»« 0374), floral 

33. Same *(//." / ' »d <? flower X . 1 

34. Hechtia epigyna Harms (Rozynski ,1*1), floral bract 

35. Same, sepal X 5. _ 

36. Same, section of pedicel, petal and stamen x o. 

37. Same I •' novve , r « , , 

38. Hechtia Montana Brandegee (Bravdeije, i, floral m 

39. Same, 'floral bract and cT flower X 1. 



•II. II.-.. nix ( ,, Mez l'ri.,,,,1, !,,<>;>, section ol rhaeli 

and 9 flower X I. 
52. Same, floral bract and cf flower X 1. 



54. Hechtia keflexa L. B. Smith (Lunulas' US) 


floral brad and u^ 


flower X 1. 




55. Same, sepal X 5. 






(lomvz 3501), floral 






57. Hechtia siMi.\|.:uoi 1 i.Asr\'l{„l,i, l .s () ii iAY/.s-,m #)!J, } 








58. Hechtia texensik Watson \U,mtnl sr,,, floral bra< 




5!l. Same, sepal X 5. 




60. Hechtia mexicana L. B. Smith (Maury >/7.v.;,, flon 


d bract and 9 flower 



65. Hechtia zacatecae L. B. Sr 

66. Same, sepal X 5. 

67. Hechtja capitulioera Mez (/ 

6S. Same, floral bract and c? Howe: 



Fig. 1. Hechtia g 
flower X 1. 



Same', base of petal 


X 2. ' 


Same, ovule much e 






Same, floral bract ai 


.1 Howe 






Same, petal X 1. 




















Same, anterior sepal 


X 1. 



'-'I. Same, sepal X L. 

X 1. 
23. Same, sepal X 1. 

25. Same, old sepal X 1. 



imii (Mez) L. 



I.""). Same. Horal bract and flower ) 



50. Clusia Drouetiana L. B. Smith (Drouet 2101), flowei 

51. Jacquemoxti a \s\mroi.i\ I.. B.Smith i Drouet 2-W>), 

52. Same, calyx X 2. 

53. Jacquemontia saxicola L. B. Smith {Drouet 2485), c; 

54. Bacopa cochlearia (Huber) L. B. Smith (Drourt i 

55. Comanthera Lim>i:ki L. 15. Smith [Under 40), head ) 

56. Same, 9 sepal X 10. 



Hechtia (continued). 



Bromeliaceae, 1, 3, 2o. 
Catopsis Beii. 

delicatula, I. ». n. 

floribunda, 5, 7, 8. 

fulgens, 7, 8. 

juncifolia, 6. 

Lundelh 

montana, 6, 41. 



i Drouetiana, £ 



Comanthera, 38. 

Linden, 3N, 44. 
Dasylirion pitcairniael'nlium, 2:1. 
Dyckia Desmetiana, 14. 



latPii lie] 



Sneidernii, 9, J 
stenostachya, 
subcorymbosa, 




diehroantha, 1 1, It, * 
elliptica, 13, 20, 42. 



.vosperma, 23, 
43. 
calatheoides, 24, 43. 



* Drouetii, 34, 35, 43. 



cylindrostachya, 2 
Decaisnei, 29. 
densiflora, 25. 

fulgens, 29. ' 
latifolia, 25. 






§Lulepis, U 
Thecophyllum ac 
Standleyi, 3U, 3 

stenophyllum, 31 



ESS 

Pogospermuin ': 
Rondonanthus, 38, 39. 

'•■vidt'iwk :; \ 
Sprurei, 34, 43. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Notes on Silphium. Lily M. Perry 

The Nomenclature of tlie WrtiVilliite Kiipjitoriti. K. M. 

WlEGAND AND C. A. Wl 



;.,\va. M. L. Fkrxalp and Eudlow Griscom 
Jomenelatural Transfers and new Varieties and Forms. 
M. L. Fernald 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Notes on Silphium. Lily M. Perry 281 

The Nomenclature of the Yerticillate Eupatoria. K. M. 

WlEGAND AND C. A. WeATHERBT 297 

Notes on Diodia. M. L. Fernald and Ludlow Gbiscom 306 
Nomenclature Transfers and new Varieties and Forms. 

M. L. Fernald 309 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY-NO. CXVIII 

I. NOTES ON SILPHIUM 

Lily M. Perry 

The genus Silphium ranging from the mid-Atlantic and southern 

States to the western prairie-region is most diverse in the boutn. 

Here the speeies are more numerous and, owing to the high vanabihtj 

of the chapters, specific lines are rather difficult to detern^ej* 

deavor to order up the he^armm -er^.s treatment 

hel ^ S. Wo (1003) and ^ 

1408-1415 (1033), have also been useful in evaluating the more recent 
^iTrindebted to Dr. H. A. Gleason of the New York Botanical 

r . ,; ;;, w \l m,™ »f ^ v^\ **** ***** Herbanum 

" I I)r' H K Svenson of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden for the priyi- 

,'" , ' vmoU stvp<s and other specimens in their herbaria. 

leg Tr*^ ■-., the heads afford the best deter- 

„„;,;,,; vet these are not too definite. The achenes are 

in« to the somewhat fickle development of the 

achenes, with teeth lacking and wmg-margms 

' ., „,.,,. tvunul in three species and m others a 

a^jSKiSr-TS^t--. 



2 8 2 Rhodora [August 

fairly reliable as to shape and, with few exceptions, their pubescence 
or the lack of it is significant. Leaf-arrangement may be opposite, 
alternate and verticillate in the same species; since this is true of more 
than one species, it is an unsafe and misleading, though often used, 
key-character. One collector notes "This stalk with some fifteen 
others grew from one and the same root. Seven of the stalks bore 
opposite leaves and nine bore three and four leaves in a whorl. That 
is— the seven— S. integrifolium— and the nine S. trifoliatum were 
one and (the same)." As a matter of fact all were S. integrifdwm. 
Likewise, pubescence, a mixture of varying degrees of coarse and fine 
trichomes, is somewhat inconstant in quantity on stems, peduncles 
and leaves. 

Since single characters vary widely, character-combinations have 
been used wherever possible as a means of determining species. In 
the following key it should be noted that, even when the plant as a 
whole is glabrous, leaves, brads of the involucre.* and ehajl'-lij's are 
usually, at least in some slight degree, ciliate. 
a. Leaves or their petiolar bases connate-perfoliate. 

Stemglaln. ,-hhrous 1. -V i>erjnlmtii»,. 

Stem hirsute with widely spreading or retrorse hairs: 

involucral bracts pubescent 2. * s - coiiitanun. 

b. Involucral bracts foliaceous, if becoming somewhat coria- 
ceous in age, not long-acuminate: leaves entire or various- 
ly toothed or lobed, if pinnate or bipinnatifid restricted 
to the basal and lower part of the stem . . . . c. 
c. Involucral bracts not at all coriaceous, more or less 
spreading and usually squarrose at the tips: leaves dis- 
tributed up the stem . . . . d. 
d. Achenes with relatively broad wing (usually 2 or more 
mm. wide at base of sinus tapering to a margin of 1 
mm. or more) and deep sinus (2-4 mm.). . . .e. 
e. Heads mbose: leaves of firm 

texture, usually opposite or alternate but at times 
vertieillute, lance- to hroad-ovate, the upper ses- 
sile by a rounded or subcordate base ..../. 
/. Bracts loosely spreading with reflexed tips, the 

"~ ■■■ ■ 

cral bracts rough-hispid 3. S. aspnnmum. 

Stem and peduncles glabrous and glaucous: in- 
volucral bracts glabrous on both surfaces. .4. S. speciosum. 
f. Bracts slightly spreading with reflexed tips (heads 
appearing more compact than in the above 
named species), the inner oblong-ovate to elon- 
gate-oblong. 

on the upper exposed tips) to almost glabrous: 
"» to oblong-ovate 



Perry,— Notes on Silphium 283 



Involucre! bracts pubescent 






Involucral ' • < » J Var - ^*'""" ! - 

Involucral bracts glabrous on both surfaces; 
the inner elongate-oblong and obtusish or 
rounded: wing-tips of achenes lance-acumi- 

nate Var. Gathngen. 

s. Heads few "(2^5) and irregularly arranged: leaves 
membranous, opposite or alternate, ovate-obiong 

to oblong- or elongate-lanceolate g. 

ppei leaves few 
and abrupt -^ ^ . . Q. S. gr<mle. 

q. Stem stouter and rigid: leaves gradually reduced 
Involucre coarsely hirsute, filiate with hi- 

chomes about 2 mm. long •• ••• '• ' ■ h "' n """■ 

Involucre somewhat scabrous or puberulent, 

u. long. 

Petiolar bas tuspidulous; 

trichomes with markedly bulbous bases: 

• involucral bracts ovate tending toward ob- 

ovate: chaff-tips spa.sely glandular-pubes- g ^.^^.^ 

Pe ch°omes with ^nly^bghtly bulbous bases: 

> - ..^ .■■-■:.■■; ' ■ ^ : 

margin of 1 mm. or less) and comparatively shallow 

;.. rarely more) h. 

, p^umir. aid nut. Unceolate involucral bracts 
bigpidulous. B ... 

Ruminate and usually squarrose tips: chaff tips 
minutely % . „ mw win _ 9 S . Gatesii. 

-!=- St*-" 00 ' 

Btacts of the involucre loosely erect , ml h acute 



^reading-ere/. h r : .-halT-ti^ hispidulous, 

A Pedundes U a d nd involucral bracts glabrous or finely 

i EhSSta minutely Pubescent, not glandular: 

*- C S?Srrar.V.I, L,.lu.-,.- with spreading to 

reflexed tips J. „inhmns A\ 

* ftssr 8 ^?3££ 8 ,: 

lar base: achenes obovate or elliptic with 
wing-tips acute or obtusish...- »'• 



Plant with at least the upper surface of 
the leaves pubescent: leaves chiefly 
vcrti.ilhitc though often opposite or 

\chpiip with sinus; wing at least 0.5 ( 



Plant glabrous: leaves opposite (at least 

•ecimens seen) Var. lahfoln 

k. Leaves chiefly basal, the upper greatly re- 
duced: achenes with very shallow sinus and 

minute teeth 14. S. confertifotn 

j. Peduncles and involucral bracts finely pubescent. 

. Chaff-tips minutely glandular-pubescent: involu- 
cral bracts glabrous, the outer usually with 
strongly reflexed tips: leaves opposite or alter- 



s: peduncles glabrous or occasionally 
rous: achenes with rounded wing-tips or 

s of achenes 1-2.5 mm. deep, up t 



. Hi. N. (Irnlaliim. 



Stem pubescent: leaves narrowly lanceolate: 
achenes with wing-tips at times slightly con- 
stricted at base of si 
Involucral bracts becoming s 
spreading erect, rounded a1 



the outer only sliglit.lv shorter than the second and 
about half the length of the inner. 
Petiole longer than the blade. 

Leaves pinnatifid or lobed Var. [rintiahjitium. 

base 18. S. rutmdfoltwn. 

. Involucre 1-2.5 cm. broad: bracts in three or four 

series, the inner gradually longer than the outer p. 

p. Leaves usually with petiole longer than the blade: 
achenes cuneate-obovate to obovate, 5-6.5 (-8.5) 

Leaf-blades longer than broad, variously cut or lobed 
or pinnatifid. 

sparsely pubescent (rarely rough pubescent) 

. . . Forma orae. 



9 37] Perry,— Notes on Silphium - 

Leaf-blades usually broader than long, merely den-^ ^^ 

v . Leases uith petiul, AvnUn than m /'MuaW the 
blade : achenes orbicular or suborbicular, 6-10 mm. 

Involucre 1 .5-2 cm. broad; achenes 6-8 mm. long; 

wing-tips somewhat triangular, at base of sinus 

about 2.5 mm. broad: smaller veins oi leaves^ ^^ 
Involucre 2 -2 o em bond :.,!,.•..- S-10 mm long; 

wiM-tipa rounded, at base of sinus 6.5-4 mm. 

broad: smaller veins of leaves mconspicuous.^ ^.^ 

b. Involucral bracts thick, becoming ^ coriaceous ir i age long- 

:„Miitu.i:.t.-: leav- ■ :• } mm ) 

and awns tending to project beyond the vung-ups. g ^^ 
Ra^^SlowraSes- oboVateW with \sludlo " 



fnv^Lcral 2 bri h and peduncles hispid or scabrous^ ^..^ 
InvduSbractsand peduncles' hispiduhms to pul^eent ^ 

and glandular " 

1 S perfoliate L Svst. ed. 10: 1232 (1759), Sp. PL ed 2: ii. 

, .. Iowa, Mo., S. D., Neb., Kans. and Okla. 
This species is so readily recognized that it seems nnnecessar., 
cite specimens. «••••• 0009 

2 S connatum L. Mant. ii. 574 (1771); Will.1. >r II ,-■;■;- 

J;S:;iSS."« », »■»- -« s —•'- H .,,„„ „, s 

\lthoueh this SMtttm has been regarded as a mere a 

rnr^n^rp n ^^^ r ^*^^ 

sessile, not pe.iolate as m V ,» V ,,,1 this leaf- 

who collected this species in Virginia, - 

n.rharium unless otherwise designate (NY, 
■ Specimens cited are at .barium: B, Brooklyn Botanic 



286 



Rhodora [August 



character and volunteered the information that the petiolate leaves 
are basal. Unfortunately, mature heads are too scarce for much 
dissection. The above citations represent all the material of this rare 
species in the three herbaria named. 

3. S. asperrimum Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 99 (1835). S. radula 
Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vii. 341 (1840). Mo., Okla. and 
Texas. Missouri: Campbell, B. F. Bush, no. 6395. Oklahoma: 
Fonts, Lincoln Countv. August 2C, 1S95. •/. 11'. lilunhi nship. Texas: 
without data, Drummond, no. 193, Lindheimer, no. 257 of Fasc. II; 
prairies, Dallas, /.'. Hull. no. 322; slopes and margins of creeks under 
thickets, New Braunfels, July, 1851, L'mdfo inter, no. 610; Sequin, 
B. H. A. Grotk, no. 188; southwestern Texas, September, 1879 to 
October, 1XX0, /■.'. Buhner, no. 599; western Texas, lirrerehon, no. 89. 
Probably Texas (labeled N. Mex., 1852), C. Wright, no. 1408. 

A plant fairly easy to recognize by its chiefly alternate leaves, 
coarse pubescence, large heads and broad-winged achenes. The fol- 
lowing specimens are somewhat atypical, tending to have smooth 
stems and scabrous peduncles— Oklahoma: Clinton, E. J. Palmer, 
no. 12578. Texas: Dallas, June, 1875, ./. Reverchon; Tarrant County, 

4. S. speciosum Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vii. 341 (1840). 
N. luf, qrifnUum, ■>. larvc T. &. G. Fl. N. Am. ii. 279 (1842). N. integn- 
folium, var. nn snehnrum Benke in Khodora, xxxiv. 10 (1932). Mo., 
Ark.?, Neb., Kans. and Okla. Plains of Arkansas, Snttnll (probably 
part of the TYPE-collection ». Missouri: common along railroad, 
Sheffield, Hush, no. 1743; rocky woods, Southwest City, Bush, no. 
10175. Nebraska: Verdigris River, V. CI, incuts, no. 2721; Lincoln, 
August 4, 1S9X, ./. M. Hutrs (in part); Red Cloud, July 27, 1903, 
Halts. Kansas: prairie, Riley County, J. B. Norton, no. 251 ; banks 
of Smith Pork of Solomon River, within 5 miles of Osborne City, C. I. 
Shear, no. 179; Claflin, //. C. Brake, no. 5176 inn -collection of V 
inhgrifnlimn, var. mesoehurum). Oklahoma: near Ponca, (1. IP. 
Strrcns, no. 1916; Cherokee Nation, August IS, 1X95, ./. II'. Bhnkhi- 

This species is easily distinguished from N. intvgrijolhim by its 
glabrous and glaucous stem and peduncles as well as by its larger and 
somewhat looser heads with more broadly ovate inner involucral 
bracts. Moreover, S. speciosum is a plant of the western prairie 
rather than of the central region of the United States. Possibly it 
intergrades with S. asperrimum causing the atypical specimens men- 
tioned under that species. 

5. S. iNTEORiKoi.i. m Michx. PI. Bor.-Am. ii. 146 (1803). S integ- 
rif,tHuin,\»r.len„ihn„ Woo.l, Class 15k. «■<!. 2: :'.36 MX 17). Ind.,Tenn., 



193 7] Perry —Notes on Silphium - >s " 

Miss., 111., Mo. and Kans. Indiana: sandy soils along the n.nbnie 
•>W miles smith of I'urcell. C C /W. no. ■ > h.«U ; s;md> bank. Lak. 
Cicotte, B. C. Mwff, no. 6419 (NY ■ M..s.ssi,'..i: pra.nes ae- 
nola County, August 18, 1898, II U rt .M . In- - 
data, Aicfcfey; near Olney, B. Ihdgu-ay, no ,8,, At .en, A. ^. ■ 
1863, E. JfaH (B); prairies near Oquawka //. A . / utt i«;» iMb 
Missouri- dry hills of prairie, St. Louis, tf. ffeprfj Jul* -<- '*'■ • 
S (B). Kansas: Atdnson County, August, 1866, 6'. feaifcm*** 

( \r. Deamii, var. nov., var. typica, simiUima differt involums 
glanduloso-pubeseentihus. Inc., Ala.. M- ■ N —■■ »■• ; M ' , /, 
Ark. Indiana: ri^ht..! ;"" ™ ^,, .V : 

no. 54369; 1 mile east of Dana, Dcam, no. 543/0 ( n ■ _"J • l 
along roadside, 1^ miles north ot Tal. ),-.„», n °" S 15 ^^^ 
woods, Kasi Chicago, 0. E.La.mng Jr no 2577. Alaba. . 
roadside thickets near Marion, September 1 JS^ •'■ ^ ^ 

waukee, la/./,, M-.j^,.. N Fountain- 

County, September, 1883 1L *■ ? a f? ( ^-W nQ mQ . mea dow on 
dale, M. S. 5* Stony Maud, //. ■ ■• • ^ 

State St., near 81st St., Chicago, „ us 2, 1899, 

Chicago, July 20, 1895, II . -V J/ojM, Cham p. n. An 

Normal, Auuum!ss,/>/ 1( ;; , ^ •■ ^ ^ ^ ( , m , { 

Connt,. September 11. 1S67. ./. .1.1//" • £ -' »<l" £ h ._. _ 

/,,,,,. "no. 1266 in part. Missoi m: Ma- 1 (.t>. A. '^ 
no. 38 (NY 7 ). Arkansas: Little Rock, J/, a. •• v < ^ 

A somewhat wider geographic range and the glam 11 osit\ <> >< 
■ . nprp , .,.„ t h e onlv marked differences between ar. 1 

and found the involucres not glandular. ^^ ^^ ^.^ 

Var. Qattingeri, var. nov.. invol" mceolatia vd 

intcrioribns elonpii..- .,..„., ,,„ t j s . Tf.nnks- 

H ™!: varies is distinguished ^ ^^J^S^ 

volueres, the elongate-oblong and 

and the obovate^lliptie aehen, '^ 'J ^ ,„.... 

Although in some specimens of typ t|lc , 

,1,, i„v..h,.™l 1-racs arc almost glabrous (UM.alK . 



upper exposed surface) the inner involucral bracts are ovate and the 
wing-tips of the achenes are broader; however, owing to the great 
variability of the character of the wing-tips and the fact that Deam's 
no. 54369 has very long narrow wing-tips it seems best to keep this 
distinctive specimen as a variety. 
6. S. gracile Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. viii. 653 (1873). Loui 



April 15, 1911, R. S. Cocks (NY); prairies, 

rles, I 



Fee, vicinity of Lake Charles, K. K. Mn-k, „-.!, . no. 465 (NY). 

Texas: Laporte, Rcvcrchon, no. 3989; Cypress City, near Houston, 
Rcvcrchon, no. 748; III, without data, Drummond, no. 193. 

No other species with broad-winged achenes has so greatly reduced 
and remote cauline leaves. 

, Gard. xvii. 125 (1906). 

The obvious characters of S. Rcvcrchon i are the shaggy pubescence 
and the hirsute-hispid and long-ciliate involucral bracts. The heads 
are as large as some of those of S. asperrimwn, but the former is 
readily distinguished from the latter by the narrowly lanceolate upper 
leaves as well as by the pubescence. 

8. S. Simpsonii Greene, Pittonia, iv. 44 (1899). Florida: in damp 
ground in pine barrens, Palma Sola, Julv 8, 1890, ./. //. Simpson (type 
in F. S. Nat. Herb.); Bradentown, S. i'l. Iran,, no. 7473; hammocks, 
Myers, A. S. Hitchcock, no. 166. 

The large nearly orbicular and very broadly winged achenes are a 
distinctive feature of this species. 
Yar. Wrightii, var. nov., petiolis et basi foliorum hispido-hirsutis; 

Hal . Texas without data, 1848, C. Wright (type in Gray Herb.); 
Kingsbury, Guadalupe County, K. ./. Palmer, no. 11649. 

Var. Wrightii differs from the typical in the longer pubescence of 
the petioles and petiolar bases, the more distinctly ovate or lanceo- 
late involucral bracts and the non-glandular chaff-tips. Although 
without <lata, the Wright specimen, since it is a complete plant with 
base and mature fruit, has been chosen as the type. 

9. S. Gatesii Mohr in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 793 (1901). 
Ga., Tenn., Ala., Mo., Ark. and Okla. Georgia: woods, west slope of 
Lookout Mountain, May 30, 1911, J. R. Churchill TENNESSEE: 
fence-rows, Lookout Mountain, Aug 29 1883 ./ D Smith: drv 
rocky hillside, Bull Run, west of Nashville. //. K. Snnton. no. 7326. 
Aeahama: woods, St. Bernard, June 26, Mm. IF. Wnlf; Tensaw, >. 
M. Tracy, no. 8937; without data, Bigrlou; lim-kln,. Missoeki: dry 



1937] Perry,— Notes on Silphium 289 

rocky ground, Shannon County, July 22, 1891, B. V. Bush; Monteer, 
Buxh, nos. 162, 6536; Pleasant Grove, A". K. Marhvzir, no. 350; 
rock\ glades near Pontine, A. ./. /V»/r/\ no. 33204. Arkansas: 
along Favrtteville-Gosheii highway, June 26, 1923, ./. '/'. /*//rW-. 
(NY). Oklahoma: Cherokee Nation, August IS. 1895, ./. R . Blank- 

The leaves of S. Gatcsii vary greatly in width and, when the speci- 
men shows the lower part of the stem as well as the tip, very often the 
upper leaves are broader than the lower. The type, dry exposed 
sterile places, Cullman, Alabama, June 28, 1895, C. Mohr (US, no. 
784332) is intermediate between the extremes. Achenes with a shal- 
low sinus, somewhat acuminate involucral bracts and glandular- 
pubescent chaff-tips are the strongest characters of this species. 

Forma truncatum, f. now, achaeniis truncatis. Tennessee: vic- 
inii\ of Nashville,' August, Gattinger in Curtiss N. A. Pi, no. 1386 
(type in Gray Herb.). Alabama: Tensaw, S. M. 1 racy, no. 8010. 

This form differs from the species only in the achenes which have a 
wing about 0.2 mm. wide and a truncate apex. 

10. S. Mohrii Small in Bull. Torr. Bot CI. nv. 493 (1897). 
Georgia: Lookout Mountain, July, 1900, A. Ruth ( N V. 1 f.nn k>si i : 
dry oak barrens, Tullahoma, H. K. Srn^ot,, no. 4264; un.hrrland 
Mountains, Julv. !S97. ./. .1/. Bah, (NY). Alabama : uplamUyo.b. 
St. Bernard, July 12, 1934. W. Wolf: Cullman ( ounty, Sept. 2->, 1S9S, 
Eggcrt (NY). 

This species is readily distinguished from S. Gatem, the one most 
resembling it superficially, by the shaggy pubescence of the stem and 
leaves, the spread in-erect involucral bracts, the round.sh-obovate 
achenes with spreading teeth and the hispid chaff-tips. 

11. S. BRACHIATUM Gattinger in Hot. Gaz. ix 192 < 1SS4). T^nks- 

tains. Franklin Co., Sept. 10, 1S9S. h.ggrrt (N\| V 

vv.„„! on linn-ton, slopes of plateau, southeast of Woodland Mills, 

Morgan County, H. M. Harper, no. 3112 (NY). 

Definitely petioled leaves with truncate or subhastate bases an.h. 
very open glabrous inflorescence of small heads, involucres I . cm- 
broad, 1-1.5 cm. high, are the outstanding character 
distinct species. Since its relationship to the remannng sp. u . ; „ 
.-,,,„. i. m.i olni-.us. it is interesting to note that Gattm,,,^ -I- 
|, ( ,i„ n h !ls suborbicular achenes with the apex scarcely .......^ . ■ ■ ■ 

I ,l„, „■;,„ about 1 mm. wide; Harper s no. 311- Has .nun, , 



with a definite sinus and better developed wing. This is just one in- 
stance of the instability of the achene-characters. 

12. S. ATROPURPUREUM Retz. in Willd. Sp. PI. iii 3 . 2334 (1804). 
West Virginia: gravelly strand of stream, 2 miles west of White 
Sulphur, L. F. & F. R, Randolph, no. 1241. Virginia: rich dry woods, 
Great Neck, Fernald, Griscom & Long, no. 4711; Wytheville, July 25, 
1875, H. Shriver (B). 

In two of the three specimens at hand there are good elliptical 
achenes larger than any found in a series of specimens of S. trifoliatum 
and lacking the obovateness characteristic of those of the latter species. 
These achene characters and the hirsuteness of the petiole are the 
essential features of S. atropurpvrewn. It is surely very closely re- 
lated to S. trifoliatum and further material may prove it to be only a 
variety of the latter. At present it seems best to look upon it as a 
rare and possibly a relic species maintaining itself in a few undisturbed 

13. S. TRIFOLIATUM L. Sp. PI. ii. 920 (1753). N. temifnliinii Miclix. 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 146 (1803). S. ternatum Retz. in Willd. Sp. PL iii 8 . 
2333 (1804). Pa., Ohio and Ind. south to N. C. and possibly Tenn. 
Pennsylvania: meadows, Mercersburg, August, 1852, T. C. Porter; 
dry woods, 3 miles east of Waynesburg, S. S. Dickey, no. 65; Centre 
Co., J. T. Rothrock. Maryland: edge of woods along Chesapeake 
Canal, above Cabin John, Leonard & Killip, no. 663 (B). District 
of Columbia: Washington, September 30, 1901, K. S. Steele. West 
Virginia: dry field, White Sulphur Springs, July 4-6, 1914, F. W. 
Hnmieirrll; Great Cacapon, August, 1930, W. M. Sharp; Peter 
Mountain. E. S. & Mrs. Steele, no. 180. Virginia: about Mount 
Crav.n.,-,1. Heller & llalbach, no. 1291; Wytheville, August 31, 1878, 
//. Shrnrr; edge of woods, Clarendon, S. F. Blake, no. 10S60; Bedford 
('....August I, 1S71, A. II. O/r/m-; Salt Pond Mountain, August. IS90. 
IP. M. Canby; dry mixed woods. Little Neck. Fmiald A- Lntnj, no. 
1254; swampy woods, London Bridge, Fenuild «(• I.nnq, no. 4255. 
North Carolina: Asheville, B. L. Robinson, no. 38; open woods, 
Biltmore, llilimurv Herb., no. 3434*'. Onto: Geauga Lake, R. d. 
U'rhb, no. 542; Hiram Township, July IS, 1904, H. ./. Webb; Herea, 
July, 1897, G. B. Ashcroft; waste places, Richland County. August 
18, 1893, E. Wilkinson; Columbus, October 1, 1904, //. .1. (rfenxou; 
Turkey Creek bottoms, Friendship, I). Deniarer, no. 10786. Indiana: 
dry clay soil along roadside, 2 miles northwest of Cherubusco, C. C. 
Drain, no. 54242; sandy roadside, about 5 miles northeast of YYolcott- 
ville, C. C. Beam, no. 54101 ; woods just north of Diamond Lake, ('. 
C. Beam, no. 54136; woods on the north side of Crooked Lake, C. C. 
Dram, no. 54448. 



1937] Perry —Notes on Silphium 291 

Although the prevailing number of specimens collected have ver- 
ticillate leaves, there are some, without question belonging to this 
species, with opposite and some with alternate leaves. As early as 
1871 Curtiss collected a series of plants to show this variation in leaf- 
arrangement. In Biltmore Herb., no. 3434 b , the achenes show a 
tendency to be truncate. One specimen from Tennessee, Poorland 
Creek, Union County, ./. K. Underwood, no. C. C. D. 130, is riled 
with some hesitation. The achenes arc broader and shorter than in 
the typical and the peduncles are sparsely hispidulous. 

Forma praecisum, f. now, achaeniis truncatis. Virginia: Lexing- 
ton, August 28, 1924, ./. H. Churchill ( type in Gray Herb.). 

Differing from the typical only in that the arhenes are truncate 
and the wing-margin is reduced. 

Var. latifolium Grav, Syn. Fl. X. A. i. a 241 (1884). S. hnyal.nn 
1>1, Fl \, n Sept. ii. ..TS.lMti); Fll. Sk. ii. 40ti(lS23). SjfUrum 
Egger tin Small, VI Se. 1 . S. 1243, 1340 (1903). S. C, Ohm ml 
Tenn. and Ala. South Carolina: Santee Canal, ^'"'\^ 
Berlin Heights, August 15, 1914, L H. ^g~^ ^ 
along creek, about 3 miles north of Salem C L. Daim, no ihiu. 
Tennessee: dry fields, Grand Junction. //. K >'■ "*"" • >'"- ^" ] / 
Alabama: Tuscaloosa, 1878, G. R. Vascy; prair.es. .h.b - 
rockv mountain sides, Blount County, August 2,. 1NS4. ./. i_>. • ""■"• 
Hulk barren.. West Greenville. U«n»'J *'',""""■ ""' f '// ' ' / 
chalk prairie about 2 miles northwest of W est Greene, n. .i. i , 
no. 3427(B). . ^ „ 

The achenes and inflorescence of 
from those of typical S. tnfoliatum. In all the mlln i n< '^ ^''^ J 
leaves are opposite and smooth. 1 titortnnati \ i* • • _ 

lacking from all except Harper, no. 312/ Uar { ><r A > " ><*""^ '^''^^ 

nml L 1K *"""'*■ T1 ^ i, 7 !, T' ; H;V^J; : h"^are I nore,^ 1 - 
petioles as in S. cunji rtit"'""" lu " U " *' . ' tT j- t irof 

, 11( ,, )lls and the achenes have not the shallow sinus cliara . 

those of the latter species. This character of the basal leaves is some 
thin, whirl, should be carefully observed m field work. 

ci n T?i Q^ TT S 1243, 1340 (1903). 

14. S. CONFERT1FOI.IM » ■ ' ' " ,,.,„„.,„ rf 

Alabama: Cocoa, Choctaw Count*, October id, 
(type in New York Bot. Gard.j. 

At resent this speeies is *-*^££SS £ £ 
/ofttm by the fewer and greatly reduced stem 



; and blunter wing-tips 



of the achenes. 



Harper, no. 3427 and Harper <£• S.™«m, 



292 Rhodora [August 

leaf-character of little value or they rightfully belong to this species 
and the achene character is inconstant. Too often in this genus a 
single specimen or two or three plants will appear to have distinctive 
characters which, as a matter of fact, break down in a good series of 
representative material. 

15. S. Asteriscus L. Sp. PL ii. 920 (1753). S. scabrum Walt. Fl. 
('ami. 217 (17SS)? N. xcabrrnmino Kll. Sk. ii. 4(><> (1S23)? S. hrli- 
nntliultlrx Greene, Pittonia, iv. 43 (1899). N. C, Tenn., Ala., Mo., 
Ark. and Okla. North Carolina: Cullowhee, 1887, R. Tfuwh-r; 
vicinity of Faith Post Office, Rowan County, August 14, 1891, Small 
<(• 11,11, r; rich sandv hank, 10 miles south of Greensboro, Wiajand <(• 
Mmmhiq, no. 3:522. Tennessee: Knoxville, August 29, 1900, A. 
Ruth. Alabama: no data given. Missouri: Shannon County, B. F. 
Hash, no. 34. Arkansas: low shaded woods, Hot Springs, F. J. 
Scully, no. 364. Oklahoma: near Idabel, //. IP. Houghton, no. 3902. 

A composite set of citations, recorded here with great reluctance. 
Of all the species of this genus of unstable characters, S. Axtcrixciix 
has been the most difficult to define. In the Linnean Herbarium 
there is no type-specimen but Dr. Gray has chosen the type thus, 
"Spec. ii. 920 (Dill Elth. t. 37, f. 42)." On looking over the Linnean 
description and references, this seems logical. Hort. Cliff. 494, is 
without description and merely directs one's attention to the work of 
Dillenius. Gronovius's description is somewhat questionable, and no 
specimens from Virginia have been referable to this species. Granted 
that the Dillenian plate has been accepted as the type, the question 
now arises which of the entities included at some time in this species 

process of elimination N. (iatr.sii was rejected as it is not found in 
Carolina. It has been harder to make the choice Let ween the other 

herbarium at the Charleston Museum and, although various leads 
have been followed up, the types have not been locale. I. With the 
aid of specimens 8. dentatum is reasonably easy to interpret, but S. 
.tmbrrrimmn is puzzling. Since the majority of specimens of S. denta- 
tum have glabrous stems and peduncles it seems reasonable to con- 
clude that Dillenius probably did not have this plant. N. scab, rrinnun 
is left. The type-locality of this species is "in the western districts 
of Georgia." Although the plants named S. scabcrriunuii by 1 >r. < -ray 
seem to fit the description, at least superficially, they belong to an 



1937] Perry,— Notes on Silphium 293 

entirely different species-relationship (assuming S. scaberrimum be- 
longs in the narrow-winged achene-group) and have a different range 
(Texas and Louisiana). In the herbarium of the New York Botanical 
Garden there are specimens from the mountains of Georgia labeled 
S. scaberrimum which appear comparable to the ones above cited from 
North Carolina and Tennessee; so, for lack of a better disposition of 
this puzzling species, S. scaberrimum is here taken to be a synonym 
of 8. Asteriscus. 

16. S. dentatum Ell. Sk. ii. 468 (1823). S. ElUottii Small, FL Se. 
U. S. 1243 (1903). 8. incisum Greene, Pittonia, iv. 4;> (1899). N. C. 
to Ga. and Ala. North Carolina: sandy soil near < lumney Ko.k, 
Biltmore Herb. no. 7415; without data, Gray. South Carolina: 
sandy roadside bank, 4 miles south of Kingstree, Wiegand & Manning, 
no. 3326; Greenville, July 21, 1881, J. D. Smith. Georgia: lowland 
by river, Athens, L. M. Perry, no. 1092; base of Stone Mountain, July 
4, 1893, J. K. Small; open woods, base of Stone Mountain, .1. H. 
Curtis*, no. 6515; alluvial banks of Bull Creek, 4 miles east of Colum- 
bus, September 7, 1883, J. D. Smith; middle Georgia, 1846, 1 . C 
Porter. Alabama: Talladega County, F. S. Earle, no. 984 (tvpk oi 
8'. EUiottii, NY). 

This is indeed a variable species but no combination of characters 
has been found by which it may be broken up. The specimens from 
North Carolina, South Carolina and the Piedmont region of Georgia 
have glabrous stems and peduncles, and opposite or alternate leaves. 
The collections, J. D. Smith and Earle, no. 984, have pubescenl pe- 
duncles, and T. C. Porter has a pubescent upper stem. The sinus ol 
the achenes varies from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. deep and the wir~ *— 
rounded or obtuse. Several specimens ^ 
have been collected from the same localities as N. (In 

looks like an abnormal plant of this species. 

Forma nodum (Small), comb, now 8. nod urn i 
(1933). South Carolina: Charleston Xeck l> ; 
(TYPE of S. nodum, XV); Troy, ./. Dans no. L04l> 
Guire's Mill, Gwinnett County, Biltmore Herb., no. . 

Var. angustatum (Gray), comb. nov 8 ; M"'*"'* 
Gray, Syn. Fl. N. A. ed 2: i'-. (suppl.) 449 n U^V 
Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. vii. 341 (1840) 8. 
Fl. Se. V. S. 1244 (1903). Georgia: dry P^-bam 
south of Moultrie, fl. M. Harper, no. 194, 1 lorid/ 
September 3, 1SS4. .1. //. Curtis* (type <>//\/^'''* 
turn), Cnrfiss, no. 5940; River Junction, V > • • '.'*'• 
roadside by woods, 4 miles west of Madison, y 
no. 3323. 



/■:///. 



294 Rhodora [August 

This is a slenderer and perhaps a smaller plant than the typical. 
Very little of the material seen yields mature achenes; those found 
do not justify raising this to specific rank, although the narrowly 
lanceolate leaves and the pubescent stem with relatively few heads 
render it strikingly different from the typical in general appearance. 
The last cited specimen has a heavier stem, broader leaves and un- 
usually large heads. This is perhaps owing to the cultivation it may 
have received on the roadside. 

17. S. terebinthinaceum Jacq. Hort. Vindob. i. 10, t. 4:; (177(1). 
Out., Mich, and Wise, south to Tenn. and Mo. Ontario: Windsor, 
Macmn, (NY). Michigan: introduced, Hurl Lake, V. C. & M. T. 
date,, nos. 9248, 9830 (B). Ohio: Toledo, Aug. 11, 1884, //. A. 
Young. Tennessee: dry open ground, Knoxville, A. Ruth, no. 05. 
Wisconsin': without data, /. .1. Lapham; South Madison, August 30, 
1893, J. R. Churchill; Madison, A. C. Fasxrtt, no. 1 1975. Illinois: 
without data, BavUeu; South Chicago, //. //. Smith, im. :>730; Napier- 
ville, August 24, 1S97, L. M. I'mbach; Aurora, August, 1883, T. E. 
Boyce; Urbana, A. S. Prase, no. 12490; Normal, August, 1880, B. L. 
Robinson; Peoria, August, 1904, F. K. McDonald; Augusta, August, 
1847, S. B. Mead, Missouri: Meramec Heights, K. /•.'. Slurff, no. 
1137; (liven County, September 13, 1890, S. Writer. 

Yar. PiNNATiiiDt m (Ell.) Cray. Man. ed. 1:220 (1848). 8. pinnati- 
fidan, Kll. Sk. ii. 402 (1*23). .S. chicanmaqmsr Canl.v in Hot. Gaz. 
xxvii. 319 (1899). Ga., Ohio, Tenn. and Ala. Georgia: along Chicka- 
niauga Creek, near Ringgold, August 0-12, 1895, Small (NY). Ohio: 
without data, Sullivant. Tennessee: Cedar Glades, Lavergne, 
(.attnujrr (NY); Rutherford County, September 7, 1898, //. Eggert 
(NY). Alabama: near Huntsville, October, 1843, Rugrl (NY). 

18. S. rumicifolium Small in Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xxv. 145 (1898). 
Tennessee: dry sterile soil, Knoxville. .1. Ruth. no. 1024 (type in 
New York Bot. Gard.). 

The heads of S. rumicifoliuui and of N. trrrhinthinacrum are too 
much alike to give the former clear-cut definition. Although the 
leaves are of different outline, further material is needed to justify 
keeping this plant as a species. 

19. S. compositum Mi.hx. Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 145 (1803). S. lacinia- 
hu„ Walt. Fl. Carol. 217 (1788), non 1, 8. sinuatum Hanks ex Hursh, 
Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 577 (1810), in synon. 8. ferrhinthiaarrum, var. sinua- 
tum Curtis in Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. i. (reprint) 103, 127 (1834?). S. 
iiufhrmih* Curtis in Host. Journ. Nat. Hist. i. 127 (1837?). S. com- 
positum <x. Michauxii T. & G. Fl. N. A. ii. 270 (1842). S. coUimun 
Greene, Pittonia, iv. 44 (1899)? S. lapsuum Small, Man. Ill 1 ( 1933). 
Va. to Ga. and Tenn. Virginia: dry woods, Blackwater School, 
It maid, Loa t , cv Smart, no. 5913; dry sandv pine woods about 3 miles 



1937] Perry —Notes on Silphium 295 

southeast of Petersburg, on headwaters of Blackwater River, Fcrnald, 
Long A Smart, no. 5944. North Carolina: clearings around High- 
lands, August 29, 1882, J. D. Smith; open woods, summit of Satoola 
Mountain. Macon County, August 30, 1882, J. D. Smith; Cullowhee, 
June-July, 1887, R. Tha.rt, r; Aw woodlands, near Biltmore. Biltmon 
Herb., no. 45951); middle country of N. G, August, 1841, Gray & 
Carey. South Carolina: dry oak-pine woods, 2 miles n< -it h . .f Kings- 
tree.' Wivgntnl A Manning, no. 3329; open woods, Caesar's Head. 
August 13, 1SS1, ./. I). Smith. Gkokota: North Georgia, 1875, C. 
Wright; oak woods, Augusta, July 17, 1898, A. Cuthbert (type of S. 
lapsuinn, NY). Tkxnessee: Wolf Creek, August 30, 1898, A. Ruth, 
no. 59. 

The specimen collected at Caesar's Head has achenes with narrower 
wing than in the typical and with a tendency for the awns to dis- 
appear; some achenes are almost truncate and others have short awns. 
In the specimen, C. Wright, the leaves are as broad as or broader than 
long, toward var. reniforme, and in A. Cuthbert one of the plants has 
a scabrous upper leaf-surface. The synonymy is sufficient to indicate 
that this is a variable species. Several collectors have recently re- 
claimed this species for the manual range, but it is recorded in early 
botanical works by both Pursh and Curtis. The latter says " I have 
traced this plant through the lower part of this State [North Carolina] 
into Virginia and S. Carolina, and find it constantly preserving its 
character." 

Forma orae (Small), comb. nov. S. ora, Small, Man 1411 (1933). 
North Carolina: Wilmington, -1/. A. Curtis (type ot 6. orae, mj, 
Southern Pines luh 19 IS95 / II HI I ' ^ 
s ! !:n !l ,-, t -M,M,n.ll^M \I,„n „g no .U2S; Cumber- 
land Co , 1S45, Curtis; dry sandy soil, open woods, Rockingham, L 
F. A F. R. Randolph, no. 1051. So.tu Carolina: dry sandy oaK 
W() ods, I.) miles -„u t h of Monks Corner, Wivgami A Uanmng, no. 






• (inch cut or I 



ilid 



6 \r eS " nrMimB Mr m.,f ex Nutt ) T. & G. Fl. N. A. ii. 276 (1842); 

W. K.NH..LM ha, '^;tt.^ ^^ M((| F[ iL26 3 (1830) , 

„'•;!;,. ,1 Xm nTra.,:: Amer.Pl.il S,«- vii. :U2 1*40). N t, r, - 

SCA^ ^ hla * September ' 1906 ' 

T. 0. Harbison. 

The first two specimens named have slightly scabrous or pubescent 
leaf-surfaces; the third is perfectly smooth. 



296 Rhodora [August 

20. S. venosum Small in Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xxv. 478 (1898). 
Georgia: St. Mary's River swamp, below Trader's Hill, Charlton 
County, June 12-15, 1895, J. K. Small (type in New York Bot. Gard). 

A very distinct species with involucres up to 2 cm. broad and sub- 
orbicular achenes with acute wing-tips. 

21. S. ovatifolium Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 1242, 1340 (1903). S. 
mmposifuw, -;. ocati folium T. & G. Fl. N. A. ii. 277 (1842); var. 
umtlfolium Grav, Svn. Fl. i'-. 241 (1884). Florida: without data, 
Chapman; near Aspalaga, July 1843, Rugcl (NY); dry pine barrens, 
near Argyle, A. II. Curtiss, no. 5941; dry sandy oak woods, 2 mdes 
east of Alachua, Wiegand & Manning, no. 3331. 

A species with markedly variable leaves but rather distinctive or- 
bicular achenes with obtuse wing-tips and narrow sinus. 

22. S. albiflorum Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. xix. 4 (1884). 
Texas: Dallas, June, 1878, also 1883, J. Reverchon; dry hills, Poly- 
tee!, nic, July 10, 1912, A. Ruth, no. 71; plains, Tarrant County, June 
25, 1911, A. Ruth, no. 71; Weatherford, S. M. Tracy, no. 8330. 

The venation of the leaves is more noticeable in this species than 
in S. hiciniatum. 

23. S. laciniatum L. Sp. PI. ii. 919 (1753); Robinson in Bot. Gaz. 
xvi. II I. 115 1S91 '. Wise.. 111., Minn. .south to Oklahoma and Texas. 
Wisconsin: Shuteshurv, July 23, 1883, II". //. Moaning. ILLINOIS: 
without data, N. Ii. Mrad; South Chicago, //. //. Smith, no. 5707; 
Champaign, July 26, 1899, H. A. Gleason; Champaign, A. S. I'< as,, no. 
12410; Bloomington, August, 1886, B. L. Robinson; dry prairies, Peoria, 
July, 1890 and September, 1891, Frank E. McDonald. Minnesota: 
Millpond, near Pine Island, Goodhue County, July 13, 1891, E. A. 
Mrarns. Iowa: Dallas County, August 1, 1867, ./. A. Allen; prairies, 
Decatur County, July 21, 1897, T. J. & M. F. L. Fitzpatrid: 
Missorui: Nevada, W. /.. McAtrr, no. 3049. Kansas: prairies, Riley 
County, -/. B. Xorton, no. 252. Oklahoma: near Tonkana, C. II . 
Stnrn.s, no. 1819. Texas: Dallas, June, 1875, J. Rarrchon. 

A second sheet collected by Mrad in Illinois shows the upper leaves 
practically entire. This appears to be only an extreme form of vari- 
able foliage. 

The above collections and those of the variety below have hitherto 
been known as S. laciniatum. There is, however, a difference in the 
pubescence and the distribution of the two. The collections of more 
southern range usually have the involucres and chaff, and often the 
stems, copiously glandular or, in the older specimens, as if the resinous 
juice had oozed out in minute droplets. This would naturally be 
taken for the typical variety, since Linnaeus cited his type as "Mis- 



1937] Wiegand and Weatherby — The Verticillate Eupatoria 297 

sissippi. Collinson." Mr. C. A. Weatherby, who most obligingly ex- 
amined the type for me, found the specimen was not actually collected 
in " Mississippi" but from a plant grown in the I psala garden, and it 
was not glandular. This is rather surprising in view ot Linnaeus s 
description, " Caulis . . . inferne laevis, superne tuberculis 
fuscis pilisque patulis albia scalier."' However, the northern and 
more wide-spread plant is to be regarded as the typical and the 
southern is here set forth as var. Robinsonii in tribute to Dr. 15. L. 
Robinson who, as early as 1891, carefully described this variation and 
asked for information concerning its range and the possible occurrence 
of intermediate forms. 

Var Robinsonii, var. nov., cauli et involucris glandulosis exigue 
scabro-hirsutis vol hispidis. Ivy., Ala., Miss La and Okla. Kentucky: 
barrens, 1835, ('. II'. Shorten in (day Herb > A. a lama: Vi mile 
northwest of Rosemary, R. M. Harper, no. 3251 (NY); cha; 
West Greenville, llurprr A- Srmson, no. 7384 Mississippi: Agn. u - 
tural College, OktiMieha (Vanity, C. /.. /WW, no. 1333 • L^isiana 
without data, Hale in part. Oklahoma : open place in woods, near Page, 
C. W. Strrrm, no. 2740. 



II THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE 

VERTICILLATE EUPATORIA 

K. M. Wiegand and C. A. Weatherby 

(Plates 466-468) 

The purple-flowered, verticillate-leaved Eupatoria of ei 

America have had a confused and highly unsatisfactory nomencla- 

,,„-,] ),i ,nry Linnaeus described two species in the group in 17o3, 

t , , , lU d/ purpuremn, with an unnamed van,,,; 

Ji,, ,755 he added a third, E. namlaUn,,. *<* our p^ •« 

cessary to trace in detail the ineffectual struggles ol 
uZJ£m» to apply his three names and to account for the 
different variant, eoncerned. It will he ^ * —£ .,,.- 
the work of the three American authors who have especulh 



i North 



kTar.D, Joseph Barratt> the senior an.hor of this 



298 Rhodora [August 

and Mr. K. K. Mackenzie. 1 The last two were in perfect taxonomic 
agreement; and although he subdivided one of three species which he 
knew, Barratt's treatment is in essential accord with theirs. But no 
two applied the Linnaean names alike. The following table shows 
the different nomenclatural schemes; the numbering of species is that 
used by Wiegand and Mackenzie. 

Barratt Wiegand Mackenzie 



E. Bruneri Gray 

i'. E. fistulosum Barratt E. purpureum L. E. maculatum L 

4. E. purpureum L. E. falcatum Michx. E. trifohatum L. 

This was a truly lamentable, indeed an intolerable, condition. 
Since it arose because, for various reasons, all three authors had de- 
pended chiefly on their interpretations of tin- descriptions and cita- 
tions of Linnaeus, 3 the obvious remedy was to look up whatever 
specimens were back of the original literature and, whether or not 
they proved technically types, to treat them as such, as the only pos- 
sible basis of future uniformity. Accordingly, in 1935, the junior 
author undertook to examine, so far as possible, the extant material 
concerned ; and, through the kindness of the authorities of the Ri jks- 
herbarium at Leiden, the British Museum, the Linnean Society of 
London and the botanical establishment of Oxford University, he 
was able to see, we believe, all that remains. The result is happy in 
that it establishes, beyond reasonable doubt, the claim of Linnaeus's 
specimens to be taken as types of his species; it is far less pleasing in 
that it compels a fourth arrangement of the names. But at least it 
places that arrangement on a definite basis of actual, existent herba- 
rium material (the object and peculiar virtue of the " type method") 
and in so far may hope for permanence. 

Before considering Linnaeus's own specimens, it may be well to 




1937] Wiegand and Weatherby — The Verticillate Eupatoria 299 
clear the way by some account of those representing his synonyms. 
Under E. purpureum, Linnaeus placed citations from Colden, Grono- 
vius, Cornut and Morison. No specimens of Colden or Cornut un- 
known to exist. Clayton 162, the collection on which the Gronovian 
reference rests, cannot be found at the British Museum. Some 
wretched scraps of Morison's are extant-two small branches of a 
young inflorescence and a single detached leaf. They may be species 
no 2 but are hardly to be certainly identified. Fortunately, since he 
merely took his plate and description from Cornut, his specimens are 
of little importance in determining anything. So far, then, as existing 
herbarium material is concerned, E. purpureum depends wholly on 
what Linnaeus himself had. 

The case of K. ■»« » not so simple. Under E. W"™^ 

,!.,„.,. i,,,!,,,!,,; i„ /,'. mmUm), Linnaeus cited his own riortos 

fliir..r-<i« II ». II-™."... Monsoo and Hay. No specimens 

o ty n (who, in any case, merely , it, d Hon. Cliff. - nor of Hermann 
are known. A Clifford specimen is preserved at the British Museum; 
it is soeeies no 1 (E. nrlkilloKw, of Wiegand). Monson and Raj 
merely applied' Hermann's phrase-name, but it is of some interest, 
as showing their interpretation of it, to note that Monson s spec men 
though again a mere fragment, is prol, ,ly „k™. ,»" * 

Vernon collection cited by Ray certainly is. Hermann s pa, 
probability represents the same species and was so ass.g,, d 
the senior author and by Mackenzie. The >, • ' 

us, he, or Juslenius, in proposing E. ^mhtu, ^"T' riptio'n « «• 
citations a specimen or specimens from wh.e h the mm ■ ^ 

drawn and which, therefore, must determine tn, appne. 

name - . . Uwao :„ number One is labelled in 

specimens are thiu in num • 
L L I. purpureum." A photograph of it, pro< 
,' of the Linnean Society, is reproduced 



his band -11. H. U. rr^"ci£K- in P^te 466. 
n to be found in an occasional 

, opposite in the whorl. 1 he stem 

"'""'V'" 1 : ,'e thickness and one or more eaves 

bcoshav, ed thereby. The leaves 

::::r;..:!::!'.H;^.t::-...... »- ..— °^ 



300 Rhodora [August 

nerves beneath with weak, multicellular hairs up to 1 mm. long. The 
stem is greenish. The branches of the inflorescence are densely 
sordid-puberulous. The involucres are 6 mm. high, the corollas about 
5.5 mm. long, projecting 2.5-3 mm. The inflorescence is so matted 
together in pressing that it is not possible to make out clearly the 
number of florets without detaching and dissecting a head — and one 
does not do that with Linnaean specimens. 

Pinned to the sheet bearing this specimen is another (plate 467) con- 
taining the top of a young sterile shoot obviously of the same species. 
On this sheet Linnaeus has written : "genicul. purpurp."— nodes purple. 

The third sheet (plate 468) is labelled, also in Linnaeus's hand, "K 11 
maeulatum" and at, the base of the stem is written "fl. 8 macula- 
turn." In this specimen the leaves are thicker than in nos. 1 and 2, 
glabrous above except for a short puberulence on the nerves. From 
the little of the lower surface which can be seen, they seem to be rather 
densely glandular and more or less pubescent beneath. The branches 
of the inflorescence and the stem to the first whorl of leaves are densely 
sordid-pubescent; below the stem is glabrous, rather evenly purple, 
but with faint darker lineolae. The involucre is 7.5 mm. high. Ex- 
cept in one or two heads the corollas are scarcely developed, but ap- 
pear to be 5.5-6 mm. long. 

For the sake of clarity of discussion it may be well at this point to 
quote the original diagnosis and description of E. purpurcum. They 

EUPATORIUM foliis subverticillatis lanceolato-ovatis serratis petio- 
latis rugosis . . . 

Caulis teres, eredus, viridis, punctis I, dibui purpur- 

ascentibus. Folia terna, quaterna, s. sena, lato-lanceolata s. lanceolato- 
ovata, serrata, rugosa, scabriuscula, petiolata, utrinque viridia. Corym- 
1ms UrniiiKilis. Calyces tloram innirimti. Flosculi octo, Corollis al- 
bidis, Antheris purpureis, stylis longissimis. 
There is nothing here which could not have been taken from one or 
another of Linnaeus's specimens, and there are certain phrases which 
must have been. "Foliis subverticillatis," "caulis viridis," "folia 
terna" apply to specimen no. 1; "flosculi octo" is Linnaeus's own in- 
scription on specimen no. 3; "corollis albidis" would naturally come 
from observation of the plant in the Upsala garden (specimen no. 1). 
And no such characters as these are mentioned in any of the literature 
cited. 

The original diagnosis and description of /•;. nimulntinn as published 
in Centuria 1 Plantarum 27 (175.")) was as follows. 



1937J Wiegand and Weatherby — The Verticillate Eupatoria 

EUPATORIUM (maculatum) foliis quinis, lanceolate, aeqi 

serratis, petiolatis, venosis. 

Drsrr. Folia quinque ad pellicula, lanceolata, .•uM l nahtfr h 
('mill* tenuissime inaoulutus. Yarietas FupnUmi purpura ad hoc, 
ejus synonyma & descriptio spcctant. Kupatnnum cnnn purp 
foliis quaternis, lanceolato-ovatis, inaequahter serratis, rugosis est. 

Mackenzie pointed out that in editing this for the Amoen 
Linnaeus added "tomentosis" to the diagnosis and " vel sex" i 
description (thus bringing them into better accord with his own 
men) and that Kalm is not cited as collector though he is so ci 
other passages of the Centuria. From this and from the fact th 
leaves are described as in fives but are actually in sixes in the Lin 
specimen, Mackenzie argued that the description must originally 
been drawn from some other specimen. The possibility may 1 
mitted. It may even be added that Linnaeus's account of the 
as ovate-lanceolate in E. purpureum and lanceolate in E. man 
is not borne out by his specimens, in which there is little differe 
the shape of the leaves (and what there is rather in the reverse 
tion) and that this also might be interpreted as indicating the 
other material. 

But all this is guess-work. It might also be gurssat that Ln 
drew his "quinis" from the circumstance that in his speennen 
one of the leaves of the lower whorl is partly broken offtehu 
stem so that at first glance the whorl appears t 
only; and that the additions in the , Am ° e ™ tate ^J 
fecting of the descriptu 



And much can be explained ( 









In any case, the fact remains that Li 



specimen \ 



included in his conception 



of the s 



U ll we now have to represent that conception. We must 
either take it as representative or resign ourselves to mm 

Further evidence is to be found in Unnaeui 
leaved copy of the first edition of tin >! - < - - I ' '»<»»■ .. ^ " r] 
original diagnosis of E. purpun urn lie has here cross. - mi ju y 
cilia, is" and substituted "quatemis.' and before .oat. ha, 
serted " inaequalite, » On the interleaf W-*£ 
quina, ovato-lanceolata inaequahter serrata 
Geniculacaulisferruginea. Flores ., 
j: »i TT^r v„r 3 he crossed out both the eitat.on. an 



302 Rhodora [August 

description following. Opposite the former he wrote in on the inter- 
leaf the diagnosis of E. macvlafum as published in the Amoenitates. 
He first wrote "foliis subverticillatis" but crossed out the latter word 
and substituted "quinis." Below, opposite the description, he wrote: 
"folia [4s. crossed out] 5 ad genicula lanceolata aequaliter serrata 
caulis tenuissime maculatus. Ergo differt foliis aequaliter serratis." 

There is no direct evidence to show whether these notes were made 
before or after the publication of the Centuria; in character, however, 
they are the memoranda of one seeking tenable marks of distinction 
between two contemplated species, and would, most probably, have 
come before. In them, the phrase "genicula caulis ferruginea" is a 
paraphrase of the note accompanying specimen no. 2; "panicula 
parva di versa" not only accurately described specimen no. 1 as con- 
trasted with no. 3 (see plates), but could have sprung from no other 
extant source. The crossing out of "foliis subverticillatis" would 
have been the natural result of discovering, or suspecting, that this 
was not the normal condition. And though "aequaliter" and "in- 
aequaliter" are not, to our eyes, accurately descriptive terms for it, 
there is a difference in the serration of the leaves. The teeth in speci- 
men no. 3 are distinctly narrower, more falcate, and more sharply 
pointed than in nos. 1 and 2. And again this distinction could have 
been drawn only from these specimens or others like them. 

Finally, for the second edition of the Species Plantarum, Linnaeus 
wrote a revised description of E. purpurcuvi, omitting the phrase 
"punctis linearibus longitudinalibus purpurascentibus," which ap- 
plied to specimen no. 3 and substituting " ad exortum petiolorum pur- 
purascens" which describes specimens 1 and 2. The deleted phrase 
about the punctate stem he transferred to E. maadatum. Presumably 
through haste or carelessness he did not transfer " flosculi octo" 
which should also have gone; and he allowed the " folia quina" written 
into his notes to stand in the description, though in the formal diag- 
nosis the number is given, correctly for specimen 2, as four. 

Mackenzie argued that one should not go beyond what Linnaeus 
did in the first edition. With this we could agree if the subsequent 
changes were real changes. But if, in his later contributions, Linnaeus 
merely attempted to clarify his first treatment, these should be given 
weight. Apparently, almost certainly, this is exactly what he was 
trying to do. 

We have, then, three specimens, two from the I'psala garden, repre- 



1937] Wiegand and Weatherby — The Verticillate Eupatoria 303 

senting a plant which Linnaeus must have seen growing, and one from 
Kalm, whose collections he named. He certainly studied them to the 
extent of making descriptive notes on two of the sheets; and there is 
every evidence that the annotations which accompany his attempts 
to distinguish his two species were drawn largely from them. Nos. 1 
and 2 are the only material extant to represent his conception of E. 
pin-pun urn; and, even if other specimens were used in drawing up Un- 
original description of E. maculatinit (as distinguished from the cita- 
tions associated with it), no. 3 is all that remains. That Linnae,is\ 
work was, by modern standards, none too accurate for these particular 
specimens, does not matter; what is important is that he did work 
with them. They have every claim to be taken as types— indeed, 
there is no other reasonable alternative. 

Now as to their identity. The combination, in specimens 1 and 2, 
of solid stem with purple color only at the nodes, leaves in threes or 
fours somewhat soft-pubescent beneath and with broad, but pointed, 
serrations, and (young) corollas 5.5 mm. long, plus the general habit, 
places these specimens definitely in species no. 4, E. falcatum of Wie- 
gand's treatment, E. trifnliatum «»f Mackenzie's. 1 It is interesting 
that Torrey & Gray and later Gray himself, as judged by their text 
comments interpreted E. purpumnu in this sense, though, as shown 
by their joint and several determinations of specimens, they had no 
very clear idea of its characters and confused it with E fisMosum 
Barratt (species no. 3). Barratt, as noted above, applied the name 
/•;. p.rpunum as did Torrey and Gray. So did Bntton, III. H. ,d. - 
hi. 357 (1913), at least so far as his figure and SJ DOnj m } 

Specimen no. 3 is quite clearly species no. 2, /. »,.„ ulntn «. 
gand's treatment, E. Bruneri of Mackenzie 8. 1 be lea. e 
„ number frequent also in species 3, but the stem 1 3 solid 
faintlv lineolate, the leaves are more sh^ly senratetha 
species 3 and the whole aspect is thai -.1 !" < "■> - » ' ^" ^ ^ \ j ^ 
stated bv Linnaeus, eight, a rathet low num >ci loi >p« < •< 

1,1,1,.,;,^ 3 ._ The ^*°'^«™^;,; ;;:;;:: 



able specimens in the Gray 

Rocky Mt. Fl. 485 (1909) appear to be the only autho » pm 

Wiegand who have applied the name E. vmculatum s 



Most writers have, following the Linnaean citations, used it for 

E. trifoliatum L. was based primarily on a citatum from Gronovius 
and this on Clayton's specimen no. 620. This specimen was inspected 
by Blake 2 and later by the junior author. It is species 4, E. purpureum 
as we now understand it. E. trifoliatum , which precedes E. purpureum 
in the Species Plantarum, was apparently first united with the latter 
by Torre y & Gray under the name E. purpureum. The latter is there- 
fore valid according to the International Rules. 

The name E. verticillatum Lam., applied by the senior author in 
1920 to species 1, cannot, unfortunately, stand under present rules. 
In publishing it, Lamarck cited as synonyms, under his plants a and 
: respectively (he did not call them varieties), E. purpureum and E. 
maeulafum L. Since, in so doing, he failed to "adopt the earliest 
legitimate epithet available for the group with its particular circum- 
scription, position and rank," or one of them, his name is illegitimate 
under Arts. 56 and 59 (2) of the International Rules and must be re- 
jected. Incidentally, there is no specimen labelled /•;. r, rlieillutum 
in the herbarium of Lamarck. There are two, answering fairly well 
to the descriptions of a and £, and labelled respectively E. pur pure hid 
and /•;. miteulatum. The latter the junior author was not able definitely 
to identify; the former is species 1, E. rerficillatiim as interpreted by 
the senior author. 

The earliest name available for the species seems to be E. (labium 
Willd. ex Poir., a name substituted by Poiret for E. pmivfahnii Willd. 
presumably because of the earlier E. punctatum Lam. The specimen 
in Walter's herbarium of his E. fusco-ruhrinn, a name cited by W ie- 
gand as a possible synonym of species 1, turns out to be species 4, 
E. jjurpun iiiii in the sense of the present treatment. Walter's de- 
scription, like that of his Acalypha carol iniaua* is too confused to be 




1937] Wiegand and Weatherby, — The Verticillate Kupatoria 305 

applied with any certainty; perhaps in both cases he mixed material, 
or field observations, of different species. 

A restudy by the senior author has been made of the slender forms 
with three leaves in a whorl, possibly more common in the southern 
Alleghenies but by no means confined to that region, to see if they 
can be held spccificalh distinct from K. p,irj»irnnii (species I), hut 
without success as to that. They all seem to belong to the same 
species-concept. Slender and small specimens from various parts of 
the range are often 3-leaved or even 2-leaved. However, the var. 
amocnum (Pursh) Gray should be recognized. It consists of more 
slender plants with chiefly lanceolate leaves which are glabrous or 
nearly so beneath (instead of elliptic-ovate, loosely hairy beneath). 
It occurs in the mountains from New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia to Georgia. 

The nomenclature and synonymy of the species concerned is as 

1. EtTPATORIUM DUBIUM Willd. ex Poir. Knew. Suppl. ii. 606 I 1 S 1 I i, 
a substitute ii.inii t'oi / pHHctftfi W 1 >' !l ' ' xvausi ot /.. 

punctatum Lam. Type (of E. punctatum Willd.) in Herb. Berlin, h. 
pnrpnnum £ L. Sp. PI. 838 (1753), at least as to citations, h. nmni- 
hitmii L. Cent. PI. i. 27 (1755) and Amocn. Acad. iv. 2SS ( 1 ,..<>), as to 
synonymy, and of many authors. E. vrrtirilhifuni Lam. Hncyc. u. 
in:, ( |':sb) inoinen ilb-i t in unn I, at least as to plant a. E punch,!,,,,, 
\\ Nld. K.m.n. 1M. Hort. Berol. 853 (1809), not Mill. (1768), nor Latn. 
(1786). E. ternifdium Ell. Sk. Bot. S. Car. & Ga. u. 'M\ ISL'ir . 

pn ,l,,l,b / Nat //mew/atam Darl. Fl. Cestnca 453 (1837), 

as to descripti, , / < // - ' »«™". Eu P" 

V^r+ ™ 9 M84lV> F tmiitnliniH vur. ; n simlns,,,,, Barratt op. cit. 

• 



;;<).; 



Rhodora lAu 



3 E fistulosum Barratt, op. cit. no. 1 (1841) and in Wood, Classb. 
, M | ■' :;14 HS471. Type in herb. Wesleyan University. E. lacngatum 
Torr.' in Eat. Man. ed. 2, 245 (1818), not Lam. (1786). E. purpureum 
: anq^tlfnlinm T. & G. Fl. N. Am. ii. S2 (1841) ace. to Barratt. E 
),nrpurnu» and /•-'. trifoliatuni sensu Wieg. in RHODORA xxn. 67 
i 1 920), nut L. /:. maculatum sensu Mackenzie in Rhodora xxn. 161 

4. E. "purpureum L. Sp. PI. 838 (1753), excl. syn. Cornut and 
Morison. Type in herb. Linnean Society. E. trlj'ol latum L. op. cit. 
837. E. fusco-rubrum Walt. Fl. Car. 199 (1788), as to specimen m 
herb. Walter, though scarcely as to description. E. falcatum Michx. 
Fl. IW.-Am. ii. 99 (1803). E. verticillatum Muhl. ex Willd. Sp. PI. 
iii. 1760 (1804), probably, not Lam. (1786). E. purpureum var. p 
album Barratt, op. cit. no. 3 (an albino form). E. purpureum. falcatum 
(Michx.) Britton in Mem. Torrey Bot. Club v. 312 (1894). 

4a. Var. amoenum (Pursh) A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. 2, 96 
(1884). Type not known. E. amoenum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 514 
(1814). E. maculatum amoenum (Pursh) Britton, 1. c, at least a- to 
name-bringing synonym. E. trifoliatum var. amoenum (Pursh) Far- 
well, 1. c, as to name-bringing .synonym. The following specimens, 
in the Gray Herbarium, may be cited as representative. West 
Virginia: valley of East Fork of Greenbrier River, Pocahontas Co., 
19 Sept., 1904, Greenman, no. 235; wood-road, Parsons, Tucker Co., 
Sept. 8, 1904, Moore, no. 1994. North Carolina: Swain Co., alt. 
1800 ft., Aug., 1891, Beardslec & Kofoid. Georgia : without definite 
lnciilitv. July, 1875. C. Wrlqht; rich, shady woods, Whitfield Co., alt. 
750 ft., July 18, 1900, Harper no. 70. 



III. NOTES ON DIODIA 

M. L. Fernald and Ludlow Griscom 

(Plate 469) 

The Varieties of Diodia teres.— In eastern Virginia Diodia 

teres W'alt. proved to be so variable in the field that a large series has 

been collected. Mr. C. A. Weatherby , upon looking for Walter's type, 

reports that there is no Walter material of it in his herbarium at the 

British Museum; but he found in Paris that the type of Sp rmacoce 

diodina Michx., commonly referred to it, is the common and well 

known weed with fruits 2.9-3.6mm. long, covered with short appressed 

to spreading hairs (fig. 1) and greatly exceeded by the stipules, and 

the leaves without prominently setiform tips. Since the latter plant 

is common all the way from Florida to New Jersey we are selecting it 

to -land as typical of Walter's species. 



1937] Fernald and Griscom— Notes on Diodia :i(> ~ 

The most extreme departure from this type is a plant of the coastal 
sand of eastern Virginia, usually forming prostrate mats, with stipules 
shorter than to but slightly longer than the very large (3.S-f> mm. 
long) and divergently silvery-bristly fruits (figs. 2 and 3). 

A third variety (fig. 4) occurring from Florida to Mississ.ppi ami 
extending locally northward to North Carolina, has the long stipuh- 
of the typical form, but the fruits more spreading-hirsute and the 
stems conspicuously hirsute. 

The commoner variation (figs. 5 and (5) from west of the Alle- 
ghenies, from southern Michigan to Texas, has the fruits and stipules 
as in typical D. teres, but the stems air st rough pubescent and the 
young leaves always terminate in a slender bristle. This plant may 
possibly have been described from the Mexican region, but until tl,< 
very complex series from that area has been better clarified it is un- 
safe to identify it with any of the Mexican species. Consequently 
the varietal name for it here proposed may, eventually, prove not tc 
be the earliest name given it. , 

As we understand Diodia teres its variations may be summarized « 
follows. 

Diodia teres Walt., var. typica. D. teres Walt Fl. < W ■ « 
(1788). S-perwaeoer diodma Michx. M. lior.-Ain. i. - •> • . 

slender, erect or depressed; stem; ' " 

without bristle-tips; stipules very much 

(excluding calyx-lobes) 2.9-3.6 mm. long with d,« > "I'l" ^ ; ; 
spreading stiff pubescence.— Florida to 1 exa> no • 

Rhode Island. Connecticut an, N 

Pennsylvania; less common west of the Alleghemes, north 
tucky, Illinois and Missouri. Fig. 1. - ir ,,,„/,.„ dilter 

Var. hirsutior, var. nov. (tab. 4(».) vv. i_. .. ; 
caulibus fructibusque valde hirsutis. h .; <u> >;'" '. • 

<<„., Florida. August. .1. //. Curtm, no. 11 lb ("> U a 

t.Midinu- from Florida to Mi>sh, ■ ' .^ ^ t][ 

UUvin « i • ' < 'm ' ri ' > ' ' ' '" "'" f " 1 V:U / '" S "'' V " 

d»e^'S^lerZ q r V dep« 

aequantibus; tructibus :i> -o mm. longis val.lt . >i ^ • I ■ ^ 

Countio. Virginia. Tybk. sa; 

border of beach, Chesa] qo. 6465. 

Co., Virginia. October 14. l*'->->. < , -. (/ ( |j |V ,., 

Var. setifera, var. nov. (tab. 4t>.», no. o 



308 Rhodora 

caulibus valde hirsutis; foliis immat 
Michigan to Texas. 
Pringle, no. 2242. 

The figures are all X 5, except the leaf-tips (X 10). 

The Varieties of Diodia virginiana. In 1841 Torrey & Gray 
treated Diodia virginiana as a polymorphic species, with three pri- 
ma ry varieties, but saying "We find so many intermediate forms be- 
twccn D. Virginica [i. e ta of authors, 

that we can scarcely distinguish them even as varieties." And in the 
Synoptical Flora Gray omitted the varieties. Recently they have 
all been treated as species by Small, in his Manual. A study of the 
series in connection with our plants of southeastern Virginia shows 
that Torrey & Gray's treatment is the more satisfactory. The three 
varieties, as they conceived them and as we understand them are as 
follows; Small's key giving the essential characters. 

Diodia virginiana L., var. Linnaei Torr. & Gr. Fl. ii. 29 (1841). 
1). virginiana L. Sp. PI. 104 (1753). D. virginica Willd. Sp. i. 58 (1798), 
in part. — Florida to Texas, north to southern Illinois, Tennessee and 
New Jersey; castia 

Var. hirstjta (Pursh) Torr. & Gr. 1. c. (1841). 1). hirsuia Puiah, Fl. 
i. 106 (1814).— Florida and Alabama, north to North Carolina; also 
Cape May, New Jersey (August 16, 1871, C. F. Parker; and many 
later collectors). 

Var. latifolia Torr. & Gr. 1. c. (1841). D. tetragona of authors, 
perhaps Walt.— Florida to Louisiana, north to North Carolina. 

Diodia Harperi Small, Man. 1264 (1933), described without cita- 
tion of type, is a very distinct species if we correctly interpret it as 
represented by Harper, no. 1682, from Berrien Co., Georgia. 



tvi'k, west of Ivi 

of leaf, X 10, from the type. 

Var. hirsutiok, n. var.: fi<;. 1. portion of fruiting t 
ni'i:, Duval County, Florida, A. H. Curtiss, no. 1116. 

Var. sktifkka, n. var.: in,, o, portion oi fruiting sten 
IVfia, Texas, Prinylr, no. 2242; fic. 6, tip of leaf, X 1 



Fernald,— Nomenclatural Tran-ler- 



M. L. Fernald 
(Plates 470-473) 

Clematis virginiana L., forma missouriensis (Rydb.), <;oinh. 
nov C missuiirimsis Rvdb. in Britton, Man. 421 UOUl). ('. rirgiiu- 
ana, var. missouriensis (Rydb.) Palmer & Steyennark in Ann. Mu. 
Hot. (bird, xxii. 542 (1935), the combination here ascribed t<> them 
only through leniency or courtesy, since the} failed U, giv< the 
essential citation of the name-bringing synonym. 

In their Annotated Catalogue of the Flowering Plants of Missouri. 
Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. xxii. no. 3 (1935) Palmer & Steyennark re- 
peatedly made new combinations similar to their t'h mutis vmjnumm, 
var. missouriensis, in which they cite only the name and never the 
place of publication OF the description upon which the combina- 
tion is based. The validity of such transfers is open to serious doubt. 
The essential task of connecting the new combination with the funda- 
mental diagnosis is left to all who wish to know what is meant. The 
International Rules seem to be clear on this point. Article 44 reads: 



The 
published unless 



■ 



showing essential ,-l ara.-tn- ut tins applies „nh to plates or figures 
>:,ry 1, 1908. . ,o™w.;,/,. ,>„/„•»- 



siagnosis _. - 
(,;■;, ,,p_> mil.;, ( ./muiehum mnil, \\mau (>} 

published wit 



,- i.ni.l 



,p,.rly 



the original reference 



Boiss. &: Ilel 



have The p 
,e to learn where and when lt^lbei- published U .at,* ■■ > - 
-. ,;.; i pp. ,d :.-:■. ■ 
out what Palmer & Steyennark mean len : 

„,1„ a V,o,,l,i , , ' 

., ,i.;„..t».»w .-mil other.- like them ha\« 



been much c 

modern cases, with the rules clearly known and professed to be fol- 
lowed, the putting out of names which may by good luck barely "get 
by" or whose acceptance depends wholly on the good-nature and 
friendly consideration of other botanists, rather than upon accurate 
meeting of the full but simple requirements of valid publication, is 
not commendable. If in these days the author of a new combination 
cannot or will not cite the bibliographic source, he is not prepared to do 
accurate transferring. 

Whether or not Clematis nrfjhihwn, var. wlxsoiirii nsis was a validly 
published combination, the taxonomic fact is, that it has little, if any, 
geographic segregation from C. rirtiiuiaua. The key-differences given 
in Britton's Manual are, that C. virginiana has "Leaves glabrate or 
nearly so; achenes with a thick obtuse margin," C. missouriemis 
having "Leaves decidedly silky beneath ; a<henes marginless." Plenty 
of C. virginiaiia from Ontario. Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Eng- 
land has the leaves as densely and permanently " silky "-pilose beneath 
as in sheets specially marked by Rydberg as C. missouriensis; and 
mature fruit of the latter displays quite as prominent margins as the 
less pubescent plants. As a mere form with leaves densely and per- 
manently pilose beneath it should have a designation; I cannot look 
upon it as a good variety. 

American Parnassia palustris (Plates 470 and 471). In 1926, 
misidentifying the characteristic plant of northern i\merica, from Lab- 
rador and Newfoundland nearly across the continent, as Parnassia 
palustris, 0. multiseta Ledeb. Fl. Ross. i. 263 (1842) and noting its 
many departures from typical /'. jmlitxfrix L. of Eurasia, I proposed 
an American and eastern Asiatic species, P. multiseta (Ledeb.) Fernald 
in Rhodora, xxviii. 211 (1926). Subsequently Dr. Eric Hulten 1 has 
shown that true P. palustris, £. multiseta of Ledebour, the Asiatic 
plant, is not different from typical P. palustris. At the same time 
Hulten was inclined to place the American plant near /\ palus-trix, 
var. tenuis Wahlenberg, El. Lapp. 74 (1S12). 

Granted that the type of Parnassia palustris, $. multiseta, there- 
fore the type of P. multiseta, is inseparable from typical P. palustris 
(plate 470) it becomes necessary to find a proper name for the wide- 
ranging American plant (plate 471, figs. 1-8), for it is not satisfactory 
to refer it to var. tenuis (plate 471, figs. 9-11). I have, therefore, 
restudied the series and agree with Hulten that the broadly dis- 
persed American plant is best treated as a geographic variety of P. 

> Hulten, Fl. Kamtch. iii. 36 (1929). 



1937] Fernald, — Nomenclatural Transfers 311 

palustris— so strong a variety that to many it would stand unques- 
tioned as a species. The distinctions are brought out in plates 470 and 
471 (all details X 2) as well as can be done in view of the very slight 
color-contrasts in the flowers. These may be summarized as follows: 
P. palustris (typical). Cauline leaf rounded-ovate; calyx-lobes firm, 
ol.lomj ■■: <■ Hi tic kirelv half as long as mature capsule, loosely ascending 

or merely round-tipped or obtuse, with about i:< < > ir-pi.-uous nerves and 
nerve-branches, soon deciduous; staminodia tapering below to narrow 
claws. Eurasia and Behring Sea region of Alaska. Plate 4,0. 

P paltjstki* var. (American). Cauline leaf deltoid-ovate, sub- 
:u . imi inMt« '"us, linear-lanceolate to lance-oblong, 

two-thirds as long as to longer than capsule, less divergent or reflated m 

with 7-11 faint nerves and nerve-branches, marcescent; stun 

shorter and broader claws. Labrador to interior Alaska and locally 

southward. Plate 471, figs. 1-8. 

In the Behring Sea region of Alaska some plants are quite typical 
Pamassia palustris, others (plate 470, fig. 6) show evident transitu*. 



to the continental American phi 



of the very evident 



Alaska between the two extremes I am treating 
the continental plant of North America as a geographic variety rather 
than as a species. It is not satisfactory to place it with var. tmws. 
The latter plant superficially resembles ours in its cauline leaf plate 
471, fig. 9) but it has much smaller flowers (figs. 10 and 11', with 
narrower petals subemarginate to broadly rounded at tip as m ////'"''"' 
P palustris with the narrow-clawed staminodia of the latter plant, 
an ,|, in anthesis, with the ovary very small. I have not seen good 
fruit of it. However, our generally dispersed variety of P. palustns 
is so well defined that I am calling it 
Parnassia palustris L., var. neogaea, var. nov < i u< 1.1. h- 

^;;.^ -: ' ■■■■■■■■■■- 



211,212 (1926), 



; i 



Sea region of Alaska and from Kamtchatka and that from California 
belong to P. palustris, var. neogaea. 

, Rehder; figs. 2 and 3, expanded 
b collection as fig. 1; fig. 4, expand 
August 2, 1888, Gebhardt; fig. 5, expanded flower, from Esthonia, Sir</<> in 
Eston. PI. no. 63; fig. 6, expanded flower, transitional to var. neogaea, from 
Kotzebue Sown 7. fruitimj calyx and capsule, from 

una, Petrak, Fl. Bohem. et Morav. Esxicc, Lfg. " 
lyx and ( 
fig. 9, fruiting ca 

Plate 471, details X 2. Parnassia 
fig. 1, type, X Y%, from L tl nald & Gilbert, 

no. 28,481; fig. 2, expand© 
Fernald, Long d :.. the n pb; 

fig. 4, expand- > Cove, Pistolet Bay, Ne\ 

Wiujund, Gil- u \rmk, Vl:.-k:i. ./. M'. 

Chapman, no. 'J x and opened capsule, from St. Karhe, 

: itg. 7, fruiting calyx and 
iule, from Turtle Lake, Minnesota, Augt I :<:. 8, fruiting 

and opened capsule, from Churchill, Manitoba, G. Gardner, no. 4*1. 
. tenuis Wahlenb.: fig. 9, cauline leaf, from Dudinskoje (lat. 69° 23'), 
' ' -' / ■ ■. . r,, i ;, : | , io ; expanded flower, from Switzerland, 

, • ■ : ■ , ■ 
from Skutustadir-Myvatu, Iceland, July 14, 1895, E 

Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br., var. minor (Lehm.), comb, now 
li. armor Lehm. in Xov. Act. Nat. Cur. xiv. S03 ( 1Sl><)>. li. nuttnilis p. 
Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 385 (1840).— Differing from typical B. 
australis in its shorter-petioled and firmer leaves, with the larger 
mature leaflets only 1.5-4 cm. long.— The representative of the wood- 
land, eastern U .. -■■■■'...■ ,,,, : -, „ky prairies, in ravines and in open 
woods from Missouri and Kansas to Texas. 

B. australis, var. minor seems to me a good geographic variety of 
B. australis, comparable with varieties of many other species in the 
more open and arid region west of the Mississippi, in having firmer 
and smaller foliage. I get no good differences of flower or fruit to 
separate it from the Alleghenian B. australis. 1 1 is prul >si ble 1 1 1 a t 1 1 1 is 
plant was partly in mind when B. vespertina was published. The latter 
appeared as B. vespertina Small in Rydherg, 11 Prair. PI. 456 (1932), 
with a range given like that of B. australis, var. minor, the only 
member of the genus there treated by Rydberg with blue flowers, but 
described as having "stipe of the pod longer than the body." No 
form of the blue-flowered B. australis has such a stipe and I have 
never seen one in the genus; ordinarily it is barely exserted from the 
calyx and one-eighth to one-tenth as long as the body. No type is 
cited and it is surmised that li. n */„ rtiini was ehnnsilv and erroneously 



1937] Fernald— Nomenclatural Transfers 313 

described; the blue-flowered liaptisia of Uydhergs area has very 
short and upwardly dilated stipes. 

As to the typification of var. minor, one of Lehmann's specimens of 
his B. minor is in the Gray Herbarium. It is the small-leaved south- 
western extrt 

Astragali 
no. 24: 51 (1933). Plate 472, figs. 9-13. 

I am quite unable to find in var. gaspcnsis constant dillerenees 
from Eurasian Astragalus frigidvs and its western North American 
var. amcricanus (Hook.) Watson. Only on the slightly smaller leg- 
umes can the Gaspe plant be separated from the latter, winch by such 
conservative and universally respected students as Sir William Hooker, 
Torrey, Bunge, Gray and Watson was considered only an American 
variety of the circumboreal A. frigidus. This -pre.es. treated by 
Ledebour (Fl. Ross.) as a series of slightly dillVrmg varieties am- 
Europe and Siberia, has at least three varieties in North Amenca. 
Bv Marcus E. Jones the Rocky Mountain plant was taken up as a 
species, A. amcricanus (Hook.) Jones, but he did not separate off the 
Gaspe plant; neither did Rydberg (N. Am. IT) I But Rousseau, in 
his student-thesis on L,s Attragnh* du Quel,,,; treat- the Gaspe 
material as constituting a definite species with several reputec cor 

St: rifilil C t e difficult to understand how Rousseau got his idea of 
typical Astragalus frigidus of Europe. His comparative note is as 
follows: 

t > l ™,.™W S differe de VA frigidus de l'Europe (fig. 13) par le 

tektivement moins long. VA. ff*pens» J£**« utrt imfmt 
generalement plus court et plus obtus aux deux bouts. 

Rousseau (p. 45) describes Astragalus frigidu* of Europe as havmg 
"Calice: tube (long. 7 mm., circonf. 6-7.5 mm.) reconvert .l«n, pu- 
bescence noire; dents (long. env. 1 mm.) noires, ai.mu- ... a 
e t „,-„„* reconverts d'une pubescence noire et dense. 

SulTd^Itln and comparative note, with en,pha sis npon b.a. 
pubescence c 
of the "fusiform" "a 



; of the calyx-tube, black teeth and dense black pubescence 



5 of .1. gaapmsis. 



glabro; dentibt 



314 Rhodora [August 

.... leguminibus ovoidibus, obtusis ad apices, . . . glabris"; and Rous- 
seau publishes drawings (his fig. 13, here reproduced, in part, as figs. 
6 and 11) to bring out his points. 

As stated, it is not clear how Rousseau acquired his conception of 
true A. frigidus. Linnaeus in 1755, in the 2d edition of his Flora 
Sueciea, gave a detailed account of the plant, Phaca alpina, which 
under Astragalus, is A. frigidus. His "Calyx campatiulutus, glnbcr, 
dt ntibusfuscis"* was unequivocal. So was his account, in 1763, of the 
" Legumeii . . . ci/limlricii-ornfiini. ttiLspi rsitm pilis raris.'"- A. P. Decan- 
dollc, describing Phaca frig Ida in 1802, said "Calyx . . . pallidus, 
ghibcr." 3 Gradually, as material has accumulated, it lias been realized 
that the calyx-tube may be either quite glabrous or sparsely pubescent. 
We accordingly find Rouy saying "Calice . . . presque glabre a la base, 
couvert de poils noirs au sommet"; 4 and Ascherson & Graebner, 
"Kelch . . . am Grande fast kahl, oberwarts schwa rz behaart." 5 Of 
the inflorescences of European A. frigidus in the Gray Herbarium most 
show, upon careful search, a few scattered dark strigae on the calyx- 
tube (figs. 2, 3, and 5) but 10 specimens (fig. 4) show none whatever. 
Sufficient search in the American material, which usually has glabrous 
calyx-tubes, will reveal similar trichomes. Fig. 14 is of a calyx from 
Stacctrdson Brown, no. 1250, from Maligne Lake, Alberta, of A. fri- 
gidus, var. amrriranus, which, because of its "glabrous" calyx Rous- 
seau maintains as a species, A. aiuericanus, separate from A. frigidus. 
As an absolute specific character the glabrousness is rather fickle. 

The tendency to black trichomes on the borders of the calyx-teeth 
in the European Astragalus frigidus seems to be general, though very 
variable, some specimens barely showing it. In var. gaspensis (fig. 
10) the minute pubescence of the teeth is whitish. In var. gaspensis, 
too, as in var. umrricauus, the legume is glabrous, in typical A. fri- 
gidus and in var. littoralis (Hook.) Wats, it is pubescent; but in the 
European plant the pubescence is so short (fig. 8) that, in first pub- 
lishing Phaca frigida, Linnaeus said "legum . . . subpilosis";* and 
later authors specially note its shortness; " kurz rauhhaarig" (Aschers. 
(£• (irarbn,.), "courtement pubescents" (Rouy). In lacking this very 
short strigose pubescence the legumes of var. gaspmsis can readily be 



1937] Fernald— Nomenclatural Transfers 315 

distinguished from those of the European plant; but in size and out- 
line I do not get satisfaction in applying Rousseau's stated and il- 
lustrated differences (see figs. 6 and 11). Fig. 1 is a fruiting raeeme 
of typical A. frigidus from Haute-Savoie; fig. 9 a similar but riper 
raceme of var. gaspcnsis from the Bonaventure River, Quebec. Ex- 
cept for the more shrunken and smaller calyx of the Quebec plant ami 
the lack of minute hairs on its legumes I see no appreciable difference, 
surely nothing specific. 

So far as I can see the two American plants. Axfrngulux jriyxhix, 
var. americanus and var. gaspctisis are vegetatively tall extremes of a 
circumboreal species, differing from the Eurasian type also in having 
glabrous legumes and more generally (but not always) glabrous calyx- 
tubes and paler calvx-teeth. hi size of fruit var. gaspcnsis scarcely 
differs from typical A. frigidus, but its calyx is usually a little shorter. 
Var. amn-ieanvs has the fruit rather larger (the body 2-2.0 cm. long, 
that of var. gaspensis 1.5-2.2 cm. long). 

In plate 472 fig. 1 is a fruiting raceme, X 1, ol 

FeJnald & Pea,e;_ fig. 6, Rousseau's,) 



avou !),!■; 



- 



Little Cascaped 



.. , ,, KouUuPs illustration, X 1, of legun. 

i ; .mo 1 <riiino 1 <>i ' " ' lroln ,h( n ' [ ~ n V 

CcOins, FernaU A 



legume, X 1, ot var. oat 

Quebec, July 20 ami ■ 

surface of legume, X 10, of A frigid *.!>»■ < 
:<-, X 10, <»t var. <ju*i ■- ■ 



!:une as fig 6) 
"aSiTaGALVS ALPINT8 I,, var. l^B^icm (l^X^nh. J.OV J. 

,/,„■;,.„* 1>C I'rodr. ii. 287 (1825 ; Rousseau, 
Montreal, no. 24: 24 > 

RHODORA,X.51(1908),.i.tophnt. i. - 1 " '^ |(] ( h / ( _ 
Rousseau clearly shows thai the 

(jalus alpinns, var. Bruiirtiai lit i i^ ^ ^ ^ * ir )ttulits 

the plant of the St. L«n\reuc< an< <> ' ' ^ ^ ^^ ,. s ^n- 

Michx. and ,1. labradoricus DC, - , ~ ft ^ 

tially straight and son, ',. Connect!- 



316 Rhodora [August 

designated type of var. Brunetianus being Fernald, no. 24 from Fort 
Fairfield, Maine, the latter name must be reserved for the plant with 
arcuate legumes. I am not able fo follow Rousseau, however, in 
treating A. Brunetianus (Fern.) Rousseau, 1. c. 30 (1933) and A. labra- 
doricus as species distinct from the circumpolar A. alpinus, and, 
above all, as themselves specifically separate. As a normally varying 
circumpolar species A. alpinus is quite typical; scores of circumpolar 
species show very similar slight changes as they push southward into 
ecologically quite different temperate areas. Furthermore, as a 
species A. alpinus (including vars. labradoricus, Brunrtiauux and 
some others) stands quite clearly apart from its several allies (with 
plump stipitate legumes with a narrow partial septum — Rydberg's 
Atekphragma) in densely matted habit, compact raceme with rachis 
scarcely or barely elongating, and strongly reflexed and imbricated 
fruits. The varietal (to Rousseau specific) differences are those of 
degree of pubescence and size and a slight difference of form of the 
legume, not significant structural differences. Rousseau's key fol- 

Legumes fortement pubescents; tube du calice (long. 3 mm.); 

ailes de la corolle (larg. 2.5-5 mm.) 3. A. alp-inns. 

Legumes legerement pubescents, plus greles; tube du calice 

court (long. 2-2.5 mm.); ailes de la corolle (larg. max. 2.5 

5 de la corolle (larg. 2-2.5 mm.); legumes droits, gonfles, 
i corolle (larg. 1.5 mm.); legume* rourb.V, un pen 



In typical A. alpinus the pubescence of the legume is, indeed, 
denser than in the two varieties of southeastern Canada and New 
England; but in plenty of European (typical) A. alpinus I find the 
calyx-tube as short as or even shorter than Rousseau's 3 mm. (barely 
2 mm. in Mine. Crozet-Bourgeau's material from Haute-Savoie; 
2-2.5 mm. in Fiori, Beguinot & Pampanini's no. 465 from Italy; 
barely 2 mm. in Blytt's from Norway; 2.5 in Schrenck's from Lapland; 
2.3-2.7 mm. in Tolmatschew's no. 2S5 from Novaja Semlia, etc.), 
though in some specimens the calyx-tube does reach a length of 3 mm. 
In boreal America likewise.it is easy to find fully flowering material 
of A. alpinus with calyx-tubes only 2-2.5 mm. long, though, as in 
Kurasia, they may reach a length of 3 mm. 

As to the ver\ narrow wing-petals (only 1.5 mm. broad) ascribed by 
Rousseau to var. Bran, lianas, it is not without significance that the 



1937] Fernald, — Nomenclatural Transfers oil 

type specimen (Fernald, no. 24) should show wings 2..") mm. broad 
and that well-prepared specimens in full anthesis from the same region 
(St. John valley) should have wing-petals 3 mm. broad. 

Incidentally two collections from Pigeon Lake in Drunnnond, May- 
field County, Wisconsin, are instructive. The first, collected by Lud- 
low Griscom, June 19, 1928, closely matches Scandinavian material 
of A. alpinus, forma arriinm Sonden in Svensk Mot. Tidskr. i. 233 
(1907) in its very large and deeply colored flowers and in the dense 
black or black-and-white pilosity of the legumes, but in outline the 
latter are quite like those of var. Brunvtiamtx, in winch the pubescence 
is sparse and short. This material, consequently, -ta.nh nudwa.v be- 
tween the deepest -colored and largest-flowered extreme of A. nlpniu.t 



md the plant with sparsely strigose and falcat 


c legume 


.ecotne accentuated and widespread in the va 


lleys of 


wick and adjacent Quebec and of northern New 


Kngk.nd. 
vas collec 


series from the same station on Pigeon bake \ 


28, 1934, by A 7 . C. Fassctt (no. 16,481) but th 


«■ I-a^rlt 



t; and even Rydberg « 
ns (Hook.) Rydb.) is t 



318 Rhodora [August 

to be the strigose-pubescent calyx and large fruit of A. mcvicaniis as 
against the more loosely pilose calyx and slightly smaller fruits in var. 
trichocalyx. 

Astragalus neglectus (T. & G.) Sheldon, forma limonius (Far- 
well), comb, nov. Pluim inqlrrtji, forma /.////n„/„ Farwell in Papers 
Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts, Lett. iii. 100 (1924). 

Amphicarpa bracteata (L.) Fern., var. comosa (L.), comb. nov. 
(Unci,,, comosa I, Sp. PI. ii. "A (1753). .1. moxoica, var. comosa 
Eaton, Man. ed. 3: 172 (1822). A. comosa (L.) G. Don in Loud. Hort. 
Brit. 314 (1830); Fern, in Rhodora, xxxv. 276 1933). A. PUehen 
Torr. & Grav, VI X. Am. i. 202 (1838). A. bracteata, var. Pitcheri 
(Torr. & Gray), Fassett in Rhodora, xxxviii. 95 (1936). 

Upon studying the genus in detail I agree with Fassett that the 
coarser and more villous plant with deeper-colored flowers is a good 
variety rather than a distinct species. As a variety it should take the 
first varietal designation used for it which, happily, is its first name, 
also, as a species. 



allhh K. Koch ace. to Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees and Shrubs, 5X0 

The form of Acs-oil us (jlahra with the leaflet- permanently pubescent 
beneath is at best a forma not a geographic variety. Vars. Irnmxhrmis 
Sargent and Sartjoitil Rehder, with restricted ranges at the western 
border of the specific range, are true geographic varieties. Although 
I bhder ascribes the combination "var. jmHiihr to Karl Koch, it was 
apparently not proposed hy him. Koch looked upon the plant as a 
mere form, but did not make any combination : 

Man besitzt auch eine Form, wo die Blattchen auf der Unterflache 
weichhaarig sind und daher dasell.si ein helleres Ansehen hesitzen. 
Willdenow hat diese Form unter dem Namen Aesculus pallida 
fenuni. pi. hurt. Berol. KM) untersehieden, wahrend S p a c h sie P a V i a 
pallida gennant hat (ann. d. sc. nat. 2, ser. II, 54) } 

Ae. octandra Marsh., forma virginica (Sarg.) comb. nov. Ac. 
ortandra, var. virginica Sarg. Journ. Am. Arb. ii. 119 (1920). 

Differing from the yellow-flowered t\ p. only in red, pink or pinkish- 

Ae. octandra, forma vestita (Sarg.) comb. nov. Ae. octandra, 

var. rcsfifa Sarg. Journ. Am. Arb. v. 42 (1924). 

Differing from the type only in having the leaflets densely tomentu- 
lose beneath. 



1937] Fernald, — Nomenclatural Transfers 

An x\berrant Dodecatheon (Plate 473).— We becoi 
customed to the essential stability of floral morphology ; 
our classifications largely upon it. But occasionally so sti 
parture from the normal occurs as to confuse the situation 
as to throw possible new light on the progenitors of the 

(peloria), a Pyrola with erect flowers and non-mvertcd ai 
o.ri/prtala Aust.) are of this -roup, departures from the pi 

note and thoughtful consideration. The genus Doiitvui, 

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Miss Alice Stnckler, tmin 
stone cliffs along Chickies Creek, in western Lancaster 
very remarkable reversionary colony of I)u<Ircath,vn - 1 
Dividing the clump and leaving half in its original sta 
Strickler transferred a portion to her home-garden nearb) 
has subsequently been several times redivided. In the ongi 
and in the transplanted portions the flowers have retain© 
ginal form (plate 473), slenderly campamilate, with calyx-a 
segments all ascending, suggesting the flower of a helhvort 
A friend of Miss Strickler, Louise F. \ Tange] Mi- < 
Tanger), who has supplied me with beautiful herbarmm-i 
the plant and details of its discovery, writes that the see 
parently not viable, a condition to he expected if polhna 
pendent on the insects which regularly visit typical D. . 
similar sterility has been noted in a parallel aberration in 
this cyclamen with non-reflexed segmentating 1 HI T'" 
vegetatively in cultivation (s< 



Ralph H. We 



the original s 



> examined the pollen ot tJi 
to be perfectly good. 

ig of 1934 Mrs. Tanger and a group of frie, 
and in 1935 and 1936 additional clumps ^ 






limestone cliff where the stra 
Mrs. Tanger, the best remai 
beautiful American Cowslip, 



destn 



Mrs.' 



320 Rhodora [August 

one showing typical J). Meudia with rehexed perianths side-by-side 
with the aberrant form, the other a single clump of the latter, here 
reproduced as fig. 2. It is a pleasure permanently to associate with 
so interesting a plant the name of its discoverer, Alice Strickler. 

Dodecatheon Meadia L., forma Stricklerae (tab. 473) perianthii 
segmentis valde adsccndentibus, nee reHexis, comllis hinc tubuloso- 
eampanulatis.— Pennsylvania: limestone cliffs along duckies Creek. 
Lancaster Countv, discovered by Alirr Striehl, r; typk. in Cray Herb., 
collected May 1, 1936, by L. F. A. T anger & Emma Graff. 

Galium tinctorium L., var. subbiflorum (Wieg.), comb. nov. G. 
tnfiduw, var. suUlfinrun, Wiry, in Mull. Torr. Mot. CI. xxiv. 399 (1897). 
g'. subbiflorum (Wieg.) Kydb. in hull. Torr. Mot. CI. xxxiii. 152 (1906). 
G. Claithmi, var. aubbiflorum (Wieg.) Wieg. in Rhodora, xii. 229 
(1910). 

I fully concur in Wiegand's second decision that var. subbiflorum 
belongs with Galium Claytoni Michx., rather than with G. trifidum. 
As I showed, however, in Rhodora, xxxvii. 445, t. 403, figs. 1 and 2 
(1935), the type and the original description of G. tinctorium L. (1753) 
belong to the plant described by Michaux in 1803 as G. Claytoni, not 
to the plant (6'. obtusum Bigel.) to which Wiegand assigned the name 
G. tinctorium. In the West, where typical G. Clai/toiii is rare or un- 
known, var. subbiflorum is tolerably clear and, considered for that 
area alone, might be treated as a distinct species (if it can really be 
kept apart specifically from G. Brandcgci Gray) ; but in the Northeast 
(in Newfoundland, Quebec, northern New Kngland, the Adirondack* 
and the Upper Great Lakes region), it and typical G. tinctorium have 
to be separated somewhat mechanically. 

Volume 39, no. 468, including pages 233-276 and plates 460-465, was issued 
14 July, 1937. 




Brunetianus, o 

var. facinorum, 317; frigidus, 616- 
: ; 1 r, pi. 172, var. americanus, 313- 
31.5, pi. 472, var. gaspensis, 313- 



315, 316;'mexicani 
trichocalyx, 317, 



Atelnphiaguia, 316; elegans, 317 



Compositae 






298, 30.5, var. f 
trifoliatum, 297, 298, 



320; trifidum, 3: 

Geoprumnon mexic: 

chocalvx, 317 
Glycine comosa, 318 

Hieraciotheca gallica 
Hieracium Flahault 

Linaria vulgaris, 319 



,,.,<:. 3()V» 30S, pi. 469, var. 
hirsutior, 307. 3i>s. pi. 469, var 
hystricina, 307, 308, pi 469, var. 
setifera, 307, 308, pf 469, var. 
tvpica, 307, pi. 469, The Varieties 
:i , 308, virgimana, 
..,, 308, var. lati- 



Onobrychis eul.ry. 



ina, 314; tr 
neglecta, I 
Pyrola, 319; oxypetala, ,i 



licsiiiocaulon perfoliatuiti 



IV22 



ilphium, 281; albiflorum : 

august urn, 203; asperrimum, 282, 

var. ansustatum, 293; atropur- 
pureum, 284, 290; brachiatum 

collinum, 294; compositum 



Michauxii, 294, 
5, y. ovatifolii 

ifoliuni, 29(5, \ 
."i."); c-oiifcrtitViliuni, 



Klli.-ttii. 2«):; : 
, 289, T~ ' 



Deamii,~^;,~287, var. Gatting- 
eri, 2S:i, 287, 0. laeve, 28" 

i. -Mi, var. tfi 



i, 297; laevigatum, 



rum, 285, 292; > 

■::. _'vS,288;simi ;1 
_".U; sp<-ci.)sum, 282, 286; ter 
thinamim, 2s4, 294, 211.-), 
pinnatifidum, 2S4, 294, var. 




I >()l)K<'.vn||.; ( i\ M 



A CYTO-TAXONOMIC SURVEY OF THE NORTH 
AMERICAN SPECIES OF IRIS. 



By Robert C. Foster. 



THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS.. U. S. A. 

November, 1937. 



A CYTO-TAXONOMIC SUtVKY OF THE NORTH 
AMERICAN SPEC IKS OF IRIS. 



THE GRAY HERBARIUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., V. S. A. 



By Robert C. Foster. 



In no sense is this study intended for a monographic treatmei 
the North American species of Iri*. Beginning as a purely eytolo 
study, it has developed, in addition, into an investigation <>t 
taxonomy and distribution of these species. From the outset, it 
clear that equal emphasis and, hence, equal treatment could nc 
given all the groups studied. Aside from the apparent prolifer; 
of species in Louisiana and, to a lesser degree, in Florida, the 
taxonomic problems seemed to be those involving the two we: 
subsections, the CaHfonrirai and the Lmnji \,< ftilar, groups eonfin* 



plentiful, and better-preserve 





thout 


involving 


imental structural differences. Others have 1 


>een 


due to the 


that the cytological evidence, entirely indepem: 


lent ( 


>f such dis- 








e study, indicates a hybrid origin for most, ii 




all, of the 


•ies" described from the Louisiana region in 


the 


last fifteen 


b Bull. Amer.IrisSoc.no. 57: 3-56 (1935). 







What are the "fundamental structural differences" upon which 
species have been separated in the present study? Capsules, seeds, 
the nature of the stigmatic lip, the type and length of the perianth- 
tube, and the character of the spathes have been the principal struc- 
tures studied. Stems, leaves, rhizomes, and color as a thing in itself 
have been regarded as of less value, although rhizome-differences can 
be of value in separating larger units than species. At the same time, 
no character which remains relatively constant in a group has been 

their length relative to the style-branches, the length of the anther 
relative to the filament, and the length of the pedicel at anthesis have 
all been found useful. The final test, particularly in the western 
species, where necessity has occasionally forced drawing the lines of 
separation rather finely, has been that of geography. In nearh every 
case examined, groups segregated on the basis of morphological 
characteristics were found to occupy rather definite, often compact, 
geographic zones. I should like, however, to emphasize the fact that 
the geographic test was never applied until after all determinations 
of specimens had been made, and that no determination was ever 
changed as a result of the geographic test. 

In view of the fact that this is not a monographic study of all or 
part of the genus, it has not seemed necessary, or even desirable, to 
include an historical sketch. A succinct account, to 1913, can be 
found in Dykes's monograph, The Genus Iris, a work based almost 
as much on a study of living plants as on study of herbarium speci- 
mens. To place the American species in their proper perspective 
involves a brief survey of the genus as a whole. At certain places, 
disagreement with Dykes's treatment is suggested, but any detailed 
discussion of these points would be out of place here. 

This large and cosmopolitan genus is found widespread throughout 
the northern hemisphere; no certain record is known of the natural 
occurrence of any species of Iris south of the equator. Conservatively 
speaking, it has at least one hundred and fifty members, although 
recent work on the Central European and Near Eastern specie- has 
resulted in a considerable increase in number. The genus can be 
divided into two major groups: those possessing rhizomatous root- 
stocks, and those possessing bulbous rootstocks. The latter group 
was for many years split off from Iris but was reunited by Baker 1 and 
Dykes. 2 I am inclined increasingly to believe the older view correct, 



not only on morphological 
bulbous species ure groupec 
the Mediterranean, in the 
Bokhara, Turkestan, and A 
and the ranges of the grouj 



ises, because it possesses a tuberous rooistock, not unlike that 
crocallis. 

ided into seven sections, most of which are small and found in 
ly small areas. Section I'oyoiriris. wln'cli contains most of the 
Irises, is fairly large and widely distributed in the Old World. 
Portugal it extends eastward to Kashmir, northward into 
and Hungary, and southward into Mediterranean Africa. 
it, eertain subgroup- are to be distinguished, whose morpho- 
differenees are accompanied by chromosomal differences. 
e rhizomatous series, the largest and most widespread group 
>n Ajuujou, whose members lack the multicellular beard on the 
characteristic of section Pogoniris. So varied are the members 



titiii'iiished l>\ 
two species in 
are found in ( 



found on this continent, and of these, only one, Tripetalae, is found 
elsewhere. 

A detailed account of procedure is unnecessary. Sections of root- 
tips were prepared by the usual paraffin technique, utilizing various 
fixatives and stains. Benda's modification of Flemming's solution 
and crystal violet stain were found to be the best, in spite of an un- 
fortunate tendency of the stain to fade. Drawings of chromosomes 
were made on two different Zeiss microscopes, at different magnifi- 

In the case of large groups, the technical treatment of each species 
has usually been followed by some discussion, but the members of 
smaller groups have usually been treated in a general discussion of 
the subsection in question. 

No review of cyto-taxonomy has been included here, although 
numerous papers were read for this purpose. Most of them contain 
routine determinations of chromosome numbers, with an attempt to 
arrange the counts in accordance with the prevailing elassilicatioii 
of the group being investigated. ()nl\ seldom has any real taxonomic 
work been done by the cytologist . There arc a few outstanding papers 
in cyto-taxonomy, such as the work of liruun on Primula} Clausen 
on Viola? Manton on the Criirifcrar;* and such cyto-genctic studies as 
those of Muntang on Gedeopsis, 4 and Babcock and Navashin on 
Cn pi/' have a marked taxonomic background. Simonet's work on 
im 6 is sometimes marked by less consideration of taxonomy than of 
cytology. For an excellent survey of cyto-taxonomy, reference may 
be made to Bruun's study of Primula. 

Acknowledgments. 

Begun as a cytological study . this aspect of the work has been done 
under the supervision of Professor Karl Sax. The taxonomic aspect 
has been done under the guidance of Professor M. L. Fernald. To 
both, I should like to express my appreciation of their unfailing kind- 
ness and generous helpfulness. To Mr. C. A. Weathcrby, Dr. L. B. 
Smith, Miss It. ]>. Sanderson, and Miss M. VY. Stone, of the Gray 
Herbarium staff, I should like to indicate tin gratitude for their 
unstinted assistance to a cytologist astray in taxonomic fields. For 

« See Bruun in Symb. Bot. Upsal. i. 1-329 (1932). 

4 See Mtintzing in Hereditas xiii. 185-341 (1930); Heralitas xiv. 153-172 (1930). 



numerous helpful suggestions, living plants, and permission in u>e 
material, I am under considerable obligations to Dr. 
Edgar Anderson, of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Material of living plains was secured from various sources, but in 
particular I am indebted to Dr. John K. Small, of the New York 
Botanical Garden, who on two occasions made generous donations of 
the forms discovered by him in Louisiana. Thanks are due also to 
Mrs. Wheeler H. Peckham, through whom these gifts from Dr. Small 
were sent. Other material was secured from the Iris garden at Con- 
necticut College, and to Dr. G. S. Avery, Jr. I am grateful for 
permission To make extensive collections of root-tips. 

Herbarium material has been seen from the following sources: 
Gray Herbarium (G); New England Botanical Club L\E); New York 
Botanical Garden (NY); United States National Herbarium (US); 
Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG); Rocky Mountain Herbarium of 
the University of Wyoming (KM); California Academy of Sciences 
(CA); Willamette University (W); University of Oregon (O); Mr. J. 
W. Thompson, of Seattle, Washington (JWT). To all who have so 
generously lent material, I am much indebted. 

The photographs for the plates have been made by Mr. E. C. Ogden. 

Section Evansia. 



sepal-blade. 

Iris cristata Aiton. Rhizome very slender, with k 

stolons bearing dark brown remnant sheaths at the node 
the stolons producing the living lateral shoots, a series 
lanceolate-ovate, over-lapping, scarious sheathing leave: 
brown mid-ribs; true leaves -1 .". in a fan. light green, sor 
lowisli green, broadly ensiform, with a few subpromir 
3-25 cm. long, 0.5-2.5 cm. wide at flowering time, later 



emnrginate ( 



between blade 
i the blade, with 
the end of the three-ridged, toothed, 
orange-white central crest ascending the claw, the white mark streaked 
and bordered with a darker purple than the rest of the blade; petals 
somewhat shorter, obovate-oblanceolate, possibly with a more defi- 
nite claw than the sepaF, lilac-purple; style-arms about 1.5 cm. long, 
pale lilac; style-crests about 7 mm. long, semi-ovate, crenate; stigma 
entire, rounded-oblong; filaments ± 6 mm. long; anthers ± 7 mm. 
long; capsule quite small, oval, triangular in cross-section, 1.2 cm. 
long, hidden in the spathes, said to dehisce completely while still 
green; sn-ds brown, oval, with a gelatinous aril coiled around them.— 
Ilort. Kew.i. 70 (1789); Smith, Spied. Hot. 12, T. 13 (1791 92); Curtis 
in Bot. Mag. xii. t. 412 (1798); Michaux, Flor. Bor.-Amer. i. 22 
(1803); IVrsoon, Synops. PL i. 50 (1805); Redoute, Lil. vii. t. 376 
i I si:;, ; Klliott, Sk. Bot. S. Car. & Ga. i. 44 (1816); Pursh, Flor. Amer. 
Sept. i. 29 (1816); Ker, Iri.l. (Jen. 55 (1S27); Baker in .loiirn. Linn. 
Soc, Bot. xvi. 143 (1877); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 23 (1892); Britton 
and Brown, Illust. Fl. (ed. I ) i. 451 (1896); Robinson and Fen, aid in 
Grav, Man. (ed. 7) 301 (1908); Dykes, Genus Iris 106 (1913); Small, 
Flor. Se. F. S. (ed. 2) 305 (1913); Dvkes. Handbk. Gard. Ir. 84 (1924); 
Small in Addisonia ix. (13, pi. 320 (1921); Waller in Ohio .lour.,. Sci. 
xxxi. 34 (1931). Iris odorata Persoon, Synops. PL i. 53 (1805), fide 
Ker, 1. c, and Baker (1892). .Xmh, <!,■;,, crixtatn ( Ait. ) Alefeld in Bot. 
Zeitung xxi. 297 (1863); Small, Man. S. E. Fl. 331 (1933).— Rich 
woods, or well-drained, moist, and cool soils, in partial shade; south- 
eastern a nd central U. S., west to eastern Oklahoma. Specimens seen : 
District of Columbia: Washington, Mav 9, 1898, E. S. Strrlr (G); 
near Washington, Mav 8, 1879, L. F. Ward (G). Virginia: Tobacco 
RowMt., Apr. 30, 1903, M. A. Cor (G); Smvth Co., Marion, middle 
fork of the Holston River, Mav 22, 1892, ./'. K. Small (G); Goshen 
Pass, Apr. 30, 1915, J. R. Churchill (G). West Virginia: Hunting- 
ton, May 18, 1928, F. A. Gilbert, no. 87 (G). Ohio: Trumbull Co., 
without loealitv, Mav, ISSS. A'. //. Ingraham (G);Rockv River. May, 
1897, G. B. Ashcroft (25,795 in RM). Kentucky: Natural Bridge. 
May 23, 1931 , />'. ('. Str/du n.s-nn (121,131 & 121.132 in KM); Irvine- 
Estil] Springs, May, 192C. IF. .1. And.rsu,,, no. 290 (G); Kobard, 
April, 1923, IF. A. Anderson, no 21 (G). Tennessee: Joelton, July 
16, 1922, H. K. Svenson, no. 83 (G); Knoxville, May 17, 1896, A. 
Ruth, no. 438 (G); Hollow Kock Junction, Aug. 27, 1922, //. K. 
Svenson, no. 375 ((F) ; Jackson, April, 1893, 8. .1/. Ban,, no. 220 (G); 
Tullahoma, Max 4, 18S3, .1. (iuttinqrr ((Fj; Lookout Mt, Apr. 25, 
1906, T. 0. Fuller (G). North Carolina: mountains, without 
locality , July, 1841 , <,ray d- Can „ (G); Winston-Salem, Apr. 20, 1921 , 
/>. 0. Srhalhr! <G); Asheville, Mav 11, 1924. C. IE Knowlton (G); 
Biltmore, Apr. 27, 189(1. Hilt wore III,., no. 1220 (KM); Hot Springs, 



April, 1888, C. E. Smith (G); Swain Co., will, out locality, .Inly, IS'll, 
Beardslcc <(• Kofoid (G) ; Highlands, April, 1902, /.'. /.'. Mayer (G). 
Alabama: Berkley (?}, 1S41, bVa// t (- f//ry// (G). Missouri: Grandin, 
May 5, 1901, B. F. Bush, no. 345 (G). Arkansas: between St. Paul 
and Durham, Apr. 25, 1935, X. ('. FassrH.un. 17.349(G). Oklahoma: 
near Page, May 1, 1914, <>. H'. />'/,//'/,//. no. 1 4 So iG). Additional 
localities given by Transeau and Williams, 1 Waller,- Coulter, 3 Green- 
well, 1 Millspaugh, 5 Dykes, 6 Peattie, 7 Mohr, s Lowe, 9 Palmer and 
Steyermark, 10 and Buchholz and Palmer. 11 

Longley 12 has reported n = 12 in this species, but Simonet 13 finds 
2n = 32 in plants from three different sources. My own count, 
made on still different material, confirms Simonet, both as to number 
and morphology. There are two large, eight medium-sized, and two 
small chromosomes with median attachment points, two with 
broadly subterminal constrictions, and the remainder are rod-shaped 
or slightly curved, without visible constrictions. There seem to be 
only two satellites (see Plate 1, fig. 2). 

Perhaps motivated by the obvious differences between I.cristata 
and other irises of the rhizomatous group, Alefeld removed it to his 
genus Ncubeckia, an example followed on one occasion by Small, 14 who, 
at the same time, placed I. n ma L. in this same genus. There seems 
to be no especially good reason for this generic split. Granted that 
there are differences in size between the American and .\>iain- mem- 
bers of the Evansia section, even differences in detail, as well as differ- 
ences in karyotypes, these seem to be specific rather than generic in 
nature. It is possible to cross I. cristata with at least two members 
of the Asiatic species, I. gracilipcs A. Gray and the albino form of /. 
trrfonnn Maxim. 16 Furthermore, several crosses between I. hrforinn 
I of the Pogoniris section have been recorded, 16 so that 




this species seems to serve as a link coupling the American Kvansias 
with the rest of the genus. 

Throughout its range, /. cristata appears extremely variable as to 
size, and somewhat less variable as to color and markings. There is 
in m\ possession a plant collected by Dr. Edgar Anderson in one of 
the Carolinas, in which the leaves at flowering time are easily 25 cm. 
long, and much larger specimens have been seen in favorable loca- 
tions in Tennessee (Anderson, private information). Flower-color, 
on the contrary, seems not to change greatly, although I have seen 
blossoms of dead-white and cream-white on plants blooming in com- 
mercial plantings, while similar forms have been reported in the wild 
state. 1 The orange-yellow of the crest varies in amount ami intensity 
of color, and may even be altogether absent. 

Iris lacustris Nuttall. Rhizome similar to but more slender than 
that of /. cristata; leaves in the sterile fans more laxly spreading, not 
exceeding 16 cm. at flowering, usually much smaller, otherwise like 
/. cristata; stems very slender, 0.8-4 cm. long at flowering, with 1-3 
reduced leaves; spat lies smaller versions of those of /. cristata, to 4.5 
cm. long, scarious at the edges, sub-equal, or the inner much longer; 
pedicel slender, (l.li 1 .5 cm. long; ovary narrowly oval, 8-10 mm. long; 
perianth-tube 1.3-1.8 cm. long, seldom exceeding the spathes, equal 
to or shorter than the sepals, not linear but dilating upward from the 
very base; sepals cuneate, emarginate, about 2 cm. long and 8 mm. 
wide, not separable into blade and claw, crest as in /. cristata, but 
with a deeper purple edge to the "signal" patch, and the blade also 
deeper in color; petals shorter than the sepals, cuneate, emarginate, 
nearly the same color as the sepals; style-branches ±1.2 cm. long; 
style-crests linear to semi-ovate, 4 mm. long, crenate; stigma entire, 
rounded-oblong; filaments longer than the anthers, which are about 
4 mm. long; capsule rounded, oval, ± 1.2 cm. long; seeds like those of 
/. cristata, but smaller. (Jen. Amcr. I'l. i. 23 (ISIS); Ker, (ion. Irid. 
oli (IS27); Ratines,,,,,., \,nv Fl. X. Amer. part 2: 0-1 (1X37); Baker in 
Journ. Linn. Soc.Bot. xvi. 13 (1S77 ; Maker. Mandbk. Irid. 22 ( IS02); 
Mritton and Mr.mn, Illust. Fl. led. I, i. -151 Hsillli; Robinson and 
I'Vrnald in Gray, Man. (ed. 7) 301 (100S); 1 >vkes, Handbk. Gard. lr. 
85 (1924); Small in Addisonia ix. til, pi 310 (|0"1)- Waller in Ohio 
Journ. Sei. xxxi. 35 (1031). Iris cristata var. lacasfris f.Vutt.) Dvkes. 
Genus Iris lOti (1013). -Closely confined To small sections in Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan, and Ohio, with a few stations in Ontario; sandy or 
mossy ridges, free from grass. Specimens seen: Michigan: Thunder 
Hay, near Alpena, July 18, 1895, C. F. IVhn-hr «\); Cecil Hav, June 
27, 1917, Gates & Gates, no. 10,434 (RM); Vallcv of Menominee River, 



July 12, July 15, 1905, C. A. Boris (G). Wisconsin: Milwaukee. 
1844, A. Gray (G); Bailey's Harbor, June 13, 1933. A'. C. Fawtt, no. 
16,060 (G); YYhitefish Bay, Miiv 31, 1S00. //. (illlmtm (G); Egg 
Harbor, July 6, 1SN2, ./. /■'. .SVW/fr (G); Ephraim, June 16, 1921, .1. 
N. Aa,sv, no. 18,080 (G). Ontario: Bruce Peninsula, 1N71, Mnrmu, 
(G); Bruce Co., Tobermory, Big ( = Dorcas) Bay, June 5, 1933, P. V. 
' Krotkov, no. 7277 (G). Additional references given by Waller. 1 

It has been impossible for me to secure Hying material in good con- 
dition with actively growing roots. Simonet, however, reports 
2m = 42 for this species, 2 the count being made on plants secured from 
Kew. According to his figure (plate 7, fig. 4-1), there are no large 
chromosomes, medianly attached or otherwise. Of the ± IS chromo- 
somes with apparently median attachment-points, even the largest is 
not so large as the medium-sized V-chromosomes of 1. cristaia 
(the figures are apparently drawn on the same scale). There seem to 
be at least two chromosomes with broadly subierminal attachments, 
and the remainder are either rod-shaped or slightly curved without 
visible constrictions. Two satellites are shown. 

The specific status of this plant has been questioned, Dykes, in 
1913. regarding it as a variety of /. crhtata. In 1924, however, he 



sepals. There are distinct di 
sepals in the two plants. Tin 
rounded, while those of /. h 
former are obovate-oblanceol 



12 FOSTER 

As Atwood 1 also has noted, the leaves of /. lacustris tend to be much 
more lax and spreading than those of /. cristata. The capsule of the 
former is more ovoid in cross-section than that of the latter, which is 
rather sharply triangular. I. lacustris is almost odorless, while /. 
cristata has the fragrance of wild crab-apples. The final point to be 
mentioned is the complete difference of chromosome-number and. 
morphology in the two species, points which have already been suffi- 
ciently described. 

Two other facts may be mentioned here because of their bearings 
on the geographic ranges of the two species. Wherry 2 finds that I. 
cristata will tolerate a pll range of 5.1-7.9, although it prefers the 
range (5.1 -0.9. Its relative, /. lacustris, will tolerate a less wide range, 
pH (i. 1-7.9, but prefers 7.1 --7.9, thus showing a distinct preference for 
a more alkaline habitat. On the other hand, Atwood 3 has studied 
the effects of growing /. lacustris in various soils, reaching the con- 
clusion that the type of soil is relatively immaterial, so long as it is 
kept free of grass. From this he argues that it is the inability to com- 
pete successfully with invading grass-roots that keeps this species so 
narrowly restricted to the sandy and mossy grass-free ridges of its 
present homes. 

As can be seen from the accompanying citations, /. cristata is a 
plant of reasonably wide distribution in the eastern I'nited States, 
south of the area of late Pleistocene glaciation. A study of the local- 
ities recorded on herbarium specimens, as well as the records of local 
floras, indicates that it is essentially a plant of the Appalachian and 
Ozark highlands, although, as Small points out, 4 it has spread down 
into the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Kven so, when it occurs in the 
glaciated area of Ohio, it is found in the hilly, eastern portion, where 
its presence, together with the restriction of J. lacustris, argues for 
the differentiation of the two species in pre-glacial times. The most 
western records of its occurrence seem all to be in the hilly regions of 
Oklahoma, Arkansas, ami Missouri. In Cuyahoga County, Ohio, both 
J. cristata and L lacustris are recorded by Waller, 5 the only overlap 
of their ranges known to me. Whether I. lacustris ever existed south 
of its present range is unknown; certainly it does not now grow south 
of the glaciated area, although it can be cultivated in regions much to 
the south of its present habitat. It is interesting to note that it has 



been recorded in several localities on or near the Bruce Peninsula, 
Ontario, that home of so many pre-Wisconsin relics. 1 Professor 
Fernald informs me that he has seen it growing there in some abund- 
ance on the upper levels of the sandy beaches. Quite probably, ii 
is present there, not as a newcomer, but as a relic. Regardless of this, 
its existence in such restricted regions must be interpreted as in part 

successfully with invading grasses, it seems hardly likely that it 
could have fought its way back through the glaciated area, only to 
die out later in all regions south of its present home. Or is it to be 
regarded as a post-glacial variant of /. cri statu'! 

If this were true, one might expect to find it continuous along the 
lake shores from Ohio to Wisconsin, which does not seem to be the 
case, from the records available to me. One must assume, also, that 
I. cristata crept back through a narrow line in the glaciated area, 
changed its habitat as well as its morphological characters, added ten 
chromosomes to its chromosome complement by some means other 
than hybridization (since /. r r ',,tnfa apparently docs not cross suc- 
cessfully with members of the A[>o(ju„ section), and altered its chromo- 
some morphology at the same time, after which the new variant 
jumped from northeast Ohio to northern Michigan without leaving 
intervening traces. The alternatives to the hypothesis of survival 
in situ for /. hmtstris, at least in part, seem somewhat improbable. 
One should not overlook the possibility that I. cristatax presence in 
this narrow line in the hills of eastern Ohio may itself be due to sur- 
\ ival in some small unglaciated patch, from which it spread southward 
and became reunited with survivors south of the moraines. Evidence 
for this is lacking, at present, and the suggestion is advanced only as 
being possible under certain circumstances. 

In view of the differences in range, soil reaction preferences, size, 
shape of the floral parts, and the unlike karyotypes of the two plants, 
I am retaining specific status for 7. lacustrm. 

Section Apogon: subsection Californicae. 

This group of plants, sixteen species and varieties in the present 
treatment, is confined to California, Oregon, and Washington. So 
far as available records show, only one of these, I. trnax Herb., 
extends into the state of Washington and most of them are confined 
to California, where there has been a rather astonishing burgeoning of 
series, varieties and forms. The ease with which these plants can lie 



14 FOSTER 

crossed has undoubtedly played an important part in producing this 
plentitude of variants, a wealth of variation which makes a conserva- 
tive taxonomic treatment difficult or nearly impossible. 

As a group, with few exceptions, it is characterized by fairly narrow, 
prominently nerved, tough leaves, which have a pink, red, or purple 
flush at the base, and which turn a deep red-brown as they mature 
and die. The rhizomes are slender, widely spreading, and possessed 
of few roots, which apparently are developed only in the spring and 
fall during the rains, a fact making transplantation of these species a 
difficult task. In most cases there is a well developed perianth-tube, 
and a stigma, which, with two exceptions, is entire and triangular 
to tongue-shaped. 

A tentative key has been drawn up, as follows: 
Key to the Californicae. 



, T lon S /. Douglasiana. 

d. Leaves about 1.5 cm. wide; perianth-tube ± 1.5 cm. 

lon S /. Douglasiana var. oregonensis. 

ma var. bracteata. 

. Spathes scarious / /,.„ ,„>. 

5tem simple . . . . e. 

. Stems almost completely covered with short inflated 



/. bracteata. 

/. Purdyi. 

Spathes distant; perianth-tube infundibuliform, 5-7 mm! 



exceeding 



. Perianth purple or some lighter shade, seldom 
yellowish . 

Oregon and Washington ". . . . . 
%. Leaves barely overtopping the £ 

to southern California 

- Perianth yellow or yellowish. . . 

./ fall; sepals suborbicular; conf 

ern Oregon 

j. Short; sepals oblaiHc.httc; rent, 

ern California 



|i •• - - oj.| ,,- r. 
Perianth-tube I 



r-lanceolate I. chrysophylla. 



. Cauline leaves linear, free for most of their 
. Cauline leaves inflated bracts ' l.u , . 



This key is artificial and is in no sense regarded as final. Study of 
more extensive herbarium material and, above all, study of living 
plants will probably cause changes in several respects. 

Iris tenuis S. Watson. Rhizome extremely slender, 2 mm. in di- 
ameter, widely and shallowly creeping; leaves ensiform, acute, pale 
green with scarious margins on the equitant bases, to 3.2 dm. long and 
1.5 cm. wide, nerves subprominent, the leaf-fans clothed at the base 
with 2 scarious semi-sheathing leaves about 5 cm. long, with a dark 
brown mid-rib; stems equal to the leaves in length, slender, deeply 
1-2-branched, bearing the 2 •'! flowering heads at approximately tin- 
same level, the 1 2 cauline leaves semi-membranous, narrowly lanceo- 
late, acute, free from the stem for halt their length; ^pathes scarious, 
but apparently herbaceous at the base and along the keel, subequal. 
opposite, 2-3" cm. long and 5 mm. wide, lanceolate-acuminate, 
1-flowered; pedicels very slender, 0.4-1 cm. long; ovary elliptical 4-7 
mm. long; perianth-tube extremely short, infundibuhform, 3 mm. long; 
sepals white, veined with pale purple, yellow at the throat, oblong- 
spatulate, 2.8 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; petals 2 cm. long and 6 mm. 
wide, ohlaneeolate-spatulate, emarginate, bluish-white; style-branches 
1.8 cm. long, markedly exceeding the stamens; style-crests 7 mm. 
long, broadly obovate, erose; stigma triangular-acuminate; Manic, n 
8 mm. long; anthers 6 mm. long; capsule ovate, obtuse 9-15 mm 
long; seeds D-shaped with a pitted surface, light brown with a whmsh 
raphe and funicle. (Description based on the type).— Proc. Amer. 
Acad. xvii. 380 (1882); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 12 (1892); Howell, Fl. 
X. VY. Amer. i. 634 (1902); Dykes, Genus Iris 38 (1913); Piper and 
Beattie Fl N- W. Coast 105 (1915); Abrams, Must. Fl. Pacif. States 
i lb:! (1923); Dvkes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 117 (1924).— Narrowly en- 
demic in pine forests of northern Oregon. Specimens seen: Oregon : 
Clackam:,- Co.: bank, of Kagle Creek. .tunc I sM /.. /. /{•'''/'/*'•'' 
(tvpe in G); Kagle Creek. Max. ISS4, I h. Ifr,,,h rsoti (G); Eagle 
Creek, -luh U, 1922, L K. .V.rnm*. no. SSOJ (RM.W : 
Eagle Creek, June 11, 1927, J. W. Thomson, no 2..02 .TVS 1. \ . 
banks of Eagle Creek, May 20, 1928, ./. I! . ihou.pson, no. 424/ 
(JWT, O); Clackamas River, 10 miles above Estacada, June 11, 1924, 
Mrs. (i. ('. Ballhnvr (W) ; Clackamas River, 15 miles above Kstacada. 
Aug 15, 1925. .1/ /:. r-<-i;. no. 1 1.513 \Y : Washington Co., without 
precise locality, May, 1884, L. F. Henderson (G). 

This very distinct endemic species is so unlike other members of the 

.nl^.tinn'flmt it i> Wif : ' ! l«'" V <" lT "> ^SOClatlOl) 



with them. The broad, pale green leaves are much like those of a 
giant I. cristata. The slender deeply-branched stems, with semi- 
scarious bracts and spathes, make this Iris recognizable at a glance. 
Its morphological differences are accompanied by a difference in 
chromosome number and morphology. 

Usually occurring only in scattered patches, this plant has been 
found h\ Starker 1 in one locality in large groups of several thousand 

Iris tenax Douglas ex Lindley. Plant caespitose; rhizome slender; 
leaves light green, paling to pink or straw color basally, finely ribbed, 
somewhat lax, linear-acute to linear-ensiform, to 4.5 dm. long and 
5 mm. wide, over-topping the stem; stem slender, simple, somewhat 
angular, 15-27 cm. long, with 1-3 narrow, reduced, linear-lanceolate 
leaves to 15 cm. long, free for half their length ; spathe-valves distant, 
by 3 cm. in some cases, the outer longer than the inner, 5-7 cm. long 
and 2-4 mm. wide, herbaceous with scarious margins, carinate, linear- 
lanceolate to lanceolate-acuminate, 1-2-flowered; pedicel 1-5 cm. 
long, that of the second flower being longer than that of the first; 
ovary 1 2 cm. long, slightly wider above than below, tapering very 
gradually into the pedicel ; perianth-tube short , inhmdibuliform,7 mm. 
long; sepals obovate in the blade, narrowing gradually into the claw, 
to 6 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, color variable, ranging from pearb gray 
or white to a deep purple, the claw and basal part of the blade usually 
white veined with the color of the blade, the slight central ridge yel- 
lowish, the blade sometimes emarginate, or bluntly rounded; petals 
the same color as the sepal-blade, not prominently veined, slightly 
shorter than the sepals, 5 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, lanceolate to ob- 
lanceolate; style-branches ±3 cm. long; style-crests ±1 cm. long, 
subquadrate, crenate or incised, reflexed; stigma entire, triangular: 
filaments to 10 12 nun. long; anthers 1(1 18 nun. long; capsule oblong, 
to 3.5 cm. long, beaked, prominently ribbed; seeds thick, D-shaped, 
brown.— Bot. Reg. xv. t. 1218 (1829); Hooker in Bot. Mag. Ixi. t. 331:5 
(1834); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 7 (1X92); Howell. Fl. X. W. Amer. i. 
"34 (1902); Piper, Fl. State of Wash. 203 (1900); Dykes, Genus Iris 
39 (1913); Piper and IVattie, Fl. X. W. Coast 105 (191 5) ; Abran.s, 
Illust. Fl. Paeif. States i. 463 (1923); Dvkes. Handbk. Gard. Ir. 118 
(1924); Haskin, Wild Fls. Pacif. Coast 55 (1931). lotriri* fnuur 
(Dougl.) Klattin Bot. Zeitung xxx. 502 (1S72). A plant of fairly dry 
-oils, in fields or open woods in Washington, Oregon, and, according 
to the original description, northern California. Specimens seen: 
Washington: near Montesano, June 3, 1898, A. A. & (I. K. Ihlhr, 
no. 3876 (G, RM); Vancouver, June S, 1904. (', V . /V/«>r, no. 4013 ((J); 
Battleground Lake, May, 1919, R. G. Ebert (G). Oregon: without 

1 See Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. no. 55: 90-01 (1935). 



locality or date, T. J. Tolmir (G); without locality, 1871 , E. Hall, no. 
514 (G); Willamette Vallev, May & June, 1878, ./. IF. Marsh (G); 
Columbia Co., upper Clatskanie Valley . May 15, 1927. ./. If. Thomp- 
son, no. 2431 (JWT); Multnomah Co., 1S77, T. llotnll (G); mountain 
above Bridal Veil, -lime 25, 1911, M. E. Peel: (W, no. 19S0); Portland. 
Mav 7. 1905, M. 11'. L#ora, no. 18 (US); Eagle Creek, July !), 1022. 
/.. P. Abramx, no. SS04 (RM); Folk C«... without date, 4/rv. /.. AV.//- 
//oW.v (W, uos. 9031, 9032); Salem. 1917, •/. C. Nelson, no. 1127 (G); 
near Black Rock, July 18, 1930, M. E. Peck, no. 16,300 (\V): Sil vet- 
Creek Falls, June S. 1912, .1/. A'. Perk, no. 1-122 OVl; Newport, 1N92. 
.1. /. Mnlfonl ((7); fields and hillsides in Benton Co., April, 1920, //. 
.1/. <;. I aM, no. 98,545); Cottage Grove, June 15, 1916, M. E. IWk. 
no. 5120 (W); 2 miles north of Gardiner, Aug. 3, 1924, M. E. Peek, 
no. 13, 582 (W); first crossing of the Umpqua River north of Canyon- 
ville. Max 12, 1921, Ahmmx cv Benson, no. 10, IS, ( RM i ; idong West 
Fork-Marial Trail, 5 miles west of West Fork, June 27, 1917. J/. /.. 
/\ r/.\ no. 5017 (W); between Grants Pass and Corvallis, May 16, 1933, 
Aim it /i. .1. AV/*w, no. 594 (KM); Deer Creek to Kerby, May 11, 
1924, Ahnuns cv /irw«, no. 10.315 (KM). California: northern 
California, without precise locality. July 29, 1925, Mrs. X. P. dale 
(JWT). 

This large and easily recognized species has an extensive range in 
the western parts of Oregon and Washington. It varies, like all of its 
relatives, in color and size. Peck, no. 5120, for instance, is small 
enough to be I. Hartwcgii Baker, but its color is a deep red-purple. 
The magnificent dark purple of Am, <(• R. A. S,ho,,, no. 594 is much 

been well described by the Starkers 1 from a number of variants col- 



Three of the specimens cited above present certain difficulties 
which can briefly be indicated here. In the first, collected by Mrs. 
Reynolds in Polk Co., Oregon, the shape of the flower parts closely 

that highl • ml. mi. plant, I have retained it with I tenax In the 
herbarium of Mr. J. W. Thompson, a specimen collected by Mrs. 

(ode in northern California is labelled /. Hnrt^.ali Raker; m size of 



18 FOSTER 

what faded, might be that of either species. The third specimen, 
Abrams & Benson, no. 10,315, from Josephine Co., Oregon, is not J. 
bractcata Howell, as originally labelled. Its yellow flower color and 
general dimensions answer closely to the original description of /. 
Harticrijil, yet its locality is well outside the most northern limits 
generally assigned to that species. These three specimens may perhaps 
serve as connecting links between typical /. tenax and the other 
plants mentioned. 

Reference to specimens of I. tenax collected in Newfoundland and 
New Brunswick was made by Hooker (in his Flora Boreali- Americana 
ii. 306). At the request of Professor Fernald some years ago, Dr. S. F. 
Blake examined these specimens, reporting that they are indeed /. 
tmax. Since no other trace of the species has been found in these 
regions, it is probable that there has been confusion of data, resulting 
in the mislabelling of these specimens. 

</ Iris tenax var. Gormanii (Piper) comb. nov. Like J. tenax in 
nearly all respects except in the color and shape of the perianth-seg- 
ments ; sepals pearly white to cream or even butter yellow, 4.5 5.3 cm. 
long, and 2.4 cm. wide, with the blade so broadly obovate as to be 
nearly orbicular; petals similar in color, 3.5-4.5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. 
wide, oblanceolate to spatulate; both sepals and petals usualh entire, 
hut occasionally emarginate. — Iris (.ormnnii Piper in I'roc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash, xxxvii. 91 (1924).— Apparently endemic in northern Oregon. 
Specimens seen: Oregon: Washington Co.; Scoggin's Vallev, June 9, 
1923, L. F. Henderson, no. 6166 (O); Scoggin's (reek. Max 19, and 
May 26, 1928, ./. IF. Thompson, no. 4289 (G, IS, JVYT); Scoggin's 
Creek, June 27, 1930, M. E. Peck, no. 16,194 (VY); Forest Grove. 
without date, ./. II'. Thmnpsmi, no. 558 (JWT). 

Although the type of this plant, preserved in the United States 



sideration, it seems impossible to separate this plant from / 
species. In such specimens as /\ r /,\ no. Hi, 194, which eon 
closely to Piper's original description, there are diil'erei 
make it equally impossible to reduce it to a synonym o 
Aside from differences in flower-color, the sepals are mo 
obovate, giving a different ratio of sepal length to sepal 
though the petals are less markedly different from those < 



On the other hand, Thompson, no. 4289 has the yellow coloring but 
the shape-difference is less apparent. Another plant, Thompson, no. 
.V)S, (■(lines from a short distance from the type region; it seems to be 
almost a duplicate of Peck, no. 16,194 in shape, but the coloring is 
more nearly that of /. ttiia.r. Thompson's plants may have had their 
origin in a cross between the two forms, or they may be natural inter- 
grades. Nevertheless, their appearance, coupled with the slight 
differences apparent between /. t, mix and /. (iormanii, make it seem 
preferable, to me, to regard the latter as a variety of the former. 
It may be pointed out that there is less to distinguish them than there 
is to distinguish I. srtosa Pall, from its variety cnutuli nsis M. Foster, 
yet the separate status of var. caniuhnsis is not usually conceded, in 
spite of its geographic segregation from I. setosa. 
"'Iris ten ax var. australis (Parish), comb. nov. Rhizome rather 
thick; leaves 20-30 em. long, slightly exceeding the stems, 3-4 mm. 
wide; stems 15-25 cm. high, with 1-2 cauline leave-; spathes distant 
2-4 cm., 6-9 cm. long and 6-7 mm. wide; pedicels 2-5 cm. long at 
flowering; ovary and perianth-tube as in /. tmux, hut larger; sepals 
broadly ohlanceolnte, to 5.5-6 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, with a more 
pronounced distinction between blade and claw, blue-purple with 
darker veins; petals slightly shorter, linear-oblanceolate; style- 
branches 3.4 cm. long; style-crests broadly semi-ovate, 1.2 cm. long, 
somewhat crenate; filaments 1.5 cm. long; anthers 1.8 cm. long; stigma . 
capsule, and seeds as in /. tmax.—I. Harturgn var. nuslmlix Parish 
in Krvthaea vi. 80 (1898); Abrams, Illust. Fl. Pacif. States i. -463 
(1923); Munz, Man. S. Calif. Bot. 98 (1935).— Southern California. 
in dry soil, especially in open pine woods, around 5000-0001) ft. alti- 
tude.' Specimens seen: California: Cucamonga Mts., 18S0, I'nnsh, 
Bros no 5S9 (G) ; Grav Back Peak, 1SS0, Wright, no. 43 (G); San Her 
nardino Mts.. Hear Va'llev, 1SS9. Parish Urns., no. 20S9 (G); east base 
of San Bernardino Mts., l's!>4.>'. /*. / Wn/m.o. 30M iG ; southern slope 
of San Bernardino Mis.. 1S95. N. /*. /W/,, no. 3700 (G^ : southern slope 



of the San' Bernardino Mts. at 0000 ft. alt 
Parish, no. 5807 (RM). 


., June 14, 1906, S. B. 


d titluuished h n'« /' \ 1 
can be separated. Specimens of this plant i 
/. trnax; the leaves barely exceed the stem; i 
much broader than in that species. 2 


f this variety cannot be 
^s are great, but the two 
>eem much coarser than 
mm! the perianth-tube is 



Munz 1 says that var. oust mils is comm 


on in the San Bernardino 


/Its., but rare in the San Gabriel and San 


Jacinto Mts. 


In view of its resemblance to /. trna.r, 1 


am unable to see why this 


lant should any longer he regarded as 


a variety of /. Ilnrtirajii 



Iris Hartweuii Baker. Rhizome slender to moderately thick, 
covered with the fibrous remains of old leaf-bases: leaves relatively 
few in a clump, linear, acute, 20-35 cm. long at flowering time and 
3-5 mm. wide, later becoming much longer, finely nerved, pale green, 
exceeding the stein; stem slender, simple, 5 20 em. long, usually 
bearing one narrow lanceolate leaf which is free for over half its 
length, 1-2-flowered; spathes usually distant, narrowly linear-lanceo- 
late, acute, divergent, the lower 6-9 cm. long and 2-4 mm. wide, the 
upper 5-6 cm. long and 2-3 nun. wide, or the two subequal when op- 
posite, herbaceous, with scarious margins; pedicel 0.5 2.5 cm. long 
at flowering, lengthening to 3.5-7.5 cm. as the capsule develops; 
ovary narrow, ±1 cm. long; perianth-tube short, stout, infundibuli- 
form, ±5 mm. long; sepals oblanceolate, to 4.5 em. long and 1 .0 cm. 
wide, sub-obtuse at the apex, pale yellow; petals narrow I\ oblong- 
oblanceolate„ erect, to 3.5 cm. long, ±7 mm. wide; style-branches ±2 
cm. long; style-crests semi-ovate, obtusely rounded, ±8 mm. long; 
stigma entire, acutely triangular; filaments 1 cm. long; anthers 1.2 cm. 
long, exserted nearly half their length beyond the stigma; capsule 
oblong-o\al, 2 3 em. long, tapering somewhat abruptK at the ends, 
: -eeds irregularb D-shaped. brown.— (bird. Chron. (II) 
vi. 323 i lN7f'»; Baker in Jouru. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 138 (1877); Baker, 
Handbk. Irid. 6 (1892); Hall and Hall, Yosem. Fl. 60 (1912); Dvkes, 
Genus Iris 40 (1913); Jepson, Flor. Calif, i. 325 (1921); Abrams, 
Must. Fl. Pacif. States i. 463 (1923); Jepson, Man. Fl. l'l. Calif. 251 
(1925). /. nw/z sensu Bent ham (non Dougl.), l'l. Hartw. 338 (1857). 
-Mountainous regions in California, from the Siskiyous south to 
Kern Co., in open pine woods. Specimens seen : California :" in 

Sierra Valley, 1ST:;, ./'. (,. L ,„„',',",[ no'. NO '(' '-'ludiaiVvalle' ! IS73,' 
Mrs. M. E. P. Ames (G); Mariposa, Clarke's, 1S72, A. (Inn/ (G); 
Sierra Nevada Range, Tioga Road, near Aspen Valley, August 24, 
1916, Snrllcy, no. 904 (G); Plumas Co., 1876, Mrs. I{. M. Au.sliu (G); 
Nevada City, 1!M2, .1. East,rnu,l, no. 53,0 (G); Xevada Co., head of 
south fork, Wolf Creek, on the western dope of the Sierra Xevada, 
June 7, 1916, Hall & Essig, no. 10,167 KM; mar Stirling, Butte Co., 
at 3525 ft. alt., June 7, 1913, //,//,,-. no. 10,S03, ( Gi. Additional 
localities are given by Dykes 2 and Jepson. 3 

> Man. 8. Calif. Bot. 98 (1935). 



Dykes, 1 working on living plants as well as with herbarium speci- 
mens, was convinced that this species was separable from /. tenax 
only with difficulty, if indeed it could be separated. The resemblance. 
to J. tenax are obvious, e. g., the short, stout perianth-tube and the 
narrow, distant, divergent spathes. Nevertheless, the usual differ- 
ence in size of plant, as well as in size and shape of flower, the yellow 
flower-color, the exserted anthers, and the different range of I. Hart- 
irrgii, serve to distinguish it rather clearly from I. trims. To me, the 
differences between /. tenax and I. Hartwcgii as shown in herbarium 
material seem more numerous and more pronounced than those be- 

a variety, then /. Hartwcgii seems entitled to specific status. 

For the type, Jepson 2 cites Harturg, no. 373, from Hear Creek. 
Nevada Co., California. Abrams, 3 on the other hand, regards the 
type locality its on the American River in the Sierra Nevada, thus 
possibly in Sacramento County, the locality cited in Dykes' mono- 
graph for the Hartweg specimens preserved in the British Museum 
and at Kew. Baker's original description cites only Harturg, col- 
lected in 1848. The complete citation by Bentham (1. c.) is as fol- 
lows: "1978 (373). Iris tenax, Dougl.. var. Horibus minoribus pal- 
lidc flavis.-In montibus Sacramento." Karlier p. 2<M). Bentham 
states that the collections were made in IS-lli and 1847, "imprimis 
circa Monterey et Sacramento." 

IRIS MACROSIPHON Torrey. Rhizome slender. ±S nun. in diameter, 
somewhat torulose, with fibrous remains of old leaves at the nodes 
and with few roots; leaves narrowly linear, acute, rather light green. 
often glaucous, finely nerved, exceeding the stems. 3D 3o cm. long and 
±4 mm. wide; steins simple, short, sometimes nearly absent, to ±10 
cm. long, with 1 2 cauline leaves about 10 cm. long; spathes opposite 
or nearly so. herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, — 



the outer longei 



■ than the i 



, l.")-2 cm. long; ovary ±1 cm 
periantn-tube'narmw. linear, gradualb dilating at the 1 
long, or a trifle longer, but usually about 6 cm. long; *cp 
late or obovate, to 5 em. long, l.S cm. wide, usually pi 
with fine, dark venation on the blade. hecoumiii coi.rser 
petals nearly equal to the sepals in length, 1 cm. wide, 
^tvle-branches to I'..") cm. long; style-crests ±1 cm. lonj 



angular; filaments to 1.7 cm. long; anthers to 1.2 cm. long; capsule 
2.5-3 cm. long, somewhat angular in cross-section, oblong to ovoid; 
seeds angular, dark brown. (Description based on the type.)— Pacif. 
Rail. Rep. iv. 144 (1857); Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 138 
(1877); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 5 (1892); Greene, Man. Bot. San Fran. 
Bay Region 307 (1894); Jepson, Fl. West. Mid. Calif. 129 (1901); 
Dykes, Genus I i-i — l.'S l'.H:; ; .1^...,. Fl. Calif, i. 325 (1921 ■ ; Abrams, 
Illust. Fl. Pacif. States i. -9,5 -1923 ; Dvkes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 120 
(1924); Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 254 (1925). J. calif omica Leich- 
tlin in The Garden lii. 126 (1897), nomen nudum; Purdv in The 
Garden liii. 1 (1898), nomen subnudum; Abrams, Illust. Fl. Pacif. 
States i. 465 (1923); Dykes, Genus Iris 43 (1913), as synonym of /. 
m. Iris amabilis Eastwood in Bull. Torrev Bot. Club xxx. 
484 (1903).— Central and north central California, 'the type having 
been collected near San Francisco Bay. Specimens seen : California : 
without locality, 1869, Krlhf/f, <c Ilarfnrd, n... 975 (G); Grass Valley, 
1854, J. M. Jii :l .h„r ■(; ; Si-ki.M.n C«i.: near Marble Mt., June, 1901, 
C/wtidJrr, no. 1570 (G, US); Metcalfs Ranch, northeast base of Mt. 
Eddy, at 3800 ft., June 20, 1920, Heller, no. 13,385 (US) : Shasta Co. : 
Fern, May 18, 1911, Jones, no. 57 (G); Humboldt Co.: Redwood 
Highly, M^ 22, 1932, Mrs. .1. //. HUla (CA, no. 195,279); Dins- 
more's Ranch, in valley of Van Duzen River, opp. Buck Mt., June 
22, 1913, ./. P. Tnu-y, no. 4263 (US): Mendocino Co.: Willits, May 
21, 1921, C. U. Pipvr (CA, no 110,952); Ukiah, 186-, Bolmulrr, no. 
3S42 (Gj; I kiah, Apr. 18, 1S86, Bolmulrr, no. 1951 (G, FS); Ukiah, 
June 13, 1913, Eastwood, no. 3310 (CA, G, US); Forest Reserve, Os- 
borne's, June 6, 1928, Eastwood, no. 15,255 (CA); between Ukiah and 
Largo, Apr. 30, 1918, L. R. Abrams, no. 7014 (US); Long Valley, 1866, 
{inlander, no. 4082 (G, IS); Round Valley, May-June, 1898, V. K. 
Cites,, ut, no. 5 (US); near Handlers, May & July, 1903, J. Mac- 
U»n>h, no. 110 (US): Lake Co.: Mt. Sanhedrin, Dashiells, May 22, 
192o, Eastwood, no. 12,810 (CA); south slope of Mt. Sanhedrin, a box e 
saunnll, .Ink 19, |<)92, II, Wr, no. 5915 (G, US, RM); Binkley Ranch, 
between Cobb Mt. and Adams Springs, June 27, 1933, M. S. Jvssel, 
-", "!- { Fr'}) ; southeast side of Snow Mt., above Bonnie View, June 
-. 191 ,. //,//,■,-, no. 13,227 (G, CA, US); foot of Mt. Sanhedrin, June. 
1917, Mrs. L I{. Reynolds (CA, no. 119,592); between Cobb Mt. and 
Adams Spring, on the Binkley Ranch, June 27, 1933, .1/. S. Jussel, 
no. 24o (CA); Jordan Park, near Mt. Konocti, May 1. 1932, M. S. 
Jusse (CA,no. 195,298); Mr. Konoeti, Apr. II, 1923, ./. If . /*/„„/,■/„- 
shp (CA, no. 165,152); Kelseyville, Cole Creek, Apr. 1, 1931, M. 8. 
•'""''MCA, no. 195,872); divide bctn.cn Lakepnrt and Hopeland. 
]<M ": ( ■ I-"" 1 ''"-- !l <>- : >W-> Gi; near Clear Lake, 1895. ./. Torre,,, 
"<>• ...31 (N\, G): Glenn Co.: Houghton's Trail, near Bennet Spring, 
-™ d,June3, 1915. //,//,,-. n» 1 1 ,950 (G. US. CA) : 



Rune Co 



1932, Mrs. ./. //. Morrison (CA, no. 



193,173); Little Chico Canyon, April, 1896, Mrs. R. M. Austin, no. 
13 (US); Berrv ('.mm, i near Clear Creek), 1902. //< /A r ,V /**>«■«, nn 
5517a (G); 3 miles above Centerville, in the Sierra foothills, A]»r. 2(1. 
191.-., Heller, no. 11,844 (G, CA) : Siena Co.: I Wnieville, Apr. 15, 
1928, lb. Vortriede (CA, no. 170,803.) : Nevada Co. : near Grass Valley. 
Mav, 24, 1919. Heller, no. 13,210 (G, CA); Nevada City, June 20-22, 
1912, Eastwood, no. Ii()l (CA, G): Sonoma Co.: without locality, by 
1888, E. Samuels, no. 203 (US); Skaggs Springs, June 3, 1915, E. P. 
Hawver (CA, no. 111). 575!: Marsh Hot Springs, near Santa Rosa. 
March, 1884, N. N. Ilohnan (CS, no. 294,950); near Windsor. Mar. 

19, 1902, Hrlhr A- Brown, no. 507(1 (I'S. (7): west base of Mt. 11 1. 

1902, Hell, r A- Brown, no. 5103 (G): Xa]>a Co.: 5 miles south of Calis- 
toga, Apr. 12, 1924, Heller, no. 13,841a (US); 5 miles southeast of 
Napa, Wooden Vallev Grade, west side of Napa Range, 1931, AYW.\ 
no. 1026 (G); hills east of Napa, July 26, 19Kb W. A. Snh.sdorf. no. 
080(G); Napa, 1S99, //. Sun/th ( Gj ; lulls east of Napa, May 21, 1933, 
./. T. Howell, no. 11,313 (CA): Placer Co.: Auburn, May, 1S7.S, Mrs. 
It. M. Austin (G); Auburn, Apr. 11, 186-, Bolander, no. 4529 (G, US): 
Kldorado Co.: Coloma, May 10, 1028, lb. Vortwd, (CA, no. 170,865): 
Marin Co.: Mt. Tamalpais, Apr. 10, 1906, A. /.. (iarduer (RM, no. 
02,2X4); Kentfield, Mav 9, 1912, M. /.'. Parsons (CA, no. 110,045;: 
Pipeline Trail. Apr. 5, i()25, .1 . T. How,!!, no. 904 (CAi; Mt. Tamal- 
pais, Mar. 10, 1913, Eastwood, no. 2514 (CA); Kentfield. May 'JO. 
1912, Eastwood, no. 64 (CA, US, G); Sausalito, without date. East- 
wood (CA, no. 110,646); Sausalito Hills, Mar. 25, and Mav. lso9. 
Kelhqn A- Harford, no. 974 (US, (ii; Cone Madera. Apr. 2s, 1904. 
Heller, no. 7370 (G, NV. Y^\ Corte Madera, Apr. 10. 1S54, Billow 
(type, in XV. fragment in G ) ; San Rafael, |SS5. . I . Om/M G -; M t . 

('lara (■''■ trail to bin, Rnk< M 2S IM.5 /' 1061 CA. US 

G); Gilrov, Mav, 1903, A. I). E. Elmer, no. 4s., 1 ( A. I > : Ntratog;.. 
June 11, 1929, 0'. /.. A/> /„■/•, no. 120 (US»: Mt. Ila.mlton, May 11, 
1895, ('. Buffer, no. 2 (\'^)\ Mt. Hamilton, 1877, 4/Y.v. 4/. A. /'. .!/»<* 
(G); hills west of Gilroy, Apr. 13, 1903, C. F. Baker, no. 1947 At, iM; 
foothills west of Los Gatos, Apr. 9, 1904. HlU r. no. 7305 (G); Mntth 
Creek at foot of Mt. Hamilton, 1907, Heller, no. 8535a (G). 



24 FOSTER 

At present, the herbarium material available mtiiis to fall into 
several groups, which, unfortunately, are neither geographically nor 
morphologically so distinct as could be desired. One group centers 
in the type locality of J. macrosiphon, Marin Co., but a group of 
specimens has also been seen from Santa Clara Co., south of San 
Francisco Bay, so like material From Marin Co. that separation is 
difficult or impossible [>itl'ering from the short, purple, narrow- 
leaved, long-tubed material of the n pe r< gion, a second group, rang- 
ing from Butte Co. west to the coast and south to Santa Cruz and 
Santa Clara Cos., possesses flowers with somewhat shorter tubes, 
variable in color, with broader leaves, longer stems, ami variable 
spathes. It is this group which is usually treated as a whole ami called 
/. ralifornica, but plants from the northern and southern portions of 
the range seem separable. 

From the north, many specimens of this group resemble /. un/abHix, 
which raises a nomenclatural problem. /. calif arnica Leicht. is a 
notnrn nudum: I. ni/iforuira Leicht. ex l'urdy is at best a nonioi sub- 
nudum. The name seems not to have been used with an adequate 
description until 1923, when Abrams so employed it. In the interval, 
however, Miss Eastwood, in 1903, validly published /. amabilis, 
which appears to me, at present, to be conspecific with many, if not 
most, of the northern specimens of "I. californica." Since this latter 
name apparently includes at least two entities and, from the first, 
has been loosely and indefinitely applied, it appears to me preferable 
to reject it as a nomen dubium, extending the original conception of 
/. aniabilis somewhat to cover the northern forms, and possibly giving 
varietal status to the southern plants of this aggregate. For the 
present, however, this is to be regarded as a tentative suggestion, 
awaiting the test of field study before being accepted or rejected. 

Iris chrysophylla Howell. Rhizome slender, sparse] v rooted; 
leaves exceeding the stem, linear-acute, to .10 cm. long, usuallv much 
shorter, 4 mm. wide, finely ribbed, glabrous, light green, with a yel- 
lowish tinge in many specimens, or glaucous, light green, flushed pink 
or purple-brown at the base; stems slender, simple, 2.5-20 cm. long, 
usually with 1 cauline leaf, occasionally 3 on tall stems, 1-3-flowered; 
spathes lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute, unequal, the outer being 
often much shorter and narrower than the inner, 5-10 cm. long, 3-7 
mm. wide, herbaceous, often with white, scarioua edges, in inanv 
plants flushed with pink or dull red-purple at the tips; pedicel absent 
or nearly so, occasionally to 1 cm. long; ovary to 1.5 cm. long ami 
7 mm. wide, i -., r | 1( , perianth-tube and abruptlv 

into the pedicel; perianth-mi,, -lender, linear, 2.5 7.5 cm. long, usu- 



ally about ."> cm. long; sepals ±5 cm. long and 1 cm. w idc, oblanceolate, 
the blade tapering gradually into the daw, pale yellow, cream, or 
white, with bluish tinge and veins; petals shorter than the sepal-. 1 
cm. long, 5 mm. wide, of the same color as the sepals, oblancrolate- 
spatulate, emarginate; style-branches 2 '■'< cm. long, much exceeding 
the stamens;st\ le-erests linear or \<t\ -lightly lanceolate, very slender, 
slightly incised at the tip, 1.5 2.5 cm. long, sometimes longer than 

than the anthers which are ± 1 .S cm. long; capsule oblong, 3 cm. long, 
beaked, sometimes on an elongated pedicel; seeds slightly com pre— ed. 
— Fl. X. W. Amer. i. 033 (1902); Dykes in Gard. Chron. (Ill) xlviii. 
57 (1910); Dykes, Genus Iris 43 (1913), as synon. of /. macros', plum; 
Abrams, [Must. Fl. Facif. Smtcs i. lb.") H923i. Southwest to central 
Oregon, possibly occurring in Siskiyou Co.. California, in semi-shade 
or deep -hade. Specimens seen: Oregon: Cascade Mrs., -Inly, 1S9.4, 
Mrs. R. M. Austin (CM; southern portion of the western Cascade-. 
Julv 1, 1902, Cusick, no. 2S53 (G); 2 miles above Finch's, up the 
Illinois River, Apr. 20, 1926, L. F. Henderson, no. 5969 (RM, CA); 
Josephine Co., upper Thompson Creek, May 10, 1924, Abrams <v 
liensim, no. 10,301 (RM); near Selma, Apr. 2N, 192S. A. P. Gale, no. 
17 (JWT); Savage Creek, 7 miles from Grants Fa-. Apr. 2, 192ii 
AIM. CA); Grants Fa— June 20, ISSli, /.. F. IPndnsoa (G); Wolf 
Creek, 1884, T. Unu;U (G); Grants Pass, Apr. 23, 1910, C Pnsmtt 
(W. no. 13S9); Grants Fa-. May 25, 1912. //. N. Pr, scoff, (G, W , no. 
3070); Rogue River, May 16, 1924, IF. Sh.r.rond. no. 966 (\\); Ash- 
land Creek, 5 mile- above Ashland, May 17, 1924, IF. Sherwood, no. 
530 (W); on Oak Hills, north side of Si-kiyoti Mt-.. 12 miles south ot 
A-hland, at 1(100 ft.. Max 20. 1 S9S, P. /. Al>t>l<>l»t ■ »'>■ 2213 (1 S); 



Mix 19->7 ./ IF Ilechirr lJWT>; northeast slope of Mt. Ash- 
d "juiv 19 1913 1/ /A Peel:, no. 1 123 (W); near Woodville, June 

1909" 1/' 'e Peck, no. 1424 (W); Soda Springs, May 31, 1902, /-'. 

WaliMile no 2101 (I'Si- summit of Cascade Mts., along Ashland- 
unath Falls Road. Julv 3, 1020. .1/. /' /•„■/.-. no. 9321 (W,G,JWT); 
<me-Fmp M ua Divide, 20 mile- ea-t of Crater Fake, July 23. 1916, 
'/;. P,ck. no. 76:,0 (W); Douglas Co.. without locality, Apr. 17, 



/. nilij'urnira. From /. macm.nphon it is distinguished by flowers with 
narrower and more delicate perianth-segments, by its narrowly linear 
and usually very long style-crests, by the spathe-valves, of which the 
outer is often much shorter and narrower than the inner, and by 
filaments much shorter than the anthers, which are purple or violet 
instead of yellow. The leaves are usually a lighter green than is 
characteristic of I. macrosiphon. 

Examination of a number of specimens which could reasonably be 
regarded as this species has shown the presence of three groups. The 
largest of these is characterized by rather narrow leaves which arc 
light green and glaucous, instead of the yellow green from which the 
specific name was Taken. It should be noted that this yellow-green 
character is not mentioned in the original description, and that no 
type specimens are cited there. Therefore, since this group is the 
largest and most widespread, I am regarding it as characteristic /. 
A second group is rather tall, with more ovate spathes 
in some cases, and with several sheathing cauline bracts very similar 
to those of I. braeteata S. Watson, except that the uppermost have a 
greater portion free from the stem than is the case with that species. 
It is possible that these plants arc of hybrid origin. The group in- 
cludes the following specimens: OREGON: halfway between Waldo 
and bridge over east fork of the Illinois River, Ma v 1 1 , 1024, Abrannt 
A- lie,,*,,,,, no. 10,367 (RM); 19.6 miles west of Roseburg on the Marsh- 
field Road, May 13, 1924, Abrmns <v lin,*,m, 10,f>23 (RM); 5 miles 
west of Camas Valley, June 2, 1928, ,/. IF. Thompson, no. 1447 (-JWT, 
G, US); upper Row River, below the falls, May 1, 1926, Luphrr (G). 

braeteata, so that if rhey are hybrids, it -ieerus doubtful if that species 
can have been one of their progenitors. The third group is florally 
like the other two, but the leaves are much broader and tend to be 
more prominently nerved; the spathes are ovate-acuminate and rather 



Ikis tk.vcissi.ma I>yke<. Rhizome dernier; leaves linear, acute. 
30-3.5 cm. long and .1 mm. wide, subglaucous. linelv ribbed, relatively 
few in a clump; stem simple, to 30 cm. tall, but usually shorter, with 
1-3 narrow, linear-lanceolate reduced cauline leaves, free for most of 
th< ir length; spathes (on the type) averaging 4.8 cm. long and 5 mm. 
wide, subequal, or the inner somewhat longer than the outer, acumi- 
nate, apparently rigid, usually 2-flowered; pedicel 1.2 cm. long, or 



tube linear for half its length, then abruptly dilati 
throat, averaging (on the type) 2.7 cm. long; sepals 
narrowly oblaneeolate with a long claw, yellow-whit< 
petals shorter, pointed, very narrow, yellow-white 
averaging ±2.5 cm. (2 cm. on the type); style-crest 
undulate near the tip, from Y^ the length of the si 
proximately equal in length (1 cm. on the type); st 
entire; filaments 4-5 mm. long; anthers 1.3-1.5 cr 
oblong, tapering abruptly into the short pedicel, gr 
longish beak, to 3.5 cm. long; seeds pyriform to o\ 
flattened, gravish-brown, wrinkled. (Description bat 
— Gard. Chron. (Ill) li. 18 (1912); Dykes, Genus 
Jepson, Fl. Calif, i. 321 ( 1921 I, as synon. of /. macro 
Illust. Fl. Pacif. States i. 465 (1923); Dykes, Handl 
(1924).— Apparently centered in Shasta Co., Calil 
casional appearances to the north and south, i 
California: Siskiyou Co.: McCloud, July 15, 191: 
1092 (CA, G); Cantara, July 23, 1912, Eastwood, i 
Shasta Springs, Mav 18, 1923, Eastwood, no. 11,82 
Co.: Montgomery Creek, May 24, 1928, E. Bethel (C 
near Pitt River Ferry, 1897, H. E. Brown, no. 23' 
Baird, June, 1912, Mrs. A. L. Coombe (CA, no. 110,(: 
21, 1934, Eastwood & Howell, no. 1821 (CA); Goose 
and Julv 11, 1912. East wood, no. 719 (CA, G, I"S); 
1923, Eastwood, no. 1 1.91.5 (CA) ; Ydalpom, Apr. 29, 
McAllister, no. 2b (CA); near Redding, May, 1931, 
(CA, no. 174,605); near Shasta, Apr. 25. 1931. Mr,: 
no. 191,460); Pitt River. Mav li. 1913, L. E. Smith, i 
CA); Iron Mt., May 31, 1915, L E. Smith (CA, no. 
Co.: Butte Meadows. June 20, 1925, Mrs. (J. /.'. 
128, 603); Chico Meadows in the Sierra Nevada, 
Heller, no. 11,961 (G, CA). 

The description here given is based in large measm 

style-crests are almost as long as the style-branches, 
tive feature is utilized in his key to the group. 1 In a 1 
he says that plants grown from seeds collected near 
by Miss Alice Eastwood corroborated the original < 

tvpe sheet does not justify Dykes' assertion as to t 
crests relative to the style-branches. On the five 



make seem to show that the crests are little over half the length of the 
style-arm in this particular specimen. Of twenty-lour measurements 
on specimens other than the type, in only one is the ratio of style to 
crest lcs> than 1.25, and the average is 1.72. 

Abrams 1 says of this species: "An imperfectly known relative of 
/. HKicm.siphnit , diH'cring. probably inconstantly, in the narrower, 
tapering perianth-segments; stigma-crests about as long as the stig- 
mas." Nevertheless, since the crests are narrowly linear, the perianth- 
segments narrower, as well as slighter, the spathes more broadly 
"naviculate," and the perianth-tube usually much shorter, this plant 
is reasonably well differentiated from /. macrosiphon. Its slender 
floral parts are even more difficult to preserve than is the ease with 
most of these plants, and a detailed field study is needed for this 
species, as for so many of its relatives, in order to clear up some of the 
doubtful points. Some of the specimens here assigned to this species 
are so placed with hesitation, particularly some of the stems on various 
sheets of Eastwood, no. 1092. In tube-length, shape of perianth-seg- 
ments, and ratio of style to crest, these are almost indistinguishable 
from Heller, no. 11,961, of which a sheet in the Gray Herbarium has 
been marked /. nnuihili.s Kastwood, by L. R. Abrams. The spathes 
and leaves of Ilrllrr, no. 11,91)1 are different from those of the other 
specimen, but otherwise there is a great similarity. Comparison with 
the type of /. amabilis indicates that neither specimen can be assigned 
to it. Itisof course possible, even probable, that extensive hybridiza- 
tion is responsible for some of the difficulties presented by this species, 
a tiling true of most of the macrosiphon-complex. 2 

' Iris tenuissima var. purdyiformis, var. now (Tab. 2, fig. 1). 

Folia paiica, ad :j-3.f> dm. longa, 'A .". mm. lata, eaiilem exeedentia, 
imilateraliter glaucescentia lit in /. /'/ov/Wlolia eaulina pauciora quam 
in /. trnuixxivia (in caulibus aequilongis), breviora, appressa, apice 
modo libera breviterque acuminata; stigma subrotimduni, nee aeiitum 
lit in /. tt'iiut.sxiutii nee truneatum lit in /. I'lirdi/o; eeterum ut in /. 
trinrix.sniia.— Leaves linear, acute, to :>.."> dm. long, but occasionally 
reaching .">,."> dm., narrow, iv o mm. wide, rather light green, glaucous 
or siibglaueous on one side, darker on the other; steins simple, 1.4 
3.4 dm. long, exceeded by the leaves which are probably somewhat 
lax, with 2-4 somewhat inflated, herbaceous, rose-tipped, basally 
appressed, shortly acuminate eauline leaves, which are free only at 



the tip; spathes opposite, lu-rluu-fous, t ippt-.l and margined with 
rose, 3.5-5 cm. long and 6-10 mm. wide, the inner longer than tin- 
outer by 4-8 mm., 2-flowered; pedicel 5-8 mm. long; ovary narrowh 
oval, ±7 mm. long; perianth-tube linear, a trifle dilated near the top. 
3-1.3 cm. long, averaging 3.29 cm. in 8 measurements; sepals nan-ow . 
to 4.2 cm. long, apparently pale yellow; petals narrow, to 3.7 cm. 
long; stvle-branches 2 cm. long; style-crests linear, 7 10 mm. long; 
stigma more rounded than in /. Unuisshna, but not truncatcly so ;.-. 
in 7 l>,mli/i Eastwood; filaments 5 mm. long': anthers t 1.2 cm. long; 
immature 'capsule somewhat oblong-ovate, 1.2 cm. long; seeds not 
.ecu Plumas and Sierra Counties, California, in pine woods. Speci- 
mens seen- CALIFORNIA 1 Plumas Co.: Feather River region, < amp 
Roduers. Apr. 11, 1934, E. P. Chace (type in CA,no^'^l.; 
Camp Rodgers, June 8, 1920, Anna Head (CA, no. 110,0/1): Sierra 
Co.: Cedar Glen, May 25, 1920, I'. Jones (CA, no. 110,077). 

This plant is known to me only from the three specimens cited, two 
of which were originally labelled I. Purdyl Eastwood. The varietal 
name was given because of this resemblance. According to the label 
on Anna Head's specimen, collected at the same place as the type, the 
plant is found under pines, and the flowers are never blue in color, but 
almost white. In the coloring and shape of the caulme leaves the 
short stems, pink-tipped and margined spathes, and one->idedl.\ 
glaucous leaves, this plant does have a deceptive resemblance to /. 
Piinli/i. Nevertheless, an examination of the rather poorly preserved 
flowers shows petals and sepals to be much smaller and more delicate 
than those of /. /'///<////'. or. indeed, than in most specimens seen ot 1. 
tenuis*; ma. As in that species, however, the style-crests are narrow^ 
linear On the whole, the floral parts are quite unlike those ot /. 
Purdui That species has a truncateh, rounded or flattened stigma, 
wlliU ; That of /. tenulsshna is so acuminate as to be nearly tongue- 
shaped, hi this ne« variety the stigma i, not tonguejhaped, but is 
apparently more rounded than is the case with I. Purdyi, nor does it 
seem bilobed, as is sometimes true of that species. 



30 FOSTER 

the two ranges. Hybridization between the two speeies, producing a 
plant known only from southeast of the range of I. tenuissiiiia, seems 
improbable. 1 

Iris pinetorum Eastwood. Rhizome slender, bearing the fibrous 
remains of old leaves; leaves pale green, finely striate, linear, acute, 
to 40 cm. long and 5 mm. wide; stems simple, very slender, 11-27 cm. 
long, shorter than the longest leaves, bearing 2-3 narrow cauline 
leaves, which are 5-8.5 cm. long, with the upper third free from the 
stem; spathe-valves distant from 8-12 mm., divergent, narrow, 
linear-lanceolate, herbaceous, with scarious edges, the outer one 
5.6-6.2 cm. long and 2 mm. wide, the inner 4.7-5.3 cm. long and 
3 mm. wide; perianth-tube linear, 1.2 1.7 cm. long; sepals ±6 cm. 
Ion-, narowh oblaneeolate, the blade about 1 em. wide, tapering 
gradually into the long claw, pale yellow veined with violet; petals 
narrower and somewhat shorter; style-arms .'! em. long; stvle-erests 
±8 mm. long; stigma entire, triangular; filaments 8-10 mm. long; 
anthers about 1.3 cm. long; capsule 2 cm. long by 1 cm. wide, broadly 
oblong, abruptly tapering at base and apex; seeds not seen. Troe. 
<'ahf. Acad. Sci. xx. 137 (1931).— In pine forests, apparently endemic 
in Plumas Co., California. Specimens seen: California: Plumas 
Co.: Forest Lodge, near Greenville, June 11, 11)27, E,tslwm»L no 
14,454 (type, in CA). 

This sp 
ing to the 



known to me only from the type ! 


specimen. Aceord- 


description, the plant is common 


in the type locality, 


nes. In some respects, such as the 


i narrow leaves and 


this species is distinctly like /. ten 


uissima. The peri- 


■er, is shorter, possibly half the li 


sngth of that of its 


spathes are narrow and divergent 


, as well as distant, 


ioned in the original description. 


The spathe char- 



plants, with 1-3 cauline leaves; spathes green, sometimes flushed 
purple at the base, lanceolate-acuminate, broad, subequal, or the 
inner longer, opposite, to 8.5 cm. long and 8 mm. wide, 2 3-tlowered; 
pedicel to 4-5 cm. Ion-, but usually shorter; ovan elliptic-oval, sharply 
trigonal, tapering equally at the ends, to 3^ cm. long; perianth-tube 
linear, ±2.5 cm. long; sepals obovate-oblaneeolate, obtusely rounded 
or subacute, to 5.5 cm. long, but usually less than 5 cm., ±2 cm. wide, 
color variable among shades of lavender-purple, veined deeply on the 
claw and at the base of the blade; petals shorter than the sepals, 
oblanceolate, 4.5 em. long and 1 cm. wide; style-branches 2.7 cm. 
Ion. • stvle-crests subquadrate, coarsely toothed, 1.6 cm. long; stigma 
entire, triangular; filaments ±8 mm. long; anthers ±1.2 cm. lon^; 
capsule verv sharply trigonal, tapering equally at the ends, 3... ■) em. 
long; seeds almost spherical, with wrinkle! coats. -Hot. Beech. Voy. 
395 (1841); Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. c. t. 6083 (1874); Baker in Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 138 (1877); Baker, Handbk. Irid 6 (1892 ; 
Greene, Man. Bot. Sat, Fran. Hay rjll.s IM'i : Jepson. M. West. Mid. 
Calif. i_-«, M 90C: Howell. Fl. X. W. Amer. i. 634 (1902); Dykes, 
Genus Iris 37 (1913); Jepson, Fl. Calif, i. 324 i 1021*: Abrains. Hum. 
Fl. Pacif. States i. 464 (1923); Dykes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 116 (1924); 
Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 253 (1925). Iris Bnrh.i/ann Herbert m 
Hooker and Arnott, Bot. Beech. Voy. 395 (1841), fide Dykes (1913). 
Iris Douglasimm car. mida Herbert in Hooker and Arnott, Bot. Beech. 
Voy. 395 (1841). Iris Douglasimm var. alhssima Purdy ex Jepson, 
Fl. Calif, i. 325 (1921); Jepson, Man. Fl. PL Calif. 253 (1925).-Open 
woods or sunny slopes and fields, southern Oregon to Monterey, 
California. Specimens seen: California: without locality or date, 
Cnultrr, no 746 «(', , without locality. 1*69. Kfw it "" r /^> ™- 
973 (G); Sat. Lorenzo Valley, 1869, Krllogg */«tf«'" ■ "»• 97 „ 8 ( G ) : 
Del Norte Co.: Smith River, June 12 1884 T Howell (G); Requa 
Aug. 19, 1920, C. D. Duncan, no. 324 (RM) : Mendocino Co.: * l th..u, 
!,„,!„, |,s7ti (, II \'n,;u <G): Humboldt Co.: Redwood belt, 190c 
Clm, II no V'li" (C- C'.rlotta Viur. 16. 1923. V.'isf ,roo<l, no. 12,313 

C\"'- Y-'.nn- V-mip l'<» Max .;, 1911. //. //• Snrifh, no. 3777 (US); 
p-,,,.,,1" ., M. 1V ■>•' pel (' }'.' Piprr (CA. no. 110,694) in part: Men- 
.lorino < o ''\Uuon Kivcr, Mac 1902,./. UurMurphn, no. 1 11 (US) in 
par,: Fort 'Bragg, Aug. 8-16, 1912, Eastwood, no 1600 (C A) ; Fort 

ir:.-. Ma. 3. 191 1. d. Xrurll* (CA. no. 1 1 0,6,92); Mendocino City, 

M , 21. 1921. I ■ Hraa C V, no. 110,695); Mendocino City, Aug. 

s lii, ,912. / ast.ru , . no. 1710* (CA); Uk ah, May 1,1869^ 

*//" « .7'. c; S uk. Co Bodega Point, 189 / 

(RM, G); Bodega Bay. 1902. Wlhr cV /W„. no olS2 (G RM 
Marin Co.: «iil„„, U.din. W. issu. t, 1 im.r„ . 1 S, no 36 ,766) ; 
fort- Madera. IS.", I. Hn„h„r G . Cort. Madera. Ypr. 28 1904, 
//,7/rr, no. 7371 (G); Sausalito, Mar. 8, 1913 U . I Schmtt .1 .. no. 
.vso,Os;,!; Kentfield, May 21, 1912, Ea*faW, no. 44 (CA); Fairfax, 



Apr. 27, 1891, W. C. Blasdale (RM, qo. 40,625); Poinl Reyes, May 
13, 1923, Eastwood, no. 11,805 (CA); Point Reyes, June 23, 1915, 

Eastwood, no. 4774 (CA); Mt. Tamalpais, July 29, 1912, Eastwood, 
no. 1506 (CA); Point Reyes, May 1, 1930, B. R. Jackson (CA, no. 
174,149); Point Reyes, May, 1906, Eastwood (CA, no. 110,690); Mt. 
Tamalpais, Rock Spring Trail, Feb. 28, 1926, J. T. Howell, no. 1650 
(CA) : San Francisco Co. : San Francisco Peninsula, near Lake Merced, 
May, 1903, .V. L. Cardner, no. 5-12 (RM); San Francisco, March Ma v. 
1906, H. A. Walker, no. 27 (RM); San Francisco, Presidio, 1894, 
Eastwood (G); San Francisco, Mt. Davidson, May 8, 1933, H. IV. 
('lurk (CA, no. 204,573); near San Francisco, Mar. 20, 191.'!, If. /'. 
Srhmtt <l"S. no. SS0,()S7): Santa Clara Co.: Los Gatos, Raymond's 
Ranch, June 18, 1914, G. Nvwell (CA, no. 110,572): Santa Cruz Co.: 
near Glenwood, Apr. 10, 1903. //,//,,• (Gi; Santa Cruz, San Lorenzo 
Drive. June 11, 1929, Mr. & Mrs. Dearing* (CA, no. 173,309): San 
Mateo Co.: above Woodside, in the Santa Cruz Mts., Mav 3 1930, 
L linmm, 2105 (JWT); Portola, Max. 1903, .1. /;. /J. Elmer, no. 
1503 (CA); San Bruno Hilk 1907, Heller, ..... Mtil ((J); San Bruno 
Hills, April, 1918, M. L. Campbell (CA, no. II0.5SS); San Mateo, 
June, 1903, A. D. E. Elmer, no. 4806 (CA); Crystal Sprin-s Lake, 
Mar. 22, 1 9(L\ C. /'. linker, no. 3-13 (G): Montenn Co.: Monterev, 
17-mile Drive, Apr. 25, 1917, /. Uet.uin (CA, no. 110,589); Carmel, 
April. 1922, /•'. .S. Cunheell* (CA, no. 110,587); Monterev, Cypress 
Point, Ma;, 2S. 1912, Eastwood, no. 24* (CA); Pacific Grow. 1903. 
Heller, no. C46S* (G, RM); Monterev, Mar. 9, 1913, Eastwood ..... 
2483 (CA). 

This essentially maritime plant is extremely variable. Jepson, 
taking up a manuscript name of Purdy's, mentions a var. altissima, 
which is 3-3^ feet tall, from Halfmoon Bay, San Mateo Co. The 
name has not been kept up here because only a single specimen was 
cited by Jepson, and in a matter so variable as height, more than this 
is necessary to warrant the retention of a varietal name. In color, 
/. Douglasiana is almost as variable as /. tenax, with flowers usually 
of some shade of purple, lavender, or white, veined rather deeply on 
the sepal claw. 

Iris Douglasiana var. bracteata Herbert in Hooker and Arnott. 
Rhizome moderately thick, red-brown, sheathed in the dark red- 
brown bases of old leaves; leaves linear-ensiform, acute, to 80 cm. 
long and 1.5 cm. wide, pale green and nerved as in the northern plants 
ol 1. Douglanana; stem usually branched. !.,,,ni,_ numerous narrow 
'""line leaves, to 30 cm. tall, the terminal inflorescence 3-flowered; 
pathes usually distant by about 1.5 cm., but so 
less, to 11 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, lineardan.rolat. 
aceous; pedicel 1-4 cm. long; ovary 2.5-5.5 cm lo 



trigonal, tapering equally at the ends; perianth-tube 1 .."> 2 cm. long, 
linear, dilating near the top; sepals To ."> nn. long 'usually shorter) 
and 2 cm. wide, obovate-oblanceolate, without real distinction be- 
tween blade and claw, variable in color but usually a darkish purple, 
veined more deeply, especially on the claw; petals a trifle shorter than 
the sepals, to 1.2 cm. wide, oblanceolate, more nearly acute than the 
sepals; style-branches 2.5 cm. long; style-crests I cm. long, large, 
subquadrate, less coarsely toothed than in /. D&uglasian a ; stigma 
entire, triangular; filaments ±1.2 cm. long; anthers ±1.4 em. long; 
capsule less sharph angled than in /. Domjla.siana. ovate-oblong; seeds 
not seen.— Bot. Beech. Voy. 395 (1841). Iris Watsoniana Purdy in 
Lrvthaca v. 128 (1897); Dykes in Gard. Chron. (Ill) lv. 391 M91T; 
Dykes, Genus Iris 37 (1913); Dykes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. lib (1021). 
as synon. of /. Douglasiana in these last two references.— Coastal 
region in California around Humbol.lt Co., apparently occurring in- 
frequently elsewhere. Specimens seen: California: without locality 
or date '('null, r (G); Vox a California. I N33, lhmtjhis ((J): Humboldt 
Co.: Big Lagoon near Orick, June 25-27, 1922, Abrams & Bacigalupi, 
no S273 (MM- Trinidad. Apr. 21. 1907. Eastwood, no. 23 (CA); 
Carlotta June 1915, K. I\ Ilmvrrr (CA, no. 110,688); Carlotta, Apr. 
21, 1021,' Mr*. II. /•;. Wild, r (CA, no. 110,086); Eureka, May 22, 1921, 
C V Pip<r (CA, no. 110,094) in part; Humboldt Bay. IS,s. 1 . 
Kaftan (G); Mendocino Co.: Mendocino City, June 28, 1922 East- 
wood, no. 11.418 (CA): Monterey Co.: Pacific Grove 1902, U,,,,_r. 
no. 3565 (G); Santa Lucia Mts., April, 1898, R. A. Hash ft, no. /9 
(RM). 

scribed 1.' T. """■ The dimensions 



herbarium material. It is a plant of paler green, even yel- 
reen leaves which arc consistently wider and less conspicu- 
,I„ M 1 t l 1;in in the typical variety. Its spathes are nar 
arlv linear-lanceolate, divergent, and usually distant 
x.s'ite, although in this respect there i 



> plants 



falls withil 



two piaius; Limt vi ±. tr i»™'»»»'- 

shown by I. Douglasiana. The flower of tl 



34 FOSTER 

leaved plant is often, hut not always, smaller than that of I. Doug- 
Uixiana, ami is more consistent ly uniform in color, usually a rather 
deep purple. Here again, however, it falls within the limits of varia- 
tion in I. Doughis-Uina. With few exceptions, it appears to occupy a 
definite geographic range. 

Since significant difference in floral structure is lacking, it appears 
to me impossible at present to separa 
Yet, to follow Dykes 1 in making it mere 
is unwarrantably to ignore the facts ; 
characters. It is clearly entitled to varietal status. 

In the original description of /. Doiiglaximia, llerhert described a 
var. brartcata (appearing as bacteata through a misprint), which differed 
from the type by its "caule superne bracteato (ut in I. tenaee) -pat ha 
3-valvi, pedunculia brevioribus, limbo breviore (saturation-':')." 
From the reference to /. trua.r it is clear that this phrase must refer to 
the distant spathe valves, for when these are distant for any appreci- 
able length, the effect of only three spathe valves is readily produced. 
In many, but not all, of the specimens of T. WnUoniuna examined, the 
pedicels are shorter than in I. Douglasiana, while the perianth-seg- 
ments are usually smaller (although the hirgesi dimensions have been 
given in the description above). Nevertheless, in what seem essential 
points, /. IVat.sorridixi so closely resembles the description of /. Doug- 
lasiana var. brartcata that I have ventured to regard them as identical. 
This decision has been confirmed by a photograph of the type speci- 
men of I. Douglasiana, which is preserved in the Kew Herbarium. 
Through the kindness of Sir Arthur W. Hill this photograph has been 
presented to the Gray Herbarium. In the left-hand specimen, the 
type of var. brartcata, the outer spathe valve is inserted on the stem 

ti'Mi contained in a letter from Sir \rthur Hill to I'rol'e^or I'ernald 



As Dykes 2 pointed out, this Iris bears striking resemb! 
tmax, as well as to /. Douglasiana. It may have had its 
stabilized segregate from a cross of these two species, a 
which, from the present ranges of the two plants, is not 
The occurrence of var. bracteata on the southern edge of t 
I. tenax and north of the principal locations of /. Do tig! a* 



favor such an h\ 


pothesis. Numerous 


specimens 


have be 


en seen 












var. bracteata, but 


these have been elasse. 


1 with /. D 


•»irihi.«i<l)i 


a in the 


list of exsiccatae a 


,«. ith an as 


terisk. \Y1 


ien the 1 


ncalitio 


of these specimens 


s were found on the in; 


ip, it was 


seen that 


almost 


without exception 


the intermediate forms 








the species and va 


riety were associated, a 


s on the co 


ast of Hi 


imhnldt 


and Monterev Cm 


mties. A hybrid origin 


for these i 


ntermedi; 


ites can 


thus be postulated 


with a fair degree of probability. 






'Iris Douglass 


,na var. oregonensis, 


var. nov. 


(Tab. 2, 


fig. 2). 


Folia l.reviora lai 


tioraque; spathae valvi latiores, 


ovato-lanceolati, 



fere 1-fL; perianthii tubus brevior; sepala amplius obovata quam in 
I. Douglasiana typica. Rhizome moderately slender; leaves light 
\ ellou ish-green, flushed pink at the base, prominently ribbed, to 5 dm. 
Ion- and 1 ' .."> cm. wide; stems simple or shortly branched, bearing 1-2 
lanceolate, reduced leaves; spathes broadly lanceolate, acute, opposite, 
herbaceous, to 0.5 em. long and S nun. wide. 1 2-(louered; pedicel To 
3 cm. long; ovary ±3 cm. long, narrowly elliptic, trigonal; perianth- 
tub, linear, 1.3-1.8 cm. long; sepals broadly oblanceolate or obovate, 
to 6.5 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, obtuse. \-,r eiider-givy, the broad claw 
lighter than the blade and veined more darkly than the blade; petals 
±5 cm. long and 1.4 cm. wide, lavender-grey; style-branches ±2.h 
cm. long, ±8 mm. wide at the stigma; style-crests ±1.3 em. long. 
rounded-oblong, dentate; stigma entire, triangular: filaments ±9 ram. 
long- anthers | . r> cm. long; capsule ±5 cm. long, oblong-ellipsoid, 
tanerin- muallv at the ends; seeds not seen.— Coast of southern 
nens seen- Oregon: Coos Co.: near Myrtle Point, 
Ibmnix &• 'Benson, no. 10,545 (type, in RM); cliffs at 

on' Beach ' Mav 14, 1924, Ahanns ,v lin,*,,,, no. 10,000 (RM), 

,h -, hybrid- Cum Co : hills back of Cold Beach, May lb, 1924. 

»y <v 'lirnsm, no ' MUibO illM<: moist to wet ground in town- 
;,,• ,;,,[,! |>,,. M .h .[„,„• "-I. HI2«i, /.. r\ Ilm.lrr*,,,, no. 713S (()); 

'Blanco. May b>. 1921. Ahnu„» ctta.m, I0lij« (KM); 



Orego 



This plant, of which no specimens have been available, is described 
as differing from the typical color-forms of the species in having 
creamy-white sepals, with a few deep crimson-purple veins on the 
Made, which is suffused with pale yellow between the veins. Accord- 
ingly, it is here reduced to the rank of a form. In a species which 
varies so markedly in color as does I. Douglasiana, it seems a ques- 
tionable procedure to award color variants the status of forms, since 
this will inevitably result in a multiplicity of virtually useless names. 
However, forma alpha seems, ex descr., to be sufficiently unlike the 
usual I. Douglasiana in color to warrant the retention of the name, 
especially since it is probably this color form to which Baker' refers 
as the " Santa Cruz varietv," indicating thai it has a certain "'eographic 
definiteness. 

Iris bracteata S. Watson. Rhizome slender, _LS mm. in diam- 
eter, sheathed in the unsplit bases of old leaves; leaves few, thick, 
rigid, linear-acute, strongly ribbed, glossy on one side, glaucous on 
the other, to 53 cm. long and 9 mm. wide; stems simple, usuallv ex- 
ceeded by the leaves, 25 cm. long, closeb sheathed in 3 -6 linear- 
acuminate bracts, of which the lowest have no free portion, while 
the upper have one-third of their length free, all more or less si rough 
tinged with red; spathes 2-flowered, >ubequal in length, 7 cm. long 
and 6 7 mm. wide, lanceolate, acuminate, herbaceous, with scarious 
margins; pedicel to 6.5 cm. long; ovary 2 cm. long, tapering gradually 
into the pedicel and abruptly into the tube; perianth-tube short and 
iiifundibuliform, not over 1 cm. long; sepals vellow, veined brown, 
oboyate-oblanceolate, 6.5 cm. long by ±1.5 cm. wide, the blade nar- 
rowing into a rather broad claw; petals 5 cm. long. 7 mm. wide, nar- 
rowly oblanceolate, yellow, unveined; style-branches :! cm. long; 
style-crests broadly >ub(|tiadrate, with toothed edges, (i mm. long- 
stigma entire, triangular or tongue-shaped; filaments 7 nun. long; 
anthers 1.8 cm. long; capsule 2 2.5 cm. long, tapering equally and 
abruptly at the ends; seeds dark brown, angular, flattened. ' (De- 
scription based on thetvpe). Proc. Amer \cad xx'375 i I SSo I • Baker, 
Handbk. Irid. 7 (1*92); Howell, Fl. X W \mer i 634 (1902); 
Dykes, Genus Iris 38 (1913);Stapf in Hot. Mag. clxi. t. Mill) (M)15); 
Abrams, Illust. Fl. Pacif. States i. 464 (1923); Dvkes Handbk Gard. 
Ir. 117-118 (1924).— Endemic in southern Oregon. Specimens seen: 
Oregon: Josephine Co.: Waldo. June. ISM, '/'. Ilwrril (tvpe, in (7); 
Deer Creek Mts., Apr. 26, 1887, T. Ilmv.ll (G); Waldo, Ap'r. 24, INS7. 
/. Jloirrll (G); Waldo, May 20, 192S, X. P. (lair, no. 232 (JWT); 
Hogue Ranger Station, 3 miles above Takilma, on East Illinois River, 
Apr. 25, 1926, L. F. Ilmdrrson, no. 5968 (O, RM); Page Creek, 3 
miles southeast of Takilma,. Fulv s. I91n. M. /.'. I'n-h tio S174(W). 



This large and handsome species is apparently closely confined to a 
small region in southern Oregon. Less variable than other members 
of the Califnnrimc, it does vary somewhat in size, as is to be expected. 
Its leaves and bracteate stem make it easily recognizable. Dykes 1 
noted that in the wild state apparently no color is found other than 
yellow, a fact corroborated by Starker. 2 

Iris Purdyi Eastwood. Rhizome slender, dark red-brown, covered 
with the fibrous remains of old leaves; leaves few in a clump, linear, 
acute, to 4.S dm. long and 7 mm. wide, bright dark-green on one side, 
rather glaucous on the other, flushed pink al the base, the margins 
thickened, but the nerves onlv snbprominent, exceeding the flowering 
stems but somewhat laxly spreading; stems simple, 15 25 cm. long, 
covered with imbricate, somewhat inflated, acuminate, shea thing 
bracts, free onlv at the tips, striate, flushed and edged with pink; 
spathes opposite, herbaceous, inflated, very broadly lanceolate-ovate, 
acuminate, the outer shorter than the inner, usually by 1 cm, 5.5- 
0.5 cm. long and 8-10 mm. wide, prominently margined with ^use- 
color, 1 2-flowered; pedicel 1-2 cm. long; ovary narrow, 1-1 .o cm. 
long- perianth-tube linear, 1.5-4 cm. long (rather short on the type); 
.d.-K >preadinc. ±i, cm. long and 2 cm. wide, 
cream ... lavemle. veined md dotted witl dee, - irpl , the -la 



stigma appears almc 
.7 cm. long; capsule o 
. long; seeds D-shaped 



Counties, California, in open v 
Mendocino Co., Ckiah, May. 1 
June 13, 1913, Eastwood, no. 3 
ami Branscombe, June 21-24, 
Albion River, May, 1902, J. M 
boldt Co., Red Mountains, I SCI 
north of Garbersville, May 2, I 
Redwood Forest. May 15, 1933 



larger, while the leaves differ in color and in hem- -lane 
side. Above,! < ■ _ ■ ..■ : hp i> enough to 

this species from any other known member of the Ctilifon/x 
others have a triangular acute, or acuminate, or even tonj 

preserved flowers is so undulate- in the middle that it appe; 
bilobed. 1 The plant is apparently endemic in northern 
Dykes 2 refers to it as coming from Sonoma and Mendocim 
but cites no herbarium specimens. The few specimens 1 
have come from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties, whei 
to be fairly common in the Redwood region. 3 The flow 
usually \ ellow, but Arm <fr R. A. Schon, no. 582 appears t. 
delicate lavender; this specimen also has a perianth-tub 
somewhat longer than usual, both things being equally tn 
Jusscl (CA, no. 195,737). This is possibly an indication < 



Iris innominata Henderson. (Plate 3, fig. 1.) Rhizoi 
about 4 mm. in diameter; leaves to Mo em Ion- and 1 mn 
cceding the stems in dwarf forms, dark -rem on one side 
-laucou-onth, other Ihnhed ! „„ pnrpl, at th, base, li, 

'''""'■"' t!dl,"^th' I :; ,1 T caulim'' leal'l ''which are'T (."'en 

free for the upper third of their length; spathes broadly la 
ovate, herbaceous, with scarious mar-ins, subequal, 4 en 
6 mm. wide, 1 2-flowered; pedicel- short, 5-11 mm. long; 
1.8 cm. long; perianth-tube linear, 2-3 cm. long; sepals I 
lanceolate, 4.5 cm. long and 1.8 cm. wide, the blade taperi 
narrow claw, usually yellow with purple veins; petals a I 



often definitely bilobc 



not toothed in the type; stigma, entire, triangular; filaments 8 mm. 
long; anthers 1.2 cm. long; capsule oblong-oval, 2.5 cm. long, 1.2 cm. 
wide; seeds rather dark brown, oval. 3 nun. long, pitted and wrinkled, 
sharph angled.— Rhodora xxxii. 23 (1930).— Dry sunny woods m 
southern Oregon. Specimens seen: Oregon: Douglas (V: west tork 
of Cow Creek, May 1, 1930, L. F. Unul r,-n». no. 12,3()< id): miles 
southwest of Dothan P. O., June 20, 1917, J. C. ^^l.<o„,no. 1402 (d); 
along West Fork-Marial Trail, 5 miles west of West Tork. June 20, 

1017, .1/. /■:. Pecife, no. 5118 (W); 5 nnles west of West Fork, June 27. 
1017, .1/. /•;. Pre/.-, no. 7)1 l»i (\Y): Curry Co.: on Rogue River, 8 miles 
above ferrv at Wedderburn, May 23 and July 14, 1929, I. F. II, udrr- 
son no 10 080 (type, in 0); South Fork of Euchre (reek. Port 
Orford-Cold Beach Road, May 10, 1021. Ahra,,,, A- H,,<s»„. no. 10.041 
(R.M); 13 miles southeast of Port Orford, July 2, 1919, M. /-. /'-;/.■. 
no. 8939 (W); Snow Camp, June 23, 1020, L. hurl,, no. 234- (\\ ); 
Illahe, June 30, 1929, L. Leach, no. 2346 (W); 4 miles northeast of 
Brookings, Aug. 1, 1913, M. E. Peck, no. 7052 (\\). 

The description given here has been based to a large extent on a 
portion of the type presented to the dray Herbarium by Professor 



40 FOSTER 

/. Dninjlatilinia and /. innominata conic in contact, the former tends 
to develop shades of yellow, as a result of hybridization with the 
latter. Mrs. Sherrard (I. c.) has found similar color-variations grow- 
ing on the Oregon coast, apparently not near plants of /. i tnmm i uata . 
Two sheets of L. F. Henderson, no. 5769, collected on " bluffs of the 
ocean" at Brookings, Curry Co., Oregon, have been seen by me. 
One (in CA) is like the variants found by Mrs. Sherrard. It is tall, 
with very long, appressed spathes, greatly exceeding the perianth- 
tube; the sepals somewhat resemble those of 2". innominata in shape and 
are emarginate; in color, the perianth was probably apricot or some 
allied shade. This specimen is definitely not J. Douglasiana , as label- 
led, and a hybrid origin seems the most reasonable explanation for it. 
On the other hand, a second sheet of this number and locality (in RM) 
is entirely different. The plants are half as tall as the other specimen; 
the spathes are shorter and more nearly ovate, as in /. innominata, 
while the perianth-tube, in most of the flowers, exceeds the spathes to 
a certain degree; the large deep-purple flowers approach those of 7. 
Douglasiana in color and shape. On both sheets the leaves are dark 
green and narrow, much more like leaves of I. innominata than of 
typical /. Douglasiana. Because of its leaves and spathes I consider 
this sheet of Henderson, no. 5769 to be of hybrid origin, like the (CA) 
specimen, but approaching closer to I. Douglasiana in this case. 

Iris Thompsonii R. C. Foster. (Plate 3, fig. 2.) Plant caespitose; 
rhizome slender, ±1 cm. in diameter, apparently shallow-growing; 
leaves few in a clump, linear, acute, subglaucous, distinctly ribbed, 
exceeding the stems, to 30-35 cm. long and 3-5 mm. wide; stems 
slender, simple, 10-25 cm. long, with 2-3 narrow, linear-la nceolatc 
cauline leaves which are free from the stem for one-half to two-thirds 
of their length; spathes 1-2-flowered, subequal, herbaceous, slightly 
keeled, not inflated, narrowly lanceolate, 3.5-5 cm. long and 6-9 mm. 
wide, with a slight pink flush in some instances; pedicel ±1.2 cm. 
long, that of the first flower being shorter than that of the second; 
ovary 1-2 cm. long, tapering equally at the ends, passing gradually 
into the perianth-tube; perianth-tube narrow, linear, ±1.3 cm. long; 
sepals narrowly oblanceolate-spatulate. tapering gradually from the 
blade to the claw, obtusely rounded at the apex, entire, 3.5-3.8 cm. 
long and 1-1.3 cm. wide, rather deep blue-purple; petals oblanceo- 
late-spatulate, 2.8-3.2 cm. long and ±7 mm. wide, obtuse at the 
apex, entire, apparently the same color as the sepals; style-branches 
2 cm. long; style-crests 7-10 mm. long, subquadrate or triangular. 
but not linear, with distinctly rounded-toothed edges; stigma entire. 
triangular-acute, hut not tongue-shaped; filaments about 8 mm. long; 
equal to the anthers in len-th; immature cao.-ule oval, about 2.5 cm. 



more ncarh 



long, fairlv broad, inperiim abruptly into a beak; seeds not seen. — 
Mio< lorn xxxviii. 199 (1936).— Northern California, in semi-open 
places. Specimens seen: California: Del Norte Co.: Douglas Park, 
srini-opcii slopes V.:, mile from the Smith River, about 500 ft. alt., 
June 5-7, 192S, ./. IV. Thompson, no. 4510 (type, in G, with co-types 
in US, MBG, JWT). 

Confusion of this species with others of the Calif onmar is not be to 
expected, save possibly with its closest relative, /. ■unwunnafu, from 
which it ditVers in its shorter perianth-tube, more in ' 

spathes, perianth-segments smaller, more delicate, 
spatulate, and cauline leaves free for a greater porti 
especially in the upper leaves. Its longer stems, 
tube, shorter and broader spathe-valves, smaller i 
Mowers, shorter styles and larger crests serve to dis 
from /. macrosiphon. 

Cytology of the Californicae. With the exc 
in which Simonet 1 found 2n = 28, the species in this 
uniform chromosome number, 2rc = 40, and a sim 
chromosome morphology. Several attempts to gr 
failed, the plants dying before root-tips could be sec 
I can only refer to Simonet's figure (1. c, plate I, fig 
about eight small or medium-sized c 



lings and mature plants of /. 
show 2n=40 (plate 1, fig. 14), 1 
No authentic material of I. Do 
able, but Simonet (1. c.) report 

gram is apparent. There are 



42 FOSTER 

opposed to two in the former. As my material of /. tniax also showed 
four satellites on occasion, there seems to he no discrepancy here. 
From plants of /. tenax var. Gormanii secured from Mr. Carl Starker 
of Jennings Lodge, Oregon, I have verified the count on this plant. 
Seedlings supposed to lie /. maeroxiphon, /. Hartin rjii , and /. tniax 
var. aiistnrfix were found to have 2w = 40, hut the uncertainty of the 
identification is so great that I am not including these counts as 
definitely established. 

From the chromosome-counts given, it is clear that differences of 
karyotype can be of little use in the Californ.ieae in distinguishing 
species. In one instance, that of /. tenuis, the morphological differ- 
ences which cause that species to stand apart from the rest of the 
group are accompanied by chromosomal differences. For the rest, 
uniformity is the rule. Examination of numerous seedlings and 
mature plants has not disclosed any tetraploids, nor even tetraploid 
sectors in root-tips. At present, it would seem that speciation in this 
group has not been accompanied by any drastic chromatin rearrange- 
ments, at least of such a nature that they could become apparent in 
the mitotic complement. 

General Discussion of the Californicae. Leaving I. tenuis 
aside for the moment, it is clear that in the remainder of this sub- 
section there are several definite species-complexes. At least one of 
these is the result of drawing rather narrow specific lines, yet the 
alternative to such a course is to produce a single species-aggregate of 
such a diverse and polymorphic nature that no single, intelligible 
i be formed. 

The dominant species 



/. (lormnmi, here regarded as entitled only jo varietal 
southern limits of I.fmn.r are reached in southern Ore; 
California, there is evidence of a loss in height, and seen 
occur between /. tniax and the small, yellow-flowert 
This small plant, superficially only a miniature /. tenn 
ward in the mountain ranges of California, until in the 
ern limits another large, purple-flowered plant is four 
auvtralis. This variety, so like I. tenax in appearai 
treated as a variety of /. Hartwegii, is confined to the 
of the San Bernardino, San Gabriel, and San Jacinto m 
It is possible that the two purple-flowered plants an 



discontinuous ranges and probably represents only a series of \ 
developments out of the >/mrn«//;/;o//-complex, on the borders 
hitter's range. In the face of the inadequately preserved matt 

Of the remaining species, I. brack ata and /. Pvr<h/i seem com 

cally, the members of the former pair are separated by some di- 
while the latter two are found in contiguous regions. All fo 
alike in possessing a rather short perianth-tube, a feature whic 
tend to share with /. Douglasiana. It is possible that the 
species might be grouped together in a complex, but there are < 



/. jiristiKiticii Pursh (2//-4L.) as the Sil 
\|', ',!,'/ !) ,!!' '( II Wright. /. 



44 FOSTER 

plants of /. sibirica, the only points of similarity, aside from the 
chromosome number, seem to be the triangular stigma, the short 
l)erianth-tube, and the rather short style-crests, characters which 
they share with half the genus. /. rin/iirira L., likewise, has these 
same characters, as well as a chromosome count of n-35-36. Is it, 
then, to be regarded as a decaploid and grouped with the Slblrinu / 
The second proposal seems equalh questionable. The California 
species differ from the others in tube-length, spathe length and shape, 
leaf shape and color, and in the rootstock. Furthermore, as Dykes 
has shown in various places, 1 crosses between the American and 
Asiatic species have produced sterile hybrids. Taken by itself, 
sterility in a species-hybrid is not to be regarded as due to a lack of 
relationship between the parents, 2 but when such sterility accompanies 
morphological differences between the parents, it is probably of signifi- 
cance. Simonet's proposals, in this instance, seem based on chromo- 
some counts rather than on consideration of the species or groups as 
entities. The attitude adopted in this study is that similarity or 
difference of karyotype is not in itself enough to warrant union or 
separation of species or groups of species. As Sir William Wright 
Smith has said in a broad-minded consideration of the cyto-taxo- 
nomie problem:- "Approximation cytologically is not necessarily 
decisive as to close affinity. Fntil the cytologist can . . . carry 
his analysis deeper, involving the qualitative content of the chromo- 
somes and the different relationships between them, this divergence 
of opinion will persist." (p. 162) 

Subsection Prismaticae 



Iris prismatica Pursh ex Ker-Gawler. Rhizome verv slender, 
stolouiferous, sheathed in the fibrous bases of old lea\"es; leaves 
linear-ensiform, long-acuminate, glaucous, finely striate, 30-50 cm. 
long, 3-9 mm. wide, usually not surpassing the stem; stem slender. 
terete, flexuous in some cases, usually with 1 2 reduced linear, acu- 
minate leaves, 30-50 cm. tall, simple or once-branched, the main 
branch 2-3-nowered, the lateral branch 1-flowered; spathe-valves 



"The cytological a 



A SURVEY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SIM ( IKS OK IRIS 45 

opposite, equal, or the outer a trifle longer, 2.5-5 cm. long, 3 mm. 
wide lanceolate, partial!} membranous; pedicel slender, 3-5 cm. 
long, lengthening before the capsule matures; ovary trigonal, with 
verv pronounced angles, 1 2 cm. long; perianth-tube extremely short, 
funnel-shaped, 3 mm. long; sepals to 5 cm. long, with an ovate blade 
to 1.5 cm. wide, narrowing rather abruptly into the long claw, the 
blade light blue-purple with darker veins, green-white at the base of 
the blade and on the claw which is veined with violet; petaK to 4 
cm. long, with a very short claw, lanceolate, occasionally emarginate, 
pale blue-purple; stvle-branches 2 cm. long; style-crests almost 
quadrate, serrate, 7 mm. long; stigma entire, triangular; filaments 
1.2 cm. long; anthers 1 cm. long, blue-purple; capsule trigonal, 
with verv prominent ridges at each angle, the wings becoming 
less conspicuous as the capsule matures; seeds light brown, smooth, 
almost cubical through crowding in the capsule.— Bot. Mag. xxxvii. 
t. 1504 (1812); Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 30 (1814); Roem. & Schult 
Svst Yeg. i. 476 (1817); Barton, Fl. N. Amer. Hi. 39, pi. 5S (1N23); 
Bigelow, Fl. Bost. (ed. 2) 16 (1824); Ker, Gen. Irid. 55 (1827); Baker 
in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 138 (1X77); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 8 
(1892)- Britton & Brown, IlliM. Fl. led. I> i. 450 OS90); Robinson 
& Fcrnald in C.rav. Man. (ed. 7) 300 (1908); Dykes. Genus Ir. 31 
1 1913V, Small, Fl. Se. U. S. (ed. 2) 305 (1913); House, Wild Fls. N \ . 
i. 63, pi. 27 (1918); Dvkes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 101 (1924): Small in 
Addisonia xii. 15, pi. 392 (1927); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 355 (4933b 
Iris gracilis Bigelow. Fl. Bost. (ed. 1) 12 (1S14). Iris Bnltnuiaua 
Roem. & Schult., Svst. Yeg. i. Suppl., 308 (1822). Iris nnpmca 
sensu Klatt in Linnaea xxxi. 534 (1861-62), not L— Swampy regions on 
the Atlantic seacoast, occasionally occurring inland a> tar west as Ten- 
nessee. Representative material: Nova Scotia: Cape Breton, Louis- 
burg, 1893, J. Macoun (G). Maine: Wells, Drake's Isl., July 8-11, 
19(11 , Fair Furbish (NK). New Hampshire: Rye, 1903 B.L. Robin- 
sun, no. (iSS (G); Mason. Julv 9, 191S, V. F. liatrhddrr (NK). Mas- 
sac hi sk.tts: Revere, Oak Isl., 1896, IV />. Rirh (G); North Beading. 
Julv 11. \\m, .1. N. /W, no. 4222 (NE); Ncedham June 27, lss.i. 
T. (). Fuller (NK); Georgetown, Jub I. 1906. F. I. If d hums ( N h> ; 
Westi„,rt lime 2 1 1023 N V. /'. Sanford, no. 10,285 (N Kb Orleans. 
■ r ,,;. k ' l'~»19 Frruuhl A- Lung, no. 18,270 (G, NE); 
M^nln's Ymevmi Oak BlullV Farm Fund. June 29, 1916, F. C. 
<,' ,... „„' ., „,,' i'i vi \1 \ a. tucket, Hummock Pond, June 3, 1916, 
/ /,• f, , •///, \T Rhode Island: Warren, June 5, 1921, S.N.F. 
Sanfunl no IICNti i N K < ■ Block Isl.. Wash Fond, 1913, Frraabl, 
Ilunnnnl! A- Ijuu,, no. 9260 (G); Westerly, Aug. 21, 1913, Bisscll, 
Hur(n r A- U'rathr'rbif (NE). Connecticut: Norwich, June 6, 1903, 
/■' \l Royrrs (NK); Chatham. June 9, 1918, C. A. Wvttthrrh,, no. 
120N i\F>- Oraic-e June 29, 1S99, L Andrews, no. 822 (NE); Strat- 
ford. 1S96-97, Fauns, no. I (G, NE). New York: Long Island, 



1SS7, Shrlr (G). Pennsylvania: Sellersville. 190S, If. M. Bnmrr 
(G) ; Hatfield, 1923, W. M. Benner (G). New Jersey: New Lisbon, 
west of Rancocas Creek, 1899, MacElwee, no. 970 (G); Atco, 1903, 
T. W. Edmondsom, no. 1025 (G). Virginia: Richmond, 1894, J. R. 
Churchill (G). North Carolina: near Henderson ville, 1898, Bilt- 
won Jlh., no. 2596a (G). Georgia: Taylor count v, without locaKtj 
or collector, 1877 (G). Tennessee: Coffee Co.; Tullahoma, 193(3, 
//. K. Svmson, no. 4269 (G). 



This distinctb 


/e little species is usi 


uallv consider 


to the marshes a 


-nd sandy beaches of 


the northern 


this is in 




It has been found 


in the mounts 


lina, as i 


•veil as ii 


"i Georgia and Tenn< 


ssee. In this 


K. Sven 


son inf. 


irms me (June, 193( 


5) that he ha: 


abnndan 


ee a rou 


nd Tullahoma and 


Sewanee; th; 


patches 




:lerable extent, in so 




feet, rati 


ter than 


as scattered, indivic 


lual plants. 1 


these eol 


onies in 


each locality. Professor M. L 1m 


he has s< 


'en it growing in peaty swamps at I{iehm< 


removed 


from a 


ny tidal influence. 


Furthermore, 


the nortl 


lern portion of its range is s 


omewhat anoi 


rather e> 






shores, ii 


seems 


to extend only a she 


>rt distance in 


jumps t< 


> Cape ] 


3reton in Nova Scot 


ia. Thecolle 


Herbarii: 


mi and • 


the New England B( 


>tanical Club 


from the 


region 


between York Couni 


:v, Maine, an. 



Small- and I have follow, 
although this species, like 



unites it with /. tnitcis and /. sibirica as a distinct sub-group. As this 
union has been discussed previously, further comment seems un- 
necessary, except to repeat that the morphological characters seem to 
warrant its separation from the Sibiricar, using that term either in 
the sense of Dykes or of Simonet. The chromosome complement 
shown by Simonet, 1. c, appears to have four relatively long chromo- 
soines with subterminal attachments, 18 small or medium-sized 
chromosomes with median attachments, and two satellites. The re- 
maining members of the complement appear to have either sub- 
terminal or submedian attachments. 

Subsection Hexagonae 

This subsection, consisting of 4-5 or nearly 100 species, depending 
on one's concept of species, is confined chiefly to the Mississippi 
Valley and southeastern United States, with certain extensions west- 
ward into Texas. The exact range of most of its members cannot yet 
be stated, because adequate field work has not been carried out. 
Stout, furcate, wide-spreading, greenish rhizomes, tall, linear-ensi- 
form leaves, terminal and axillary flowers, long, foliaceous outer 
spathes, bilobed stigmas, strongly 6-ribbed capsules, and large seeds 
with thick, corky coverings characterize this group. 

Iris fulva Ker-Gawler. Rhizome more slender than others in 
this group, 1.5 cm. in diameter, many-branched at each point of 
furcation, usually a greenish-brown; leaves linear-ensiform, 6-10 dm. 
long under favorable conditions, ±1.5 cm. wide, bright green, incon- 
spicuously ribbed. refiexing in the upper portion; stems exceeding the 
leaves, simple or very shortly branched, sometimes very slightly 
' " two flowers, and 




rary hexagonal, ±1.5 cm. long; perianth-tube 2- 
adl'v linear; sepals broadly obovate-oblanceolate. 
very short claw, emarginate, to 5.5 cm. long and 

deeply along 'the center of the blade; petals oblanceolate-spatulate, 
emarginate, with a less distinct claw than the sepals, to 3.5 cm. long 
and 1.x fin. wide, markedly drooping, nearly the same color as the 
sepals; stvle-branches 2 cm. long; style-crests very small, rounded, 
■'! mm. long; stigma bilobed, the lobes pointed; filaments 6-7 mm. long; 
anthers 1 cm. long, somewhat exsertcd beyond the stigma; capsule 



large, flattened, with a thick corky or spongv covering, causing thcin 
to float easily.— Bot. Mag. xxxvi. t. 1496 (1812); Geel, Sert. Bot. i. 
CI. Ill (1826); Rafinesque, New Fl. N. Amer. part 2: 94 (1837); 
Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 142 (1877); Baker, Handbk. 
Irid. 14 (1892); Britton & Brown, Illust. Fl. (ed. 1) i. 450 (1896); 
Kobinson cv Fernald in Grav, Man. (ed. 7) 300 (1908); Dykes, Genus 
Ir. 84 (1913); Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. (ed. 2) 305 (1913); Dvkes, Handbk. 
Gard. Ir. 128 (1924); Small in Addisonia xii. 7, pi. 388 '(1927); Small. 
Man. Se. Fl. 337 (1933). Iris cuprea Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 46 
(1816); Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. i. 468 (1817); Sprengel, Syst. 
Veg. i. 160 (1825). Irl, rub, sens Rat'., Flnr. L,i<1. 20 (1817). Neu- 
lurh-m/nlra i Ki-r-G.i\\ I. \lelVld in Bot. Zeitung xxi. 297 (1863).— in 
damp localities from Louisiana northward along the Mississippi 
Valley, and slightly to the east and west. Representative material: 
Kentucky: Muhlenberg County, June 5, 1901, S. F. Price (XY). 
Tkwksskk: near Humboldt, June, 1884, A. (Jattinqer (US, no. 
784,972); near Brownsville, .lime. 1SS4, .1. (iatthiqcr (IS, no. 36,703). 
Alabama: near Gainesville, June, 1SS0, ('. Mohr \\'+, no. 784,971). 
Louisiana: New Orleans, Audubon Park, Mar. 21, 1S99, ./. //. Mel- 
lichamp (XV, MIKJi. Mississippi: Rudvard, Apr. 17, 1927, U'nml- 
snn & Audermn, no. 1537 (MBG). Arkansas: (Jra.lv, May 5, 1897, 
./. B. Knonrr, n... 112/97 (MBG); near Fifth liock,' Ma- '31, 1923. 
F. J. Palmer, no. 22,952, (MBG); Corning, Max, ISM, (). IF. Letter- 
'""", no. 19< (MBG); \'arncr, Apr. 28, 1898, B. F . Hush, no. 5 (MBG, 
NA ). Missoi-ki: Scott County, Mav 26, 1917, ./. A. Dru.shel, no. 
3198 (MBG); Allenton, June, 1900,' (',. IF. Internum (Mild no. 
771,142); Dunklin County, May 20, 1892, li. F. Hush (MBG, nos. 
Ill, l.»3 & 141 ,454). Illinois: near Wetaug, June 18, 1926, K. . I nder- 
mn (MBG, no. 932,221 & ITS, no. 1,365,961 in part); Mound City, 
May 7, 1919, F. ./. Palmer, no. 15,075 (MBG). 

This, the most striking and distinct of all the North American 
species, is by no means endemic around New Orleans, as was formerly 
supposed. 1 On the contrary, it lias a rather wide range in the states 
bordering the Mississippi, and it is reported to have spread into Ohio 



and Simonet, 1 while the chromosome count for its relatives is L'// =4 l.- 
In view of the importance of I.fiilra as one of the putative progenitors 
of the large number of species described by Dr. Small, its cytology 
will be discussed with that of its relatives in a special section. 

Iris hexagona Walter. Rhizome large, greenish with brown rings, 
stout, widely spreading, much branched; leaves ensiform, yellowish- 
green, glaucous or subglaucous, rather firm-textured, erect, 6-9 dm. 
long, or longer, 2.5 cm. or more in width; stem erect, or occasionally 
somewhat flexuose, usually simple, stout, terete, 3-9 dm. long, not 
flowering from near the base, with 3-4 large cauline leaves, solitan 
flowers in the axils of the upper ones and two flowers in the terminal 
cluster; spathes lanceolate, acute, subequal or unequal in length, the 
outer green, 1.5-20 cm. long, the inner shorter, herbaceous, with 

long; ovary hexagonal, equal to or longer than the pedicel; perianth- 
tube grooved, infumlibuliform, to 3 cm. long; sepals to 9-10 cm. long 
and 4 cm. broad, the claw greenish with prominent yellow midrib, 
pubescent, with a vcllowish or whitish patch at the base of the obo- 
vate or oval blade," which is usually a dark violet-purple; petals erect, 
oblanceolate to spatulate, shorter and narrower than the sepals, the 
claw veined green, the blade violet-purple; style-branches nearly 5 
cm. long, tapering towards the base; style-crests semi-ovate to tri- 
angular, bo cm. long, coarsely toothed; stigma bilobed, the lobes 
triangular or rounded-deltoid ; filaments much shorter than the an- 
thers which are 2. .'.-3 cm. long; capsule markedly hexagonal. o\oid. 
4-6 cm. long; seeds large, D-shaped or irregularly rounded, with a 
thick corkv covering, light brown, pitted.— Fl. Carol. 66 (liSS); 
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. i. 22 (1803); Elliott, Sk. Bot. S. Car. & G :t . 
i. 46 (1816); Chapman, Fl. South. U. S. (ed. 1) 472 (I860); 
Maker in Journ. Linn. Soc, Mot. xvi. 141 (1S77); Maker in Mot. Mac 
xl. ,. H7S7 (1SS4); Maker, Handbk. Irid. 13 (1892); Britton & Brown. 
Must. Fl. (ed. 1) i. 44S (1S96); Robinson & Fernald in Cray. Man. 
ted. 7) 300 (1 90S); Dvkes, Genus Ir. 82 (1913); Small. Fl. Se I >. 
(ed. 2) 306 (1913); Small in Addisonia ix. 51, pi. 314 il92F; D\k.->. 
Handbk Card. Ir. 129 (1924); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 354 (1933).— 
Rich swamps i„ southeastern Cnited States. Representative ma- 
terial: Florida: without locality, 1877, Mary Treat (G); Apaladurola. 
without date, Curtis no. 2852 (G) ; Magnolia, 1883, J. 1). 8»»>M' ^ 
Manatee, 1S7S, A. /'. (inrber (G); Duval County, 1902. b mlhoh,, , 
no. 5034 (G) ; near Jacksonville, without date, Curhss (G). Alabama : 
Mobil,-. Apr. 26, 1898, C. F. Baker, no. 1491 (NY). 

litis mkxagona var. savannarum (Small), comb. nov. Appears 



to differ from /. hrxagona principally in the shape of the perianth- 
segments; sepals oblanceolate, with the blade nearly elliptic, 9.5 cm. 
long, 3.2 cm. wide; petals oblanceolate, 7.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide — 
Iris sarnnnamw Small in Addisonia ix. 57, pi. 317 (1925); Small, Man. 
Se. Fl. 351 (1933).— Apparently confined to Florida swamps, where 
colonies sometimes extend over several acre-. Material seen: FLORIDA: 
swamp near Kissimmee, Dec. L921, ./. K. Small, no. 50,442 (NY, 
type?); cypress swamp near Seville, Apr. 9 and June 5, 1901, Curtiss, 
no. 6754 (G, NY); without exact locality, swamps near the coast, 
April, Chapman (4042 in Hb. Biltmore) (G, NY). 

This plant is reported by various observers 1, 2 to be extremely 
plentiful in Florida, where it occurs, according to Hume 3 , from the 
St. Johns River to the region south of Lake Okechobee and Fort 
Myers. It seems to be no more distinct from /. hrxagona than is /. 
giganticoerulea Small, and therefore I am regarding it as only a variety. 
Of the five specimens seen, incidentally, not one has the narrowly 
linear-elliptic petals shown in the figure of the type-plate in Addisonia. 
<* Iris hexagona var. giganticoerulea (Small), comb, now A 
robust variety of /. hrxagona, differing principally in size; sepals with 
oval or suborl _ > ,rly into the claw, 8.6 cm. 

long, 4 cm. wide; petals oblanceolate-spatulate, emarginate, 7.2 cm. 
long, 2 cm. wide; style-branches 4.5 cm. long; style-crests incised, 
2 cm. long; filament 1.3 cm. long; anther 2.2 cm. long.— Iris giganti- 
coerulea Small in Addisonia xiv. 56, pi. 451 (1929) ; Small, Man. Se. Fl. 
352 U933); Viusca in Hull. An.er. Iris Soc. no. 57: 18 (1935).— Rich 
swamps in the Louisiana delta. Material seen: Louisiana: Morgan 
City, Apr. 1, 1027, ./. K. SmaU, no. 58,174 (NY, type); New Orleans, 
April, ISKi, J. Fnnihr (MBG, no. 141,445); New Orleans, Apr. 11, 
1X46, .1. Fmdhr (MBG, no. 141,443); Gretna, opposite New Orleans, 
May 15, 1S99, C. R. Ball, no. 360 (G, XV); without localitv, Fmrhr 
(MBG, no. 141,446). 

I am unable to separate this plant from /. hrxagona, from which it 
seems to vary in general size, and slightly in the shape of the perianth- 
segments. The type consists of two sepals, two petals, two style- 
branches with their attached style-crests, one stamen, and the "de- 
tached perianth-tube, these being the dissected parts of the flower 
from which the plate in Addisonia was drawn. 



shorter, narrower an. I civet; stems erect, shorter than the basal leaves, 
zigzag; flowers terminal and axillary, hut not home hasally; spathes 
apparently not foliaceous; sepals spatulate, 5-6 cm. long, 2.5 cm. 
wide, bright violet; petals ±5 cm. long, ±1.5 cm. wide, oblanceolate- 
spatulate, emarginate; anthers shorter than the filaments. — Iris 
flrj-icauhis Small in Addisonia xii. 9, pi. 389 (1927); Viosca in Hull. 
Amer. Iris Soc. no. 57: 12 (1935), as synon. of /. folios, Mack. \ 
Bush. — Swamps from Louisiana westward into Texas. Material 
seen: Louisiana: marsh near New Orleans, April, 1927, ./. 7s.'. Small 
(NY). Texas: open woods near the San Jacinto River, east of 
Houston, Apr. II, 1925, Small tt Wherry, no. 11,807 (NY); Beaumont, 
April & May 1, 1884, G. C. NcaUvy (G), in part; 1 mile southeast of 
Lynchburg, Apt 14, 1934, V. /.. Cory, no. 8076 (G); without locality, 
Drummond, no. 420 (G). 

In certain essential points, mentioned in the description, this plant 
stands nearer I. hexagona than it does to I. brrvicaulis. Nevertheless, 
in general appearance it seems quite close to the latter, so much so 
that it might almost be a transition between the two. Field study and 
more extensive herbarium material may show that it should be re- 
garded as a variety or form of /. brrvicaulis. 

Iris brevicaulis Rafinesque. Rhizome 1-2.5 cm. in diameter, 
furcate; leaves ensiform. usually deep green, but sometimes glaucous, 
prostrate or semi-prostrate, 3-6 dm. long, or occasionally longer, and 
2.5 cm. wide; stem flexuose, prostrate or suberect, oval in cross- 
section, flowering from near the base, 15-25 cm. long, usua I 
zigzag, bearing 3-6 large cauline leaves, the uppermost considerabi: 
exceeding the stem, solitary flowers in the axils of the cauline leaves, 
and usuallv two in the terminal cluster; spathes lanceolate, acute, 
opposite, subequal, the outer to 5 cm. long or occasionally longer tin- 
outer pair green, the inner pair partially scanous; pedicel short, 

usualK ;il I 1.3 cm. long; ovary about 1.3 cm. long, prominently 

6-angled; perianth-tube 1-2 cm. long, somewhat funnel-shaped; 
sepals variable in shape but usually 7.o 9.5 cm. long and 2... •■ cm. 
wide, the blade ovate, the claw cuneate, slight h shorter than the 
blade, which is deep blue or blue-purple, the claw light greenish-yel- 
low with darker veins, with a prominent yellow midrib and a yellow- 
white blotch at the union of claw and blade, somewhat pubescent; 
petals a trifle .hotter than the sepals, oblanceolate, perhaps a trifle 
lighter in color: stvle-branches rather greenish, to 4 cm. long; style- 
crests large, semi-ovoid to subquadrate, to 1.5 cm. long, irregularly 
toothed or entire; stigma bilobed, each lobe rounded-deltoid; hlamen . 
.muIK Sorter than the anthers which : " ■' 

seeds large, irrcgula.'b 



52 FOSTER 

brown in color.— Flor. Lud. 20 (1817); Rafinesque, New Fl. N. Amer. 
part 2: 93 (1837). Iris foliosa Mackenzie & Bush in Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis xii. 80 (1902); Dykes, Genus Ir. 83 (1913); Britton & Brown, 
Must. Fl. (ed. 2) i. 538 '(1913); Dykes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 129 (1924); 
Small iu Addisonia ix. 53, pi. 315 (1924); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 355 
(1933); Yiosca in Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. no. 57: 12 14 ( 1 935) ; Robinson 
& Fernald in Gray, Man. (ed. 7) 300 (1908), as synon. of I. hexagona. 
— Rich, rather damp locations, semi-shaded, from Louisiana north- 
ward in central United States. Representative material: Ohio: 
Toledo, 1883, H. A. Young (G); Worthington, without date, J. R. 
Paddock, no. 125 (NY); Catawba Island, June 15, 1925, E. Anderson 
(NY). Illinois: near Venice, May 31, 1879, //. Eggi rt I MBG, nos. 
141,432 & 141,433); near Wetaug, June 18, 1926, E. Anderson i MBG, 
no. 129,968); Carlinville, 1891-1892, IV. E. Andrew* (G, MBG). 
Tkwksske; Nashville, 1877, A. Gattingcr (US, no. 150,092). Louis- 
iana: St. Martin ville, June 13, 1893, A. B. Langlois (MBG, no. 
981,097). Arkansas: Stuttgart, Ma\ 12. 1910, 0. IE Howell, no. 
645 (US); Homan, June 10, 1898, //. Eggrrt (MBG, no. 141,439). 
Missoiri: south of Charleston, Aug. 29, 1918, A. E. Sattertltn-aif 
(MBG, no. 905,461); Jackson County, -Ink (i, IS!).;, li. E. lh,,h (MBG, 
n<>. 111.434M Buekner, June 5. 1912, />'. E. Hush. no. 0705 iMIKI, li, 
NY, US);Glendale, June 12. 1.S9S, K. K. Mackenzie, no. 153 !Mli(.i; 
Adams, June 12, 1898, A'. A'. Mackenzie, no. 159 (MBG, G, US, NY, 
RM); Little Blue Tank, June 6, 1897, A. K. Mackenzie (co-tvpe of 
/. fuliom in MBG, no. 141,435, US); y 2 mile southeast of Devil's 
Elbow, south of Columbia, June 7, 1933, F. Drouct, no. 497 .(G); 
near Allenton, June 10, 1901, G. IV. Letterman (MBG, no. 776.9S1). 
Kansas: 22 miles northwest of Fort Leavenworth, June 7, 1S49, A. 
Fendler (G). 

It has been necessary to change the name of this species, which has 
been known since 1902 as /. M'«>m, since Rafinesque 1 in 1S17 de- 
scribed an Iris brericauli.s, a description which he amplified in 1S37,- 
the two together leaving no doubt as to the identity of this species and 

There has been much confusion in herbaria between this species and 
/. hcragoua. At their most characteristic, there seems to me to be 
little doubt of their specific difference, but in many cases there are 
intergrades. The character of stem flexuosity, one of the distinguish- 
ing marks of /. brrricaulitt, is almost impossible to determine in dried 
specimens, and this naturally adds to the difficulty of separating the 
two in herbarium material. 



forma boonensis (Daniels), comb. nov. This 
plant is described b.\ Daniels as being pure white in color, the only 
point in which it differs from the typical species. Accordingly. I have 
reduced it to the status of a form. A similar albino is reported from 
Louisiana by Viosca. 1 — Iris foliosa var. boonensis Daniels in Univ. 
Missouri Studies, Sci. Series i. 117 (1907). 

Cytology of the Hexagonae. 
My cytological work on this group was begun in 1932, when Dr. J. 
K Small generously presented me with a number of plants collected 
by him in Louisiana. This was supplemented by a second gift in the 
following year. Unfortunately, the drastic winters of 1932-33 and 
1933 31 killed almost all of the plants, with the result that they have 
not been seen in bloom. Nearly all the counts made by me on this 
group were made before the appearance of Randolph's paper- which 
included some of these forms. As can be seen, in most cases my pre- 
viously made counts agree with his, although they were made on 
plants' from different sources. Table I summarizes the known counts 
in the Hexagonae. Unless otherwise stated, the counts are given here 
for the first time. 



UithuriTy 



I. fulva Ker-Gawl. 
tricolor Small . 



hexagona var. giganticoerulea (Small) R. C. Foster. 

Small, no. 65,626 

Small, no. 65,671 

Nicholls, no. 105 

August Flame, hort. var 

Autumn Fire, hort. var 

Chef Menteur, hort. var 

/. albilinea Alexander 

/. Thomasii Small (no. 65,691) 

/. fourchiana (no. 65,789) 



Table I—Continunl. 

small, no. 65,955 

Small, no. 63,739 

'. chrysophoenicia Small 

'. vinicolor Small 

>< Dorothea K. Williamson (fulva X brevicaulis). 

ftcholls, no. 102 

. citriregalis (nomen nudum; label on plant) 

. citricristata Small 

. viridivinea Small 

. salmonicolor Small 

. Marplei Alexander 

. chrysaeola Small 

imaU, no. 66,677 '.['.] 

mall, no. 65,730 

. regalis Small 

. hexagona var. giganticoerulea 

. ehphantina Small 

. lancipetala Alexander 

. hexagona alba 

. brevicavlis Raf . (as /. foliosa) 



Randolph 1 
Randolph 1 
Randolph 1 
Randolph 1 



44 Randolph 1 

44 Randolph 1 

44 Randolph 1 

, fig. 25) two large and at least eight 

attachments, and 1 \ with suhtenni- 



In I. fulva, Simonet found (1. 
small chromosomes with media 
nal attachments; there are twc 
the complement cannot be disti 
Simonet (1. c., PI. L\ fig. 15), sb 



attachments. Two satellites are shown. Simonet'- 
brevicaulis is not unlike that given here for I hexagon 

coerulra (see PI. 1, fig. 4), in which most of the chromos 
terminal or submedian attachments. Making the n< 
ances for dissimilarities due to different techniques 
and drawing, it seems safe to say that these two plan 
identical chromosome complements. In neither one i 



to note, is there a pair of long V-shaped chromosomes such as are found 

When plants like /. rinicolnr were found with 2u = 43, the obvious 
assumption was that these were hybrids between the 42- and 44- 
ehromosome groups. That is, it was assumed that hybridization had 
occurred between I. fulva and either /. brevicaulis or I. hcxar/ona var. 
ijujaniicocrulca. Since I. brevicaulis blooms later than I. fulva in 
Louisiana, it could be eliminated as a possible parent in most cases. 
Knowing the chromosome numbers of the parents, it could be pre- 
dicted that the horticultural hybrid, Dorothea K. Williamson (fulva 
X bvrviruulis), would have 2» . = 43, as Randolph (1. c.) discovered. As 
Table I shows, however, only ten other forms with a count of 43 have 
been found. The majority of the plants investigated have either 42 
or 44 somatic chromosomes. 

Upon analyzing the chromosome complements further, it was 
found that one plant of /. fouvrlviana (no. <>.">,619) had 2n=42, in- 
cluding two large V's, like /. fulva. A second plant labelled I. four- 
chiana (no. bf>,7S!» had 2»=43, and only one large \. The higher 
number was found by Randolph (1. c.) in his plant with this label, 
but he gives no details as to chromosome morphology. In I. fulv- 
uunn, reported to he very similar to l. fulva} 2„ =42, with at least one 
large V present, possibly two; it may thus be either a variant of 
/. fulva or a hybrid descendant of that species. Viosca 2 regards IT as 
a hybrid. Although 2n = 42 in I. nm***ipi»nm*, it has only one large 
V in its chromosome complement. The unnamed no. .,1.071 has L»« = 
12, with two lar* V, and. nplcment general!; like that ot /. 



plant "in habitats where hybridization with I. fulva is not likely to 
occur." The cytological evidence thus supports Viosca's conclusion 
thai these plants are color-forms, not hybrids. The unnamed no. 
65,677, which has no large V's, appears to have a complement like 
that of var. giganticorrulca, but as I have no data as to the appearance 
of the plant, 1 am unable to say definitely that it is only a color-form 
of this variety. Most of the remainder of the 44-chromosome group 
show at least one large V-chromosome. No. 65,730 may have two of 
these chromosomes. The appearance of even a single V-chromosome 
in the complements of these 44-chromosome plants is thus clear evi- 
dence of previous hybridization involving I. fulva. 

On cytological -rounds, then, ir i> concluded that many, if not most, 
of the Louisiana forms examined arc of hybrid origin,' the probable 
ancestors being /. fulva and /. hrxagona var. gigautkocrulm. For this 
reason, no attempt has been made to study the taxonomy of the nu- 
merous "species" described h\ Small and Alexander 1 . In any event, 
such a study can only be made after field experience, since the differ- 
ences between many of these forms are so slight that, especially iti the 
matter of color, herbarium material would be quite inadequate. 

A situation analogous to that in Louisiana is shown by the work of 
lb cd- on the progeny of a self-fertilized plant of the hybrid, Dorothea 
K. Williamson. This plant is a known hybrid between /. fulva and 
/. hnriraulis, the latter of which is closely allied to /. hexagona var. 
vg<n,t ,,■<>, ruh a. The colored plate accompanying Reed's report shows 
graphically the segregation in the five F 2 seedlings of numerous color, 
size, and shape factors, not only in the flower but also in other parts 
"» '»'<; l>l;'"t. Presumably, if more numerous F 2 progenv were raised 
and back-crosses to the original species were made, coupled with 
crosses between the seedlings, the riot of color forms now existing in 
LoiUMana could be duplicated in a controlled experiment. 

I'or two reasons, however, it seems probable that /. Imvicaulls is 
n<>t involved, to any degree, in the production of the Louisiana forms. 
As has been men. io,, t , 1 already.!, hlooms a, a later time than / fulva 
although, undoubtedly, overlaps do occur on occasion Viosca (1 c )' 
in a long and careful study of the distribution of the possible parents' 
;i!1,1 '.'" '■ l'>'"-"l olKprmg in the Louisiana delta, shows clearb that 
-- "I' 'he overlap zone between I. fulva and 
■ h.rtigomi var. iiignnficnmilra do hybrids occur. Outside that zone 
! \ ' .""' "'' ( '" r naTurriM > • ]""* eliminating the possibility that /. 
>r<vtcauhx or /. nrgimca L. might be the blue-flowered parent. 



have had a large part in the production of such a really startling scale 

following year, Mrs. Wheeler H. Peckham, who had been collecting 
with Dr. Small, suggested 2 a hybrid origin for these plants, and named 
I.fulvaand I. hr.ragt»m var. (jUjniifmxntlia as the probable parents. 
Some, such as /. elephantina, which are probahK imt Inbnds, ma\ 
deserve the status of forms, but since material is unavailable, I have 
not attempted to deal with them taxonomically. 



and /. hcvuqonu var. qiqanftcoerulra, but its nuiii 
not 44. Randolph (1. c.) has counted 44 in wh 
form of /. hcxagona. It is possible, of course, 



■ pla- 



Consisting of two specu 
found on two continents. 
leaves and spathes the tw< 
parts the similarity is gre 
minute, reduced petal, wh: 
from other members of Sec 



Pursh. Rhizome medium-sized. sprea< 



long internodes 






h a reddish-brown edue. 



1.5-3.75 dm. long and 1 cm, 
tall, usually simple, but o< 

unequal, the outer ±3 ci 



covering the ovary and perianth-tube and extending over part of the 
claw of the sepal, rigid, dull green, striate with brown; pedicel 2.5-3 
cm. long; ovary narrow, trigonal, ±1.5 cm. long; perianth-tube less 
than 1.5 cm. long, inhmdibulit'orm; sepals 7-8 cm. long, the orbicular 
blade nearly 4 cm. wide, passing abruptly into the claw, the blade 
bluish-purple with inconspicuous deeper veins and a yellow-white 
patch at the base where the blade passes into the whitish claw, which 
has yellow-brown reticulations; petals short and inconspicuous, ±1.5 
cm. long, erect, tridentate, with the middle tooth longer than the 
others; style-branches nearly I cm. long; style-crests to 2 cm. long, 
linear to subquadrate, sometimes with incised edges; stigma entire, 
semi-circular; filaments ±1.7 cm. long; anthers ±1.3 cm. long; 
capsule globose to oblong, with rounded sides scarcely grooved, 2.5-3 
cm. long, narrowing abruptly at the top into a pronounced beak; seeds 
round or D-shaped, fairly thick, dark red-brown. — Fl. Amer. Sept. 
i. 30 (1816); Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. iii. t. 274 (1828); Klatt in 
Linnaca xxxiv. till) ( 1S05--00). Iris friprfula Walter, Fl. Carol. 66 
(17SN); Flliott, Sk. Hot. S. Car. & Ga. i. 45 (lMti); Ker, (Jen. I rid. 
4d (1827); Rafinesque, New Fl. N. Amer. part 2: 94 (1S37); Baker in 
Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 138 (1877); S. Watson in Bot. Gaz. xii. 
99 (1887); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 10 (1892); Dvkes, Genus Ir. 94 (1913); 
Small. Fl. S. E. U. S. (ed. 2) 305 (1913); Dvkes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 
144 (1924); Small in Addisonia xii. 5, pi. 387 (1927); Small. Man. 
S. K. Fl. 356 (1933); not L. f. (1781). Xi],hion frij.rfahnn (Walt.) 
Alefeld in Bot. Zeitung xxi. 297 (1863). Xi/rirliwi frith ntatmn ( Pursh ) 
Klatt in Bot. Zeitung xxx. 500 (1872).— Rich, swampy, shaded places, 
in southeastern United States. Representative material : North Caro- 
lina; (astern portion, without locality, July, 1885, McCarthy, no. 228 
(G); 1 mile east of Delco, July 5, 1927, Wix/aml A Manning, no. 883 
<C,);Nakima, July 12. 1933, /'. 0. Srhulhrt ( XV ); between Fat.- and 
bed Banks. Nov 17, 1905, /.'. .1/. liar,,,,- H'S, MFC, XV); Fen, broke, 
.lime. 5. 19(11 liiltmnn Ilh., no. H) 11 I, i I'S ; Wilinin-toii -lulv IS, 1S5S, 
UrCnrtlu,, no. No i\^ ); Wilmington, .June 2S, 1S90, /'. I'. Cnrilh, no. 
208 (US). South Carolina; Hansville. Black Creek Fond, Julv 12, 



must relinquish that name, winch is a later Homonym 01 
Linn, f., now Moraea tripetala (Linn, f.) Ker, since the 



Iris setosa Pallas ex Link. Rhizome thick, short; leaves .,-<> ... a 
fan, ensiform, somewhat Raucous in the upper portions, veins prom- 
inent, green, tinged with purple near the base, 2-4.5 dm. long, I - 
cm wide; stem simple or branched, usually exceeding the leaves, 
hearing 1-2 eauht.e leaves, the lateral branch set 12.0-locm. belo%\ 
the terminal flower-cluster and bearing its flowers on nearly th- ^.m. 
level; spathes green, sometimes flushed with purple, the outer usual!, 
. „,-, ,■ ,han the inner, ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-4.5 cm. long, .. - mm 
wide. 2-Howered; pedicel to 4.5 cm. long, barely, if at all, exceeding 
the spathes; ovary narrow, trigonal, ±1.3 cm long 
±7 mm. long; sepals to 5 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wale, the Mad, flat- 
tened, orbicular, emarginate, narrowing abru, 

neate claw v, "'- vemed P ur P le > the whl * e exten f ling 

i(i ; ( ii|<r M eh i~ otherwise a rather un.lorrn 

blue-purple or red-purple in color, with somewhat darker ve,n>; ,«-.a- 
short not o-,, in shape, but usually tahn ,, 

t.n^oup, of uhiehi. lanceolate, utth , n,^ near the ba.et. 



brown— Sprengel, Schr'ader & Link, Jahrb. i (ji). - 1 U 
in Bot. Reg. xxxiii. t. 10 (1847); Ledebour, M. Ross. 

Ke,el in (h.rtentlora UMil): 117. t.:!22: K 
(1S05 (Mi); Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, bot \\i. It' 
Han.lbk. Lid. 11 (1892); Dykes, Genus lr. .' 
rd lr 143 1924 I i 

Hot. Mag. xlix.t. 2326(1822). Xi V h>'»[ >■■■■ 

in Ho, Zeitung xx.. 2«>7 (180:!). A;/,W- 

Hot. Zeitung xxx. 500 (18,2). In* l>nn, ■ 

(1822)- Lindlev in Hot. Keg. xxxiii- t. 10 l.l.vH i as syn. 

/ |, (lt , ,v 1 ndl.-N n. Hot Keg xxx... t, 



Julv21, 1873, H. U. Ih, 
Hall A- Uiirrwqton (G); 
E.C. Van Di/Lr, no. 200 



60 FOSTER 

trail to lakes, 1914, Eastwood, no. 803 (G); Yakutat Bay, mouth of 
Ankow River, 1892, Funston, no. 53 (G). 

Iris setosa var. ined. Hulten. Differs from the typical form of the 
species in having more orbicular sepals, and the outer spathe very 
inudi longer than the inner, na\ iculate, acuminate; Usually the stem 
is simple and 1-flowered; petals minute, lanceolate. — Iris arctica 
Eastwood in Hot. Gaz. xxxiii. 132 (1902). Specimens seen: Aleutian 
Islands: Unalaska Isl., July 6, 1906, E, C. Van Dyke, no. 4 (G); 
Inalaska Isl., Makushin Bay, July 15, 1907, E. C. Van Dyh, no. 179 
(G). Alaska: Baranoff Isl, Kelp Bay, July 9, 1915, Mr. tv Mrs. 
Walker, no. 800 (G, RM); Cape Nome, 1900, Blaisdcll (G); vicinity 
of Nome, 1908, C. N. Powers, no. 54 (G). 

Iris setosa var. canadensis M. Foster. A more dwarf form 
differing in certain respects from the Asian and Alaskan forms: leaves 
shorter and narrower, fewer in number, the edges often undulate; 
stems simple, overtopping the leaves, bearing one cauline leaf which 
is reduced to a leaf-like bract ; -pat lies usually as in the typical forms. 
hut sometimes distinctly naviculate, and the outer longer than the 
inner, 1-2-flowered; pedicel stouter than in the type; ovary more 
deeply grooved on the sides, similar in size; sepals more orbicnlate 
than in the Asian plants, a distinct flange at the base of the claw, the 
white patch at the base of blade more diffuse, color variable, as in the 
typical form; petals minute, oblanceolate ; style-branches as in the 
typical form; style-crests less overlapping, very coarsely incised, often 
nearly linear-oblong; capsule and seeds as in the typical form. — Rho- 
dora v. 158 (1903) ; Robinson & Fernald in Grav, Man. (ed. 7) 300 
(1908); Dykes, Genus lr. 93 (1913) in part; Dykes, Handbk. (bud. 
Ir. 1 If U 924) in part. Iris Hooker! Penny ex'G. Don in Loudon's 
Hort. Brit. Suppl. 1: 591 (1832); Steudel, Nomencl. Bot. (ed. 2) 822 
(1840); S. Watson in Bot. Gaz. xii. 99 (1887); Macoun, Cat. Canad. 
PI. iv. 24 (1888); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 10 (1892); Britton & Brown, 
Hhist. Fl. (ed. 1) i. 449 (18%); Small in Journ. New York Bot. Gard. 
vxxi. 12 I 1930); Small in Journ. New York Hut. Gi.nl. xxxii. 52 (1931). 
Iris e„„a<le„sis (M. Foster) Wherrv, Wild Fls. Mt. Desert Is., Maine 
37 & 120 (1928), Iris canadensis (M. Foster) Small ex Peckham, 
Alphabet. Check List Iris 71 (1929). Iris setosa subs].), in/yiuara 
Lundstr. in Act. Hort. Berg. v. 22 (1914), ex (lexer. Iris tridnrtata 
sensu Hooker (non Pursh), Fl. Bor.-Amer. 206 (1839). Iris trirfentata 
sensu Baker (non Pursh) in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. 140 (1877). 
//■■;* triprtala sensu Hooker (non Walter! in Hot. Mag. lvi. t. 2886 
(1829).— A maritime plant of northeastern North America, from Lab- 
rador south to northern .Maine. Representative material: Labrador: 
Indian Harbor, 1921, R. II. U'rfmorr, no. 102,912 (G); Bird Rock, 
near Gready Hand, 1<»2\ Rishn,,, no. _M!» <C T ) : Hamilton Inlet, Mal- 
iij.'h. ^'»-' ^ l»>r U no 7" (, St. i, of Hell. Isle Fortran, 



Belle Isle Flower Cove, 1924, Fernald, Long & Dunbar, no 26,524 
(G Avaion V nV, W, » li»24. / > ' ■ *»»»»»< 

,„ '.,;-,"-. (G hnfSt. Paul's Bay, Cow Head. 101 0. I rrunhf A- 

HWW. no. :i«)S7 (G): Ua> of St. George, Stephenville Crossing, 
1M1 i /' /,/ A- St. Join . m, lO.SlOiG ) ; Trinity Bay Random Sound 

J i mm! ,ii. i-m i * " ' ;•■ "'!," ( ' ^^Tg? 

Notre Dame Dildo Run, 1911, Fcma/rf <fr IT tegand, no. ■» )_ Ht>. 
Quebec ProVince- Bic, 1905, J. K. C/,,oW,/// .G-: Carlrton, Irac-ad,- 

fiere, 1915 St. John, no. 90,326 (G>: Antu-osu Inland, Pointe Sud- 

Ouest, 1926, Man.-llrt f M /-<■■ ™<»«. no. ^45 ^G 

Matamek River district, 1927. /W„m/,. no 90 (G). Ne* _Bruns 
uhk: Belledune Point, 1922, Femakl A Pease, no 24,.., 1 • 

Prince Edward Island: Gn.ml TYacad.e, ''^' ''-" f£ ' 
no 11005 (G). Nova Scotia: Cape Breton Island, Cape INortli, 
Money Point, 1916, Nichols, no. 1880 (G); Canso, l«M)l , ./. Mr . . 
Central Port Mouton, 1920, Graves Long & Under, no 0.. ■ ■ 

Bay of Fuml>. .,,;..■ U..-....-U '"«- i "-" /; ' ',' ' ' l . , , 

no 20,790 (G); St. Paul Island, Trnun ( ov, 19>9, / ■ / >, A A' - ; ■ 
no. 156 (G); Magdalen Islands, Grindstone si Iv.an ■ -i - ' 
lage, 1912, FfmoZrf, Long & St, John, no. 7211 (G). Maine. Cutler, 
1901, 0. G. Kennedy (G, NE). , «, , 

Imb setosa var canadensis forma PALLIDIFLORA >e nald. Mi I 
HkeTlargeTzed var. ca««<Zm*t* except in the flower-color; the floral 

Capstan Point, 1924, Wrf, ^ 1>^. "^ ^ feave: 



idensis torma zonaus ii*iu«. *-~ 
1M rf« in having transverse hands ot whil 



• HnVrfro.n typical var. ^r^m hi.Miiu «;h, V Vhod'ora' 

pital Point, 1912, Femald, Bertram, Long A- M. JoAh, no. ,-lU ^,. 
™ n * „.,n t™ no mmment since the brief null- 

These two forms seem to call tor no toiiimn , cll ffl«: Pn t 

cation of their differences from the t M >ualN a. , — 

Discission of the Tripetalae. The \- 
this group, I. setosa, is widespread and vana m . -] « • > ^ 
petal-shape, which seems to fall into two mam ^"t^ ' , , 

|ao,,^ of di.tinuu.hin, these varietal an<Hormal groups should h 



carried nomciiclaturally is difficult to decide. Here, ton, the study of 
living plants should supplement the study of dried specimens. Hulten 
has labelled a number of sheets of Aleutian Island material in the 
Gray Herbarium as a new variety (to avoid nomenclatural complica- 
tions 1 shall not use his unpublished name). Among these are several 
which were originally named /. arctica Eastwood, the determinations 
having been made in several eases by Miss Eastwood herself. Ap- 
parently, Hulten has reduced this plant to varietal status, with which 
1 agree, but it seems unfortunate that he has rejected the specific name 
and adopted a new one for the new status. I. arctica was originally 
described by Miss Eastwood as having simple stems and one-flowered 
spathes. There is in the Gray Herbarium a sheet collected bv 151a i.s- 
dell at Cape Nome, Alaska, in the summer of 1900, sent out by the 
California Academy of Sciences, and labelled "/. arctica Eastwood, 
n. sp." One specimen on this sheet has a branched stem, and four of 
the five flower-clusters are two-flowered instead of one-flowered. 
The outer spathe-valve of this plant is much longer than the inner, 
one of the important points of difference between it and tvpical /. 






fori 


n or anothe 




f. srfo.m > 


;preai 


is southward in Alaska, but 


>nsi< 


lerable 


east 




rd extens 




On the contrary, there is a 










the eastern : 


and western varieties. The 


.lam 


, know 


n fo 




■verity ye 


ar> a 


s /. Hoohri Penny, was re- 


the 


status 


of /. 




»*f) var. < 




'ensis by Sir Michael Foster, 


pul 














u ' 


'" ;il,rI 


•nati 


ve 


to accept 


ance. 


Since 1903 varietal status 



/. Hn, 



for it a separate subsecti( 



Hookerianae. To this there are two objections: (1) the] 
sufficient difference between it and 7. tridmtata i 
it from the subsection Tripetalae; (2) the choice - 

pose. I subsection is unfortunate since it surest 



totally different /. Ilookcriaaa M Post 
Zashmir. There has been, in recent ye 



ts of both /. ,rto,s-a and 



extensive range of the variants of each should be studied before mak- 
ing the cluing, and material of /. srtnsn has not been available. It 
seems not impossible that careful study would result in specific status 
for var. mnadensif. Whatever be the final systematic disposition of 
these plants, their disrupted range indicates a great age on this con- 
linent, the disruption being probably due in part to continental gla- 

obliterated by shifts in the land-level in these northern regions, if 
/. setom arrived sufficiently early. At present, var. ratuid, n*<* i> 
r..nnd ii-mir-ilb- onlv in localities close to the sea, although it can 



grown in inland regions 



md also far to the l 



Cvtologieally there seems nothing to distinguish /. setosa from var. 
canadensis. For the former, Simonet 1 reports rc = 19, 2ra=38, a num- 
ber which 1 found in seedlings of this species, secured from a western 
source. In var. canadensis I have found 2w = 38, a number also re- 
ported by Randolph. 2 There are two long chromosomes and two 
shorter with median, about 14 with subterminal, and about 18 with 
snbmedian attachment-constrictions; two satellites are visible (plate 
1, %• 19). 

Subsection Longipetalae 

T ^ the present treatment of this group, it is regarded as having two 



appea 



hole, the group is c 
ites and 

The members possess stout rhizomes < 



western portion of the United States and Canada, wii 
rthwest Mexico. It is found as far east 



rather narrow, 


lin. 


sar, or somewhat ensiform, stocky stems, a short 


perianth-tube a 




a bilobed stigma. The capsule is nearly circular in 






bs which are less prominent than is the case with 


the Hexagonae. 




the stigma, the Longipetalae seem to show a certain 




h t 


he Hexagonae, but tin- capsule, stem, and spathes 


of J. missourirn 










,'hlauce further borne out by the chromosome num- 


bers of the two 


,'l" 


nts. 


clothed with th 
glaucous, usual 




sis Xuttall Rhizome thick, 2-3 cm. in diameter, 


k ' 


,rk renunnt^ of ohllea'-es; leaves rather hght green. 

bbed, erect, to 4.5 dm. or slightly 


longer, and 1 c 


'lie 


leaves by 7 10 cm.jVranched, or sometimes simple, 



rather slender; spathes opposite, scarious, with herbaceous portions 
at the base and along the keel, lanceolate or ovate, acuminate, 4-7 cm. 
long; pedicel to 20 cm. long, slender; ovary narrow, trigonal, 1.5-3 cm. 
long; perianth-tube infundibuliform, constricted above the ovary, to 
1 cm. long; sepals ±6 cm. long and ±2 cm. wide, the blade obovate, 
deeply veined lilac-purple on a paler ground, with a yellow-white 
blotch at the base, the claw yellowish-white, veined and dotted with 
purple; petals slightly shorter, 1 cm. wide, oblanceolate or spatulate, 
emarginate, not veined; style-branches to 2.5 cm. long; style-nests 
±8 mm. long, subquadrate, incised; stigma bilobed, sometimes ob- 
scurely so; filaments and anthers approximately equal, ±1.5 cm. 
long; capsule 3-5 cm. long, oblong, trigonal, tapering about equally at 
the ends; seeds subglobular or pyriform, dark brown. — Journ. Acad. 
Philad. vii. 58 (1834); Baker in Bot. Mag. cvii. t. 0579 (1881); Baker, 
Handbk. Irid. 9 (1892); Howell, Fl. X. W. Amer. i. 634 (1902); 
Rydberg, Fl. Colorado Sli (1900); Dvkes, Genus lr. 90 (19131: Piper 
&: Beat tie, Fl. N. W. Coast 105 (1915); Wooton & Standlev, Fl. New- 
Mexico 148 (1915); Rydberg, Fl. Rockv Mrs. (ed. I) 170 (1017); 
Jepson, Fl. Calif, i. 324 (1922- Dvkes, Handbk. ( iard. Ir. 121 (1024); 
Tidestrom. Fl. Halt & Nevada 12S (102.-)); Rvdberg, Fl. Prairies & 
Plain. 232 (1032); Munz, Man. S. Calif. Hot.' 0s (1035). Iris Tol- 
mteana Herbert in Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beech. Yov. 300 (1841 ). 
In* loHt/iprta/a var. Montana Baker, Handbk. Irid. 10 (1892).— Wide- 
spread, especially at high altitudes, throughout the west, occurring 
to some extent east of the continental divide, but usually west of the 
divide; wet meadows. Representative material: Moxta.w : Anaconda, 
July 12, 1906, J. W. Blankinship (RM); Bozeman. June 2. 1 SOS. ./. II". 
Hl'inh-mthn, (RM); 5 miles east of Norris, June 13, 1933, D. B. 
s,rn,,,h RM). Wyoming: Rock River, May 24, 1014, ./. F. Marbrhh; 
no. 273U (RM); Sand Creek, 1900, Avon Nelson, no. 6960 (RM, G); 
Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth Falls, June 27, 1930, Mrs. 
E C Van Dyke (CA). South Dakota: Rapid Citv, June S, 1924, 
!. C Macintosh, no. 212 (RM); Boulder Creek, near Deadwood, 
1929, E. ./. I'nlnnr. no. 37,202 !(!.; Rlaek Hills National Forest, 
Sylvan Lake Road, 1908, ./. Mun/orh. Jr., no. 302(1 (G). Colorado: 
lulls above Mancos, 1898, Baker, Karl, <v Tmry no |1() ((i RM); 
Mcsii Verde National Park, Prater Canvon June 'I IT'", '// V 
>WW/,n<>. 1712 (RM);Fstes Park. Julv'l5.'l901 ip'.s'coo/.r no. 
122 (RM); Durango, May 21, 1916, Fa.s't,ran,l, no .)3'>9 in part (CA, 
G); Breckenridge, Aug., 1901, K. K. Marker',, no 27s sRM>- neat- 
Boulder, May 3d. 1900, limnnlm, no 1.V13 <RM>' Vhrn.x-j bine F> 
1924, //. .1/. iSrhmoll, no. 1022 (RM); Norwood Hill, 1912. F. V. 
U abr no. 495 (RM, G); Spainero, June 1, 1898, //. A. HW,r. no. 
•»24 (RMi; south Park, 1S73, Ho// d" liothroch, no. 967 ((7). Nkw 
Mkxho: Pecos River National Fotv-t. Winsnr's Raueh, 1928, P. C. 
Standlcif, no. 4045 (G); near Las Vega,, 4 miles north, Aug. 0, 1920, 



o IS, 23;") (CA); near Sulphur Spring. An-', G, 1920. 
i,/„Y//r/, no. 1(1,549 (CA); Eagle Lake near Taos, 
Mnthiu,, n„. .V)() (Gj; Fort Win-ate, |SS2. If. .bV/^ry. 
Sawver's Peak, south end of the Black Range, 10,000 ft., 

Urlmlh. no. UN) (G, CA); Catskill, intervales of the 
«.):■> IT. C. M. John, no. 137 (G); Rio de las Casa, 5 miles 

1<)U2. II. C. ,S7/m//.sMG);Chusca Mts., 191S. .1 . II Y/ W ,m . 

\[,. ,,ll..n M:- . Willow Creek, IS miles east of Mo^llo,., 
s ,~ /> II ,h _.M G ( \ M. >lero Indian lb 

, T a Klanea Peak, Jub 20. 192S. C. /*. IIW/, no. 2S73 
, VI|1 , Tuin V-AU MaN 20. 1012./;. />'./,/,///. no. so (KM ) ; 
t country 1020, A', /W,r//, (CA); Albion, May 21. 1000. 
,-su,,. no.' 30 I KM i; Silver City, June 20, 101 1, ./. F. Mac- 
o (KM. G); Sweet, MayS, 1011../. /'. 4/„r/,r5A . no. S10 
pencer, June 20. 1010, //. ./. Rust, no. 530 in part (( A). 
;-,l Mts rhh-e north of Bruinlev Creek. July 14. 1011. 
(iumlt, no. SO.",:! KM ; Soldier Summit. June 24, 1018, 

, 70.S2 ( \ ; Knee Canyon, June 19, 1033, En*t>r / A- 

7 ,0 (C \ ■ miles below Coyote, Max 20, 1V>4. M. /-' 



Cln,in,s (CA); Goose Lake Vallev, June, 1N95. J/r.v. /,'. .1/. .1 //*////, 
no. 498 (US); Surprise Vallev, July, 1013, P. J/o/,mf, no. 932 (CA); 
Siskiyou County, 1<)(H», 0. />. /i„//cr. no. SS3 (G). 

Iris missouriensis var. pelogonus iGooddmgi, comb, now 
Rhizome stout, 1 cm. in diameter, sheathed in the dark-brown, un- 
.plit Ibises of old leaves; leaves yery pale green, glaucous, with sub- 
prominent or inconspicuous iiit\<-. i hick, rigid, seldom exceeding the 
stem, and often not over half its length, 1.2-2..") din. long. 2 (i mm. 
wide, linear, acute; stem simple, terete, stout, 1.2-2.8 dm. long, 1-3- 
Howercd; spathes opposite and subequal, or distant and unequal, 
white-membranous, but slightly herbaceous at the base and along the 
midrib, ovate-lanceolate, acute, closely appressed to the ovary and 
pedicel, usually extending well beyond the base of the perianth-seg- 
ments, 3.7-7 cm. long: pedicel 5 10 nun. long; ovary narrow, trigonal, 
1-1.5 cm. long; perianth-tube constricted above the ovary, infundi- 
buliform, 8-12 mm. long; sepals to 7 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, the claw 
long and narrow, the blade ovate to obovate, light blue-purple with 
deeper veins, the claw and basal patch on the blade yellowish; petals 
possibly paler in color, oblanceolate-spatulate, to 5.5 cm. long, 8-10 
mm. wide, obtuse or emarginate; style-branches to 3 cm. long; style- 
crests 8 mm. long, subquadrate, serrate at the tip; stigma obscurely 
bilobed, eremite; filaments to 1.2 cm. long; anthers to 1.5 cm. long, 
the ends nearly reaching the stigma; capsule and seeds not seen on 
the type; in other specimens the capsule is oblong, tapering about 
equally at the ends, to 6 cm. long, the seeds dark brown, subglobular 
to pvriform.— /V/.s- [uloqoinis Goodding in Bot. Gaz. xx.xiii. OS (1002); 
Dvk'es, Genus Ir. 91 (1913), as svnon. of /. memtana Nuttall ex Dykes; 
Dvkes in Gard. Chron. (Ill) l.xi. 45 (1917). //-/* umntatm Nuttall ex 
Dykes, Genus Ir. 91 (1913); Dykes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 125 (1924).— 
Hilh regions, in moist meadows or along streams, along the eastern 
side of the continental divide, occasionally occurring west of the divide. 
Representative material: Montana: Armstead, .bine 20, 1920, K. B. 
&L. Ii. Pm/son, no. 1731 (KM, G, CA); forks of the Madison. 1S97, 
l<!,<lbrr(j A- lirss,,,, no. 3SS3 (G, KM). Wyomixci: Albany County, 
without precise localitx, 1003, /'. /.. Srlxnn (RM); near Red Buttes, 
June 17, 1S91, B. C.'lin ([;,„, no. SMI (KMi; Laramie, June, 190S, 
Am, AV/.vm/, no. 9131 (KM); Laramie, L. S. Ren. Reservation, June 
IS, 1S99, Arm Ar/.vo//, no. 200 ; RM : < Vntcnnial Vallev, June 0. IS95. 



A SURVEY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF IRIS Ul 

of Mount Massive, without date, L. M. & N. T. Schedin, no. 610 
(RM); near Leadville, without date, L. M. & K. T. Schedin, no. 611 
(RM); Fort Collins, May 12, -1896, C. L. Crandall, no. 2426 (RM); 
South Park, bluffs, 1S«,)l»; /■.'. L Hughes, no. 56 (G); Rio Grande Na- 
tional Forest, Elliott Creek, wet meadows at 8600 ft., June IS, I'M 1 . 
,/. Murdoch, Jr.. no. 4021 (G, CA): near Florissant, Aug. 1-8, 1900, 
AW,/,,/, no. i:H7 (RM) ; Colorado Springs, Bear Creek Canyon, 1910. 
j/V.s- 7''. C. /V„.sr (G); Veta Mt., June 4, 19(H), Rijdhrrg A- I r,r/ ( ,» (; 
no 6419 (RM); Gunnison Watershed, Marshall Pass, 1901, C. t . 
Baker, no. 527 (G. KM); Duran-o, Ma> 23. I'-'IO. /v-w,,,,!, no 5329 
in part (CA, no. 1 HU',34): Trinidad, June 15, 1917, Johnston & Hedg- 
cock, no. 872 (RM); near Boulder, South Boulder Canyon, June \ 
1901, Ramaley, no. 730 (RM). Arizona: on the Springerville-Cooly 
Raneh lload,' Apache National Forest, in the White Mts., July 4, 
1918, R. L. Ferris, no. 1247 (CA). 

/Iris missotjriensis var. arizonica (Dykes), comb nov. Rhizome 
stout; leaves rather vello wish-green, at most only subglaucescen . to 
6 7.5 dm. long, 1.2 cm. wide, rather finely but conspicuously ribbed; 
stems equal to the Ira-.. u.ualU uith a short lateral branch or 
flower-cluster about 15 cm. below the terminal cluster, the latter 3-5- 
flowered, the former 2-3-flowered ; spathes scanous, or semi-nero- 
aceous on the keel and at the base, opposite or nearly so subequal, or 
the inner longer, appressed to the pedicel and ovary; pedicel l LU cm. 
lonu; ovary trigonal, narrow, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; perianth-tub,, uuiumi- 
buliform, to 1 cm. long; sepals to 5 cm. long and 2 cm wide oblanceo- 
late-obovate, the claw whitish, veined, ith P ur P le th, b mI. ulnt. 
veined deeply with violet-purple, a yellowish I oteh at the base of the 
Made; petals shorter than the sepals, nan-, 

style-branches ±3 cm. long; style-crests ±8 mm. long, «*»***£ 
angular to subquadrate, finely incised; stigma bilobed, sometun . .... 
seurely so; filaments 1 cm. long; anthers 1.5 cm ^g-*"^ 
seeds a, in other members of the group.-/™ anzomu, 1 n k< m 
Gard. Chron. ill! Ixi l-> 19171: Dyke-. 1 1,, wlhk. Gard Ir 125 
.1924). Apparently eonlined lu Arizona at t airly high f 1 ^ 
Speei.nensseen: Arizona: Chiricahua Mts IW oot P«k Sept 
1907,J.C.iB/ W m,r,no.l556 (G); Chiricahua Mts.. ( orona; a \ ■ ., 

Forest, Rustler's Park, June 18-19, 1930 Good,, u» «V Ih • <J 

-94 (CA); Chiricahua Mts., Cave Creek Canvon Ju ly-Aug 1. - • 



ar Brome, on the road from Prescott, June 1929, Mrs. 0. 



K, lr, ,, 



Spathae 



This form is separable from 
r by the fact that its spathe 
less 'divergent i 



angus.i. ah< 1 uantutn divergentes. m< torm is sepa«»« 

■ .. ■ . •- u„ .... 



seen: Idaho: Coeur d'Alene, Brady Place, Maj , 191 \. II. J. Rust, no. 
530 (type in CA); valley of Big Potlatch River, June 6, 1892, J. H. 
Sandberg et al., no. 31 5 ( CA). Washington: Pullman, June 23, 1925, 
Eastwood (CA); Pullman, 1920, H. E. Phelps (CA); near Pullman, 
1892, E. R. Lake, no. 607 (G); Spokane Countv, camp no. 2, May 29, 
ls!).i. Snndbrrq Ar Libera, no. 100 (G, CA); Waikiki, May 28, 1913, 
G. W. Turesson iKM); Sequin.. May 10, 1915, ./. M. Grunt (KM). 
Oregon: Cow Creek, Jordan Valley-Homedale Highway, May 24, 
1927, L. F. Henderson, no. 8917 (CA); Swan Lake Valley, lS9(i, 
Ablegate, no. 181 (G). CALIFORNIA: Klamath Lake, June, 1924, 
Mrs. C /;. Kelly (CA); Edgewood, May 18, 1913, L. E. Smith (CA); 
Mariposa, Snow Creek, May 23, 1897, Condon (CA); 9 miles south of 
Hopland, Apr. 10, 1934, Eastwood & Howell, no. 1302 (CA); Yosemite, 
Pern Creek near Bridal Veil Falls, June 14, 1922, Mrs. -/. ('. Augsberg 
(CA). 

Iris longipetala Herbert in Hooker & Arnott. Rhizome stout, 
2-2.5 cm. in diameter, covered with the unsplit bases of old leaves, 
roots numerous, hVshy; leases linear-ensiform, acute, usually exceed- 
ing the stem, to 7 dm. long and 1 cm. wide, dark given, glaucous or 
subglaucous, not prominently nerved; stems simple or occasionally 
branched, stout, to 6 dm. long, sometimes bearing 1 2 reduced cauline 
leaves, 3-6-flowered ; spathes herbaceous or even foliaceous, some- 
times scarious in the upper portion, narrowly linear-lanceolate, to 15 
cm. long, the outermost iisualh distant From the second by 1-10 cm.; 
pedicels stout, unequal at blooming, 3 U cm. lonn. becoming more 
nearly equal after flowering; ovary trigonal, to 2.5 cm. long, surface 
distinctly uneven, with a ridge in the middle of each of the three sides; 
penamh-inbe short, infundibuliform, 5 mm. to 1 3 cm lorn-- sepals to 
10 cm. long, 5 cm. wide, the claw narrow, the blade obovate, a prom- 
inent ridge passing up the claw, yellowish, dotted purple, ending in 
a white blotch at the base of the blade uhich is veined lilac-purple on 
a lighter ground; petals to 9 cm. long and 1.5-2 cm wide oblony, 
l-hmtly rounded at the apex, emarginate; style-branches cuneate, to 
4 cm. long; style-crests subquadrate, irn-ul'arb incised to 1 5 cm. 
long; stigma obscurely or prominently bilobed the ed-es eremite- 
filaments to 1.5 em long; anthers to _'< in Ion ,„, , „„, ,|j . .uilliti-' 
orexserted be; « 

at either end to 9 cm. loi j' r to py n- 

torm.— Bot. Beech. Voy. 395 (1841); Hooker f. in Hot Ma- Kxxviii. 

Sq n«^ n t k - Ind ^, 10 (1892); G«ene, Bot. San Fran. Ihn Region 
308 (1894); Jepson F . West. Mid. Calif. 129 (1901); Howell, Fl. N. 
^^ooowP^^Sy^' Genus Ir - 89 (1913); Jepson, Fl. Calif. 
i. 324 (1922); Abrams, Illust. Fl. Pacif. States i Hi- m<k; • |hk, 
H:ll|,|hk - (; ard. Ir 123 P. 121 ;.[,,,„„, M,,,i I | |> (~ dit "'V! P» >5 



A SURVEY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF IRIS 09 

south to Monterey. Representative material : California: San Fran- 
cisco Bay, 1 86-, H. N. Bolander, no. 2756 (G); Mills Hills, 1003, .1/. 
H. Hincks (G); Potrera, Mar. 10, 1869, Kellogg & Harford, no. 976 
(G, CA); South San Francisco, on San Francisco Hay, Mar. 21. 1020, 
L. Benson, no. 1021 (JWT); South San Francisco, San Bruno Hills, 
Mar. 12, 1014, Eastwood, no. 87.51 (CA); South San Francisco, Visita- 
tion Valley, Mar. 27, 1929, Ynes Mexia, no. 2335 (RM); Contra Costa 
County, Point Isabel, 1807, J. Burtt Davy (G); near Cordelia, 
1002, Heller A- Brown, no. 5307 (G); Mendocino County, 1876, G. R. 
Vasey (G); Monterey, 1860-62, W. II. Brewer, no. 609. 

Cytology of the Longipetalae. I. missouriensis has been found 
to have a chromosome count of 2n = 38 (see pi. 1, fig. 17). There are 
two long and two medium-sized medians, two long and 22 smaller 
subterminals, at least four small rods without apparent constrictions, 
and four satellites. The rest of the complement cannot he distin- 
guished with certainty. Although the count is identical with that of 
I. setosa var. canadensis, the idiogram is quite different. 

Since the two varieties and form of I. missouriensis arc known to 
me only from herbarium specimens, no account can be given of their 
cytology. Simonet 1 reports 2n = 86-88 for I. montana, but he gives 
no drawing of the chromosome complement, nor does he give any 
description of the plant. Consequently, the question of whether or 
not he had the plant here called I. missouriensis var. pelogonus, or 
i". montana as Dykes called it, must remain unanswered. It is, of 
curse, quite possible that polyploidy will he found in /. niissoiirn itsis 
and its varieties when the necessary large-scale examination of wild 
material can be made. 

Simonet 2 reports 2n = 86-88 for /. longipetala, noting that the small 

Fxamination of numerous sections of root-tips has failed to show any 

division figures which could l.e drawn or counted accurately. Rough 
counts of about 80 have been made, but exactness is impossible. 
Aceto-carminc smears of root-tips have likewise proved useless. 

Discission of the Longipetalae. Covering a tremendous area 
of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific ('oast states. /. missouriensis 
presents another example of polymorphism of the sort shown by /. 
versicolor L. In that species, as Anderson" has shown from held col- 
lections, there seems to be an almost unlimited expression of varia- 



70 FOSTER 

variety or form. The specimens seen of /. missouriensis show varia- 
tion in almost every conceivable respect, but only one of these has 
seemed, at present, sufficiently widespread or numerous to deserve 
recognition as a form. Among others, Eastwood & Howell, no. 303, 
from Nevada, might almost be separated; it has, in particular, anthers 
which are much exserted beyond the stigma, and in some size rela- 
tionships differs from normal I. missouriensis. Nevertheless, on the 
basis of this single specimen, I should not feel justified in making a 
separation, especially since the differences are not outstanding. At 
best, it could be entitled only to varietal status. 

This vigorous species occurs both east and west of the Continental 
Divide. Yet, though wide-spread, it tends to be restricted to favor- 
able areas. In Idaho, for example, it has recently been reported to be 
found in the northern part of the state "primarily in the meadows of 
the Palouse Prairie, .... and in the valleys and tributaries 
of the Snake River, in southern Idaho." 1 Mrs. K. X. Marriage 8 re- 
ports that in Colorado individual plants or small -roups are often 
found at the edges of aspen groves, but that whenever large fields occur 
there is always underflow of water until the blooming season is over, 
t i ; found even m such geologically ancient regions as the Black Hills. 
Is it there as a newcomer or as a relic? That question cannot be 
answered at present, but /. n m*ourir,,*i* is vigorous and aggressive, 
spreading over a vast area and maintaining it.elf with ease wherever 
the moisture conditions are satisfactory. Its behavior is that of a 
■ "7*: mvi . ,(1 '"M P'""t, which has spread over this region in recent 
geoI< .gieal tunes. The focal point, or points, from which it has spread 
'■"!"'" now be determined. Nevertheless, there are certain facts 
ool be overlooked. In spathes, capsule, and stem, it is 
'," '" ' x \ ' "" '""' lts v;irifl ties. The chromosome numbers of 
""' ,U "' I,l; "7 : "-<Y'PI>:<rently the same, and in certain ways there is 
'""" '^'I'lblance between the idiograms of the two plants; in other 
!■ - however, the karyotypes are quite unlike. Moreover, in its 
JL^l!! S1 ° r ! int ° Bntlsh Colunihi «. '• "risvourirnsis tends to 
3^W SOUthern J eXtension of /. setota in Alaska. These facts 
suggest that a more detailed study, supplemented b v the study of 
SP xZZTZJ"ZTf^\ tW ?' might be hiding. 

i specimens, neither the cytology 

r. pelogonux can be 

l Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. no. 61: 8 fl 



Known to me only from herbarium g 
distributic 



determined at present. An obvious relative of /. 

seems to differ from that species in I u inu much smaller in general, with 
the plant stockier in proportion to its size, in the shorter pedicel length, 
and in the relative lengths of the stamens and style-branches, although 
this may be a variable character. Dykes 1 makes /. pelogonus Good- 
ding synonymous with /. montana Nutt. ex Dykes, and states that 
the living plant From which his plate (XXII) was made had been sent 
to him from Laramie, Wyoming, where it had been collected by Pro- 
fessor Aven Nelson. This plate shows the petals to be acutely pointed. 
and the description stresses this point of difference between I. m%9- 
Kourh 7/.vv'.v and I. montana. If I. montana and /. prhtgomis are really 
identical, then Goodding's name must be retained, since it was pub- 
lished eleven years before Dykes took up Nuttall's manuscript name. 
After careful study of specimens, in particular the type of /. pelo- 
gonus (Aven Nelson, no. 7102) and sheets of Aven Nelson, no. 1268 
and C. F. Baker, no. 527, which Dykes (1. c.) cited as /. montana, two 
conclusions were reached: (1) /. montana and /. prior/onus are identi- 
cal; (2) the sheets of the collections cited by Dykes as I. montana 
show obviously emarginate, spatulate petals. Accordingly, it seems 
to me, the rather narrow line between /. missourieims and /. pelogonus 
fails. The two plants, in the material available to me, can be sepa- 
rated only by such variable characters as pedicel-length and leaf- 
length, and even here intergrades occur. In view of these fluctuating 
vegetative differences, there seems no alternative, at present, to re- 



though l>\k« 


. Mrs.. At 


•izona, in September, 
mention the collector 


mo; 


c" 


dwasi 


■-... 






in the Gray Herbariu 




Onl 


y five s; 


prcimetjs 


iogonus, the principal 
itirely vegetative, and 
ems to be no alternati 
the fact that, of the fi 


'iESiizL* 


l- 


2 


lis reason, there 
status. In view 
from the Chiri- 



Unlike /. nrixxoitrii //.sv'.v, /. lonyipcfala has a very ] 
size, range, and high chromosome number indicate 
ploid, probably of fairly recent origin. Whether i 
ploid or an amphidiploid produced from 
stated until the chromosome number is definitely known. The dis- 
tinction between it and /. iirixmurii nxis is, for the most part, one of 
size, although, unlike the latter, its foliage does not die away before 
new leaves are produced, and the leaves usually exceed the stem. 
Because of this similarity, Dykes 1 - 2 and others following him call I. 
iiri.ssourunds merely an upland variety of I. longipctala, and only 
doubtfully entitled to specific rank. Since the former was the first- 
described of the two species, it would be nomenclaturally impossible 
to reduce it to varietal status under the latter. The comparative 
ranges and chn.moM.me numbers of the two plants furnish an addi- 
tional argument against doing so. 

It is possible that /. longipctala is an amphidiploid, resulting from a 
species-cross involving /. nrixxoiii-inix-ix. If the other parent was not 
a member of the Lougipcfahir, it might possiblv be /. Doin/laxiann. 
I suggest this species because of its size, its leaf habit, and because 
there i> at tune.-, enough similarity between it and / . lonr/i prfala to 
cause the two species to be confused in herbaria. It should be em- 
! ' h ': !/, : ,i ,llil! this is only a tentative suggestion. The part played in 
--peciation by chromosome-doubling after a specific or generic cross 
is as yet virtually unknown, although examples are multiph ing in 
experimental work. In addition to the examples cited by Bleier, 3 I 
h:i\e found enough more to bring the number to about fifty. Several 
iiHianres occurring in nature are known, such as Arscidus cornea 
U,,, « 'J '>"*»"' 7W,wWn H. &J. Groves," and Pn„tn,m, nrotrr- 
icus Keck. It seems reasonable to believe that a wide field of investi- 
gation l„s open in the continuation of this work upon species occurring 

At the same time, i 




That this is not always the case with autotetraploids has been shown 
in Tradrscanfin by Anderson and Sax, 1 who find that autotetraploids 
in this genus are distinguishable only cytologically from the related 
diploids. 

Subsection Virginicae 
Consisting of two species usually grouped with tin 1 subsection 
Laemgatae, these have been segregated by Waller 2 as the Virgiti'icn 
subsection. Large, moisture-loving plants, they possess good-sized 
rhizomes, linear-ensiform leaves, trigonal ovaries and capsules, and 
entire stigmas. Florally they are similar, but the seeds differ 



Iris virginica L. Rhizome stout, ±2.5 cm. in diameter; leaves 
linear-ensiform, acute, gray-green, or bright green, with several ribs 
prominent in mature leaves, 4-9 dm. long, 1-4 cm. wide; stems simple 
or sparinglv branched from above the middle, the branches flowering 
at nearly the same level as the terminal cluster, 5-9 dm. tall, with 
several long, linear cauline leaves which sometimes exceed the ter- 
minal cluster; spathes unequal, the outer shorter than the inner, ex- 
cept when the outer is wholly or partially foliaceous, 3-14 cm. long, 
herbaceous, or partially membranous, striate with brown, rigid, not 
inflated; pedicel 3-8 cm. long, not exceeding the spathes at anthesis; 
ovary 1-3 cm. long, trigonal; perianth-tube constricted above the 
ovary, infnndibnliform, 1-2 cm. long; sepals to 7-8 cm. long, 3-4 cm. 
wide, the blade obovate-ovate, the claw often very broad and 1 ... cm. 
long, yellow-green with deeper veins, the prominent yellow midrib 
pubescent, expanding into a bright yellow pubescent patch at tin- 
base of the blade, which is usually bright lavender-blue; petals obo- 
vate to obovate-spatulate, frequently emarginate, to 5.5-6 cm. long, 
1-2.5 cm. wide, of the same color as the sepals, the claw yellow-green; 
style-branches to 3.5 cm. long; style-crests reflexed, finely or coarsely 
toothed, to 1.5 cm. long; stigma entire, triangular or rounded-tri- 
angular; filaments ±1.5 cm. long; anthers 1-2 cm. long; capsule 
trigonal in cross-section, ovoid or ellipsoid, the seeds often in two rows 
in each carpel, 4-7 cm. long; seeds run m 

an irregularly pitted corky covering.— Sp. PI. i. 39 (1753); Miehaux. 
Fl. Bor. Amer. 22 (1803); Sims in Bot. Mag. xix. t. 703 (1804); Baker 
in Gard. Chron. (II) vi. 615 (1876); Anderson in Ann. Missouri hot. 
Gard. xv. 254 IV. 192S : Small. Man. Se. VI 356 1933 ; W>a m 
Bull. Amer. Iris Soc. no. 57: 8 ff. (1935). Iris onrolinn Ka. hus m 
Naturforsch. Ges. Leipzig Schrift. i. 158 (1822); Small in Addisutiu. 
ix. 49, pi. 313 (1924). Iris versicolor auctorum, non L. Ins carohmana 



S. Watson in Gray, Man. (ed. 6) 514 (1890); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 
12 (1892); Britton & Brown, Must. Fl. (ed. 1) i. 1 19 1 1 S9(i >; > \\ atson 
in Proc. Amer. Acad. xxv. 134 (1898); Small, Fl. Se. U. S. (ed. 1) 306 
(1903); Robinson & Fernald in Gray, Man. (ed. 7) 300 (1908); Stapf 
in Bot. Mag. cxxxviii. t. 8465 (1912). Iris georgiana Britton in Brit- 
ton & Brown, Must. Fl. (ed. 2) i. 537 (1913). 7m Shrevei Small in 
Addisonii. xii. 13, pi. 391 (1927); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 356 (1933).— 
Swamps and marshes in southeastern and central United States, north 
t<» Minnesota and Wisconsin, and the Bruce Peninsula in Canada. 
Representative material: Ontario: Bruce County, Stag Lake, June 
is, 19:53, G. L Strbbins, no. 81 (G). Ohio: Oberlin, June 20, 1890, 
C. A. Kqfoid (G). Illinois: Starved Rock, June 1-7, 1909, Greenman, 
Lansing & Dixon, no. 157 (G); Urbana, May 27, 1899, II. A. Gleason, 
no. 558 (G); Cowford Bridge, June 12, 1918, I. W. Clokey, no. 2433 
(G, RM). Indiana: Roby, July 12, 1906, 0. E. Lansing, no. 2540 (G). 
Iowa: Ames, June 21, 1897, Ball & Meeker, do. 524 (G); Missouri 
Valley, .lnm> 21, 1897, L. H. Pammd, no. 587 (G). Minnesota: 
west of Beaver River, near shore of Lake Superior, June 29. 1921. 
Butters & Rosendahl, no. 4463 (G); Kasson, June 23, 192S, /•'. Ander- 
son (G). North Carolina: Currituck Sound, Newbridge Creek. 

tyfrywt.L.r.&r.R.iunnb.i ,, nI1 , ls . s7 . 

■'"['{" (G type of /. cawllniann); Highlands, Mav, 1902, T. G. 
Harbison (G); Henderson ville, May 26, 1898, Bilfmon lib., no. 542b 
} \r b ?n r - T ^ A ^ 0LINA: Conwa y> Apr. 8, 1932, Wmthrrh,, <e Grismm. 
'<<>■ <vl9.> (G); Socastee, Apr. 21, 1932, Weatherby & Griscom, no. 
.' 4 G) i )) accamaw R^er, Longwood Island, Apr. 22, 1932, 
'' ' "" ■"." :\\ '"'"■"'"• no. 16,493 (G). Georgia: brackish marshes of 
Savannah River at upper end of McQueen Island, Apr. 30, 1904, R. 
M .Harper, no. 2180 (G). Florida: banks of St. Johns River, April, 
nwfci l na ( G )' I near r S ^hoppy, Apr. 1, 1934, Griscom, no. 
mil ,l ; A P a ^ ch ,L cola ' , Ma y> 1897, Chapman (G). Alabama: 4^ 

mles southwest of Tuscaloosa, May 1, 1932, fl. M. Harper (($ 
swamps, Hollywood, May 15, 1902, Biltmore Hb., no. 542e (RM). 
I ' , "' ,SUXA: i !' vl ^ t ;»". April, 1920, L. Arsbie, no. 12,400 (G). Mis- 
I T dT BlS S arck T ' Ma >; 21 ' 1927 > Kobuski & Larson (RM ); Maple 

('';„;• I - :''"°J\™ 42 *- Kansas: moist places, Wvandotte 
/•, no. 1067(G). Texas: Orange 
no 2/93 (G, N \ . apparently the type of /. MrnvV) 

Ikts versicolor I, Rhizome thick, to 2.5 em in diameter- leaves 
Imear-ensiform, from 1.5-9.5 dm. lon 8 

'".";•'.' '. ■■"• ■ ■, -■■■ -^ ' ■•-: • ., 

...1 ..-;:!; ,,, l rn ;: vf 11 "" ilm ; • ; ! »■• ■; 



long; perianth-tube constricted above the ovary, infundibuliform, 

green, veined, with a prominent midrib passing np\\;ird to the ovate 
or sub-orbicular blue-purple blade, with the basal patch absent, or 
greenish-yellow if present; petals 2-4.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, lanceo- 
late-acute to lanceolate-oblong, occasionally ohuise, rarely emargi- 
nate, the same color as the sepals; style-branches to 3.5 cm. long; 
style-crests to 1.5 cm. long, toothed or entire; stigma entire, triangu- 
lar or rounded-triangular; filaments exceeding the anthers, which are 
0.8-1.5 cm. long; capsule ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, to ±5 cm. long; 
seeds dark brown, shinv, D-shaped, with a thin, hard, hut not corky, 
covering.— Sp. PL i. 39 (1753); Curtis in Bot. Mag. i. t. 21 (1790); 
Redoute, Lil. vi. t. 339 (1812); Baker in Gard. Chron. (II) vi. 614- 
615 (1876); Baker, Handbk. Irid. 12 (lS!)2i; Britton c\ Brown. Illust. 
Fl. (ed. 1) i. 448 (1896), in part; Small, Fl. Se. U. S. (ed. 1) 306 ( 1903), 
in part; Robinson & bernald in (bay, Man. (ed. 7) 299 (1908), in 
part; Dykes, Genus Ir. 79 (1913), in part; Dykes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 
138 (1924), in part; Small in Addisoniaix. 55, pi. 316 (1924); Anderson 
in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. xv. 253 ff. (1928); Small, Man. Se. Fl. 
356 (1933). Iris virginica sensu Jacquin, Ic. PI. Bar. ii. t. 223 ( DS6- 
93).— Northern United States and Canada, in swiimpy places, west 
to Wisconsin and Minnesota. Representative material: Canada: 



17 ((I); So 


iitlian 


,j,iul, 


Long Islam 


1, Sweezy Pond, July 26, 1920, 


/. St. John, 








tsF.v: Atsion, June2, 1934, W. H. 


Vltt, 1KM1. 








ea, May 20, 1889, A. A. Heller 


G). Mkiiii 

Iinnksota: 
,ake Itasca, 


if 


:-' 


Gulliver Lake, 
>nnty. Muzz} 

na M( hkaya 


Aug. 26. 1929, ./. H. Ehlers (G); 
s28, 1917, ./. //. Ehlers, no. 382 

Lake, June 5, 1903, R. J. Webb, 
li. .hhernff (KM). Illinois: 
S. Moffatt, no. 141 (RM). Wis- 

)27, A'. Anderson (G);' shore of 



Simonet 1 to have n = o4 :>( i ; Randolph'- reports 2w = 71. The dis- 
-■r.-|»anr\ is due to misidentification of Si. nonet's material. Dr. 
Kdgar Anderson lias very kindly allowed me to examine his un- 
published counts and drawings, giving me permission to cite his 
findings. Although different plants appear to vary slightly in chro- 
mosome number, possibly as a result of irregularities in the' reduction 
division due to the formation of multivalents, usuallv 2» = 72 and 



Charles Hardee, Frenier, and Oglethorpe, 2// = 70 



certainly was not /. versicolor, but there is no means of determining 
its identity; the count is much too high for I. virginica. The plant 
from Virginia, coining from almost opposite Washington, D. C, was 
probably the only one of the three which was truly J. versicolor. Por 
this species, too, Kaufmann 1 reported 2n = ca. 68, but as his material 
apparently came from Alabama, the number and the locality would 
indicate that here, again, the plant in question was I. virginica. 
Simonet (1. c.) reported n = 54-56 for I. versicolor, a count corroborated 
by Randolph (1. c), who found 2/1 = 108 for this species. Sirnonet's 
figure shows that reduction irregularities are present, a fact previously 
noted by Longley (1. c). The Simonet-Randolph count seems correct 
for this species. 

Discussion of the Virginicae. To differentiate between the two 
species comprising this subsection can be extremely difficult, if not 
impossible, in poorly preserved herbarium material. That there are 
actually two species, instead of one as assumed by Dykes, 2 has been 
clearly shown by Anderson:' By a lengthy series of diagrams showing 
the proportions of floral parts to each other, he established the fact 
that there are certain differences, the petals of I. rr/wVo/or being lanceo- 
late, short, and narrow- in proportion to the sepals, while those of I. 
virginica are longer, broader in proportion to the sepals, and oblanceo- 
late to spatulate. Spathe, stem, and pedicel differences also are use- 
ful in separating the two. Nevertheless, despite Anderson's insistence 
(1. c, p. 249) that the outer spathe-valves of I. versicolor never become 
foliaceous, while those of I. virginica frequently do, one of the first 
specimens of the former seen by me in the Gray Herbarium, J. C. 
Parlin from North Berwick, Maine, has a foliaceous outer spathe. 
The frequency with which this occurs, however, is much less than is 
true of I. virginica. It is in the seeds of the two species that an almost 
infallible means of separation is found. I. virginica has seeds with a 
dull corky covering, like a smaller edition of seeds of the Hexagonae. 
I- versicolor has seeds with a thinner, shiny, hard covering, resembling 
those of 7. sefosa var. canadensis. The seeds ami frequently foliaceous 
spathes of I. virgin lea strongly suggest a relationship with the Hexa- 
gonae. At the same time, when the spathes are not folicaeous. there 
is a marked similarity in size, shape, and even coloring to those of 
/. iridentata. 

As Anderson showed, these two species within their extensive 
ranges, are highly variable, but he did not differentiate any varieties 



78 FOSTER 

or forms. He treated /. Shrevei Small and /. Carolina Radius as 
synonyms of /. virginica. It is difficult for me to see how the Carolina 
plants collected by Weatherby and Griscom can be associated with 
those collected by Mrs. Treat in Florida and those collected by 
Fernald rt al. in Virginia, without varietal or formal distinction. 
Viosca 1 states that from his collections he believes there are definitely 
three complexes within /. rirg'niica which probably deserve varietal 
or subspecific rank, although he has not given them this status. 
Moreover, since Dr. Anderson is continuing his study of /. virgin ira, 
1 have not felt it desirable to make any change in the status quo. 2 

Subsection Vernae. 

1 lie blender rhizome and ensiform leaves bear a certain resemblance 
to members of the dwarf series of section I'ogonirix, but the flower is 
characteristic of section Apogon. Only one species is contained in the 

Iris verna L. Rhizome slender, torulose, widely-creeping bv 
elongated internodes, roots occurring only at the nodes, which are 
sheathed in persistent leaf-bases; stem usually not present, so that 
the plant is almost always acaulescent; leaves 3-5 in a clump, 11-21 
cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, very light in color at the base, rapidly pass- 
ing into a reddish-purple, with white striations, which is the color of 
the entire leaf m the outer members of a sterile clump, inner leaves 
light green, glaucous, ensiform; spathes a series of imbricated bracts, 
usually ., in number, 1.3-5 cm. long, the innermost the longest, lanceo- 
late, acute, the outermost short and almost obovate, occasionally 
green or greenish, more often like the outermost leaves of a sterile 
Fan in color; pedicel present, but short, to 1.3 cm. long, elongating to 
2.5 cm. as the capsule matures; ovary narrow, almost linear, 1.3 cm. 
long, or less; perianth-tube 2.5-6.5 cm. long, slender, filiform, expand- 
'"-, >",» M,, y' lliM ".to the throat; sepals 3-4 cm. long, 1.2 cm. wide, 
reddish-violet, with the claw passing graduallv into the obovate 
Made, whose central portion is yellowi.h-orange'. minutely papillose, 
veined violet and white; petals :< 4.5 cm. long. 1 cm. wide, spatulate, 
with a more pronounced distinction between claw and blade than in the 
sepals, red-violet ; ^:> le-branche< _' cm. lung, pale violet; stvle-crests 
/mm. long narrow, linear-acute, pale violet; ,tig„,a founded, entire; 
hlament 1.3cm. long, very slender; anther 7 mm. I,,;,.; capsule 1.3 cm. 
long, tapering into a beak consisting of the dried remnant of the 
perianth-tube, ovoid; seeds oval, dark brown, 3 mm. long.— Sp. PI. i. 



39 (1753); Aiton, Hort. Kew. (ed. 1) i. 73 (1789); Michaux, Fl. Bor. 
Amer. i. 22 (1803); Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 30 (1816); Sweet, Brit. 
Flow. Gard. i. t. 68 (1824); Ker, Irid. Gen. 54 (1827); Loddiges, Bot. 
Cab. t. 1855 (1833); Klatt in Linnaea xxxi. 535 (1861 -62); Klatt in 
Linnaea xxxiv. 596 (1866); Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. xvi. 144 
(1877); Maker, Handbk. Irid. If. (1S92); Mritton & Brown, Illust. Fl. 
(ed. 1) i. 452 (1896); Robinson & Fernald in Gray, Man. (ed. 7) 300 
(1908); Dvkes, Genus Ir. 95 (1913); Small, Fl. Se. U. S. (ed. 2) 305 
(1913); Dvkes, Handbk. Gard. Ir. 147 (1924); Small in Addisonia xiv. 
15, pi. 456 (1929); Small in Addisonia xvi. 15, t. 520 (1931). Iris nana 
Persoon, Syn. PI. i. 53 (1805), as synon. of /. rerun. Xeubeehia renin 
(L.) Small, Man. Se. Fl. 330 (1933).— Acid, semi-shaded or open 
woodlands or thickets in southeastern United States. Representative 
material: District OF Columbia: vicinity of Washington, May 13, 
1883, L. F. Ward (G). Maryland: Baltimore County, "Glenbirnie", 
May 18, 1910, J. R. Churchill (G). Virginia: 1 mile northwest of 
Williamsburg Apr. 9, 1921, /•:. ./. Grim:*, no. 3396 (G); Nansemond 
Conntv, near Kilbv, Sept. 11, 1925, Fmtald, Foqq A' Long, no. 4S4S 
(G); Salt Pond Ml'., Max. 1S69. H". M. CanU, (G); Appomattox. -In. 
woods, Mav 1 , 1932, ('.A. Wrath, rbq, no. 6159 (G > ; Massanutten Mt., 
May 9, 1893, Heller, no. 782 (G). North Carolina: Pinehurst, 
April, 1899, //. /'. .h//v*(G); Asheville. Apr. 2s, 1932. C. .1. IV.afh, rbi/, 
no. 6154 (G); Biltmore, Apr. 27. lS9(i, liiltmnr, lib., no. 1219 <G. KM >; 
Highlands, Mav, 1903, T. G. Harbison (G); \ miles east of Bolivia, 
Apr. Hi, 1933,'./. .1/. Foqq. Jr., no. 5499 (G); Wilmington, Apr. 17, 
1923, J. R, Churchill (G);'Hildebran, Apr. 18, 1933, /.'. ./. Pahmr, no. 
39,939 (G); Bath, Apr. 15, 1932, C. A. Weatherby, no. 60S4 (G). 
South Carolina: Hot Springs, April, 1SS8, C. F. Smith (G). 
(tKoiu.ia: north slope of Mine Mts.. Aug. 29, 1901, R. M- Harper, no. 
1266(G). Alabama: Trov, Mar. 17. 1S91, G. IF Ldand (G); Little 
Cohaba Creek, 20 miles east of Birmingham, Apr. S, 1931 (G). 

central Atlantic and southeastern states, occurring most frequently 
in upland regions, but spreading downward from the mountains to the 



ease of plants with >mall leaves. Large-leaved [)lants would prob- 
ably be regarded as belonging to section Apogon, without much 
hesitation. The flower in herbarium specimens might easily be con- 
fused with that of /. cristnta, since the sepal-crest of the latter it 
difficult to preserve. 

Cytologieally, this species has been found by Simonet 1 to have 
2/(=42, a count which seems correct, judging from the extremely 
poor material available to me. On this continent it shares that num- 
ber with I.fnlra, I. />m-//m/vVv/, and /. htctixtris, an anomalous situa- 
tion, for it is difficult to see any striking relationships with any ol 
these species, and their karyotypes are quite unlike. 



Fig. 


1. I. Thomasii. 


Fig. 14. 


I. Douglasiana. 


Fig. 


2. I. cristata. 


Fig. 15. 


Small, no. 63,739. 


Fig. 


3. I. citriregalis. 


Fig. 16. 


I. fourchiana (no. 65,619) 


Fig. 


4. I. hexagona var. giganti- Fig. 17. 






coerulea. 


Fig. 18. 


Small, no. 65,677. 


Fig. 


5. Small, no. 65,730. 


Fig. 19. 


I. setosa var. canadensis. 


Fig. 


6. I. regalia. 


Fig. 20. 


I. violipurpurea. 


Fig. 


7. I. elephantina. 


Fig. 21. 


I. chrysaeola. 


Fig. 


8. I. Marplei. 


Fig. 22. 


I. Kimballiae. 


Fig. 


9. I. albilinea. 


Fig. 23. 


I. fulvaurea. 






Fig. 24. 


I. mississippiensis. 


Fig. 


11. I. viridivinea. 


Fig. 25. 


I. salmonicolor. 


Fig. 


12. I. fourchiana (no. 65," 


89). Fig. 26. 


I. Purdyi. 


Fig. 


13. Small, no. 65,671. 


Plate 2. 




Fig. 
Fig. 

ft 


1. Type of /. tenuissima m 

2. Type of /. Douglasiana 

1. Isotype of /. innomina 

2. Type of /. Thompsonii 
Ann. Sci. Nat.. Bot. (ser. 10 


ar. pu.nl ylfonm 
Plate 3. 








5^ mk , 






,#%. M* ■*$& 






.» ;1t 



<* 













1 jf £%4 





cuspidata, 59. 
Delavayi, 43. 

Douglasiana, 14, 23, 30, 32-38, 
40, 41, 43, 72, 80. 
f. alpha, 35, 36. 
var. alpha, 35. 
" altissima, 31, 32. 
" bacteata, 34. 
" bracteata, 14, 32, 34, 

35, 41. 
" nuda, 31. 

" oregonensis, 14, 36, 
80, pi. 2. 
elephantina, 54, 55, 57, 80. 



pinetorum, 30, 43. 

13, 44, 46, 80. 

28, 29, 37, 38, 4 

so: 

regalis, 54, 80. 



-ctu.-M continued) 


Iris (continued) 


var., 60. 


§ Apogon, 5, 13, 57, 78, 80. 


var. canadensis, 19, 58, 60- 


§ Evansia, 5, 7, 9, 10. 


63, 69, 77, 80. 
f. pallidiflora, 61. 


§ Nepalenses, 5. 


§ Pongoniris, 5, 9, 78, 79. 




Subsect. Californicae, 3, 13, 14, 


Shrevei, 74, 76, 78. 


37, 38, 41-43. 


Ml.uic.i, 43, 44,47. 
Sisyrinchium, 5. 


" Chrysographes, 43. 
Fulvae, 48. 


tenax, 13, 14, 16-21, 30, 32, 34, 


" Hexagonae, 47, 48, 53, 


41-43 


" Hookerianae, 62. 


var. australis, 14, 19, 20, 


" Laevigatae, 73. 


42. 
var. Gormanii, 14, 18, 42. 


" Longipetalae, 3, 63, 69, 


tenuis, 14, 15, 41-43, 47. 


" Prismaticae, 44. 


tenuissima, 14, 26, 28-30, 43. 


Sibiricae, 43, 41, 40, 47. 


var. purdyiformis, 14, 28, 


" Tripetalae, 6, 57, 61, 62. 


43, 80, pi. 2. 
Thomasii, 53, 80. 

Thumpsonii, 15, 10. 43, SO, pi. 3. 
Tolmieana, 64 

tridentata, 57, 60, 62, 77. 


" Vernae, 78. 

Virginicae, 73, 76, 77. 
Moraea, 5. 



, 45, 56, 73, 75-78. 



rnmuia, u. 

Tradescantia, 73. 
Viola, 6. 

ichycuspis, 59. 
tripetalum, 58. 

'■fosum 59. 
tridentatum, 58. 



LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNER COASTAL 
PLAIN OF SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GRAY HERBARIUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNER COASTAL 
PLAIN OF SOrTHKASTKRX VIRGINIA 



LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNEU COASTAL PLAIN 
OF SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA 
M. L. Febnald 
(Plates 474^87) 
Part I. Account of a Summer's Collecting 1 
Accepting the renewed imitation of Professor John W. Bailey and 
my former student, Professor Robert F. Smart, to make headquarters 
for further botanical exploration of the Coastal Plain of Virginia at 
the Biological Laboratory of the University of Richmond, I asked 
Messrs. Bayard Long and Ludlow Griscom, who had shared the work 
farther east, to join me in some brief excursions on the Inner Coastal 
Plain, adjacent to the Piedmont region of the state. Unfortunately, 
Griscom was able to make only one very brief and unexpectedly cur- 
tailed trip with us in August, but Long, most happily, joined me for 
four different collecting trips at intervals from late June to late Oc- 
tober. President Boatwright of the University and Dean Keller of 




Westhampton College had must kindly provided airy living quarters 
with shower-baths, so necessary in hot weather, at the latter College, 
then closed tor summer vacation; and Professors Bailex and Smart 

collections during the sweltering summer days, in the beautifully 

drainage-tables and plenty of water for washing oil' the clay sub- 
stratum which adhered to most roots. Perfect conditions, after the 

in drying paper and had been rehandled, straightened and " salivated "' 
or otherwise prepared for final drying between corrugated ventilators, 

"ere tumid in the piping-hot and temporarily disused green-house on 
the roof. There, with temperatures always well above 100° F. and 
as often approaching loll ', the firmly strapped presses quickly yielded 
the "finished product" in thoroughly dried and only rarely dis- 

In a previous paper I noted the marked difference in superficial 

and Norfolk Counties and the Dismal Swamp, extending into eastern- 
most Xansemond County, is overlaid by early Quaternary sands, 
clays and peats which usually deeply mantle the older deposits beneath, 
with the upper level plains rarely reaching an altitude of 9 meters 
(about :j() feet), though with the sand-hills back of Cape Henry at- 
taining a height of 24 meters (80 feet). The inner and generally 
higher western two-thirds of the Coastal Plain in this latitude, the 
regn m >< >uth of the estuary of the James and west of Nansemond River 
and the Dismal Swamp (including most of Nansemond County, the 
Counties of Isle of Wight, Surry, Prince George, Sussex and South- 
ampton, and the eastern borders of Greensville, Dinwiddie and 
Chesterfield, thence northeastward beyond the area now under con- 
sideration) has older clays, sands and peats, derived from the under- 
lying Miocene deposits which in manv stream-beds and road-cuts are 
abundantly displayed as a continuous pavement-like stratum of 
closely crowded marine shells and skeletons. 

This Inner Coastal Plain ranges in elevation from practical sea- 
level on the lower James to 30 meters (100 feet) along the rivers near 
See Pernald, Rhodoba, xxiii. in (1921) 



1937] Female!,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 323 

the Fall Line, with the dry upland plains and gently rolling country 
reaching levels from 7.5-46 meters (25-150 feet) and sometimes more. 
As a result of the usually greater elevation west of the Nansemond 
and the Dismal Swamp the streams, cutting through the soft de- 
posits, have produced gullies and steep banks, the latter often pitch- 
ing 7.5-30 meters (25-100 feet) to the borders of the streams or to 
their broad wooded bottomlands and swamps ("dismals"). The 
superficial deposits, whether of peat, sand, clay or marl, are apparently 
all highly acid, but wherever a stream has cut down to or through the 
shell-deposits, the bottomland soils, although giving an acid reaction. 
are sufficiently modified by the constantly supplied lime as to support 
vegetations amazingly different from those of the open plains and 
pine woods at levels only a few meters above them. The latter habi- 
tats are distinguished by numerous Coastal Plain endemics, the 
former and many of the steep wooded slopes show an unexpected 
number of species characteristic of the richer woodlands and bottoms 
of the interior, many of them more typical of the Mississippi Basin. 
These contrasts will be further noted in the course of the following 



of two days 


other interesting areas; consequently we spent portions 
on Three Creek near Drewryville, there making the ac- 


quaintance c 


.f a host of species new to my experience and several new 
id subsisting largely on the bountiful supply of gigantic 
>hieh our attentive host and his colored boy collected 


We soon 

tively few s] 


in the night) from Three Creek. 

eon finned a preconception that the Piedmont area ad- 
e intertonguing Coastal Plain would yield us compara- 
pecies not 'already known front Virginia. We were pri- 



324 Rhodora [Skptbmkbb 

the state, chiefly that the next edition of Gray's Manual may be more 
authoritative at this corner of the "manual range." Consequently 
we made it a point to work southward into the flatter country and 
toward the Carolina line. The late Earl J. Grimes, when teaching at 
William and Mary, had explored the Peninsula of Virginia with Mrs. 
Grimes, who, after her husband's untimely death, published 1 a 
detailed list of the flora of the region immediately to the east and 
southeast of Richmond, the Grimes territory extending westward into 
Henrico County. There was, consequently, little reason for us to 
work in that direction. Furthermore, although many notable range- 
extensions had been made by the Grimes's, it seemed evident from the 
ultimate detailed list that the field for most profitable discovery of 
Coastal Plain novelties in Virginia probably did not lie north of the 
James River. There are some highly noteworthy Coastal Plain iso- 
lations in that area, such as Xyris platylepis Chapm., J uncus cacmr- 
iensis Coville (J. asprr Engelm.) (map 1 I and Hypt ricum setosum L., 
but they are relatively few. Incidentally, Ili/prrinnu srt<mim was 
based exclusively upon Virginia material collected by John Clayton 
and a characterization by Plukenet of a plant reputed to have come 
from Virginia. On the whole of the Peninsula of Virginia the Grimes's 
got only 2 species of Rynchospora, a characteristic large genus of the 
best Coastal Plain habitats; in the region of Virginia bounded by the 
James, the Nansemond, the Dismal Swamp, the North Carolina line 
>'"'! the Fall Line, there are at least 17 species and varieties (the latter 
treated by many botanists as species). They got 25 species of the 
prevailing Coastal Plain genus Panicum; in the area just defined we 
know at least 73 (including varieties, which are maintained bv Hitch- 
cock & Chase and by Small as species). North of the .lames 'lIi,po.w 
is represented only by the ubiquitous //. hlrsufu; south of the James 
and the entrance to Chesapeake Bay we get 5 species in Virginia. 
These facts sufficiently show the contrast. 

Further indicating the desirability of working out from Richmond 
chiefly into the Coastal Plain is the fact that the late Professor Merri- 
man s Flora of Richmond and Vicinity enumerated onlv plants which, 
primarily, do not ~ : ~ 

g 
most literally a "Flora," but the only three , 
wlneh nught indicate a strong Coastal Plain , 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 325 

are here seriously questioned. These are Drosera brcdfoUa,^ Ilclian- 
themum corymbosum Michx. and Chrysopsis gossypina Nutt, all 
southern plants indicative of most interesting habitats and associa- 
tions of species. Merriman gave no localities and his collections were 
destroyed by fire, so that there is no way now to tell just what he had 
before him. In five seasons of intensive botanizing, however, with 
rarities and specially significant species constantly in mind, my com- 
panions and I have never seen one of them, 1 though perpetually on 
the look-out for them, in the region from False Cape to Cape Henry, 
thence west to the Fall Line. 

After we had breakfasted at Ids home, renewed the acquaintance of 
Mrs. Smart, changed into tramping clothes and heavily sprinkled 
ourselves with sulphur, for it was " chigger-time," Smart took us to 
a locality long known to local botanists, not far southeast of Petersburg 
but in Prince ( Joorge County (Petersburg being in Dinwiddie County), 



sing through 



In this we v 

i clearing. 



pie spikes of Psoraka jmralwMz (Walt.) Cory 
•ith its typical form confined to the 




326 Rhodora [Sep- 

rim, where water accumulates over winter and in early sprir 

stratum of clay underlying the thin peat. 

Samir, iiia jlara was, indeed, gratifyingly abundant and very 
some, with its stiffly erect slender yellow trumpets, but we wer 
Drosera cavillari 



recorded by Hitchcock & Chase only from Norfolk County, was 
largely hidden by the more abundant P. consanguincum (map 47), 
heretofore known in Virginia only from Virginia Beach, and the ubiq- 
uitous P. hieuhnn, P. nmfoVnnn Baldwin (not recorded by Hitch- 
cock from Virginia) and other species. Tnjirlilin rttmnoxa was only 
in bud but abundant; but the striking orchid, with long widely .li- 
as scarce as in its northernmost area, in southern New Jersey. Its 
present-day rarity in Virginia is clearly indicated by the fact that, in 

no Coastal Plain material from between the famous Kllendale hog in 



■suits of our experiences with the «•<■„, ls i l{' ltir ./ lns ' tura w ! ls becoming 
cognizable. R. ranflom, which soon proved to be in practically all 

T R ^oT2r^!: z > " > " ,i,h " ,n BriTton ™ easi1 ^- recognize(l ; 

irgmia and which, apparently, is not recorded from between south- 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Co; 




*■:*• 



• ' .• 



achene and tubercle make it a perfect match for 
of R. flam i/l Win. Boott, a characteristic spec: 
Arkansas, ( )klahoma and eastern Texas but alrea 



ii also has elongate, lash-like stolons (si 
n repens). It was subsequently collect* 
its prophylla, perianths, stamens and sec 
lerly stolon iferous habit and rounded inflc 



area of inundated muddy swale and thicket, where open s,)ots w< 
full of J uncus difftmssimus Buckl. (map 33), a species chiefly of t 
Prairie States, from Indiana to Texas, but. like !<,„,< hns^m 'ilnrr, 

with flowers combining' their distinctive traits and of a peculiar di 












a single small colony of the [,i u -fru it ed '/,',,,,,-W, 
v., the first north of North Carolina. In swamj 
5 or at their borders the recently described Ch, 
(MAP 3), a plant known outside the Co,.,,! PI 
along or near the Blue Ridge of Wth Carnlin- 
ventually seen within a few mile, of the North < 



1937] Fernald, -Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 320 

Southampton County; and by streams or about springs or in ditches 
the recently described Li/rop}/* ami riranus, var. Longii Benner, 1 un- 
recorded from south of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, was common, 
tin's also seen only a few miles north of North Carolina. Dry open 
woods and adjacent clearings yielded llijpo.vis imcraniha Pollard, 
only recently reported as reaching northward into Virginia, and 
Burhnrra aim rinnia , a handsome plant with rich violet-purple flowers, 
primarily of Alleghenian and Ozarkian range and unmapped by Pen- 
nell (Scroph. E. Temp. N. Am. 478) on the Coastal Plain between 
northwestern Florida and northern Delaware, although he speaks 
(p. 477) of Clayton's having collected it in "lowland Virginia." 
Silphium compositnm Michx. rose conspicuously to a height of 2 or 
3 meters at the borders of woods, scattered all the- way from the North 
Carolina line in Greensville and Southampton Counties northward 
nearly to Richmond (slightly south of there, along the Petersburg 
Pike "in Chesterfield County). The species was not admitted as a 
Virginian by Torrey & Gray in 1S42, nor in the several editions of 
Gray's Manual (1848-1908) nor in Gray's Stiw>pfiral Flora; nor is its 
extension into Virginia noted by Small in his Flora and Manual 
Several collectors have reported it within the last five years as new 
to Virginia"; but the records go back at least to 131 year- ago. when 
Frederick Pnrsh went through die region and recorded it from ''grav- 



(Curtis in Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. i. 128). More detailed was tne 
account of Lester F. Ward in 1886: 

Silphium compositum was observed near Swift creek, about six miles 

,.,-i .; .- :.-.. . . , . . .... ■. ,.- : - ' ; ; 

the Xottawav and the Meherrin. ' l ' en V \T^!i 

reported north of the southern boundary of Virginia this constitutes, a 
considerable addition to 
through the southern half of Virginia that it is 

indicate that work has been clone in tms regioi . 

(Ward in Bot. Gaz. xi. 37). 



Iintni nun pox-tin m should still be looked upon as a new discovery 
ks eloquently of the need for a trained taxonomist in the region 

gnizes and promptly evaluates the unsignih'eant and the highly 
ificant species when he sees them). With the Silphium or by 
lselves Sohdago yadkinensis (Porter) Small and S. ludoviciana 
iy) Small 1 were often abundant, the first in full bloom, the second 

he "swamps" or "dismals," inundated wooded bottomlands 
g ereeks and rivers, where Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum, 
er Ash, Fraxinvs carol iniana, and the various Gums, Liquidambar 
Xysxa aqnaiica and A', syhaiica, var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg., make 

iculata, one of the most eormnir.,,,,, i, ., t ,\,1 „J„, 1Q . r „*.>■* 



rith then 
to Wiseoi 



lexas to Georgia, north to P 
, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri a, 
t it seemed out of place. But 


ennsylvania, western New York, 
id Kansas. As a Coastal Plain 
so did many other species of the 


>mlands and swamps or dismals 
oway and Blackwater Rivers ai 


farther south, along the Meherrin, 


ir introduction to a fully dev 
rryville along Three Creek, a 
itlering through a broad allm 


eloped bottomland flora was at 
■\ hit ..pen forest of 



a, Water Hickory or Bitter Peea 
N.-.-.r th< bridge at 1 >rewryville tli. 



and Alabama to Missouri, etc. As we lunched v 
identity of the unfamiliar grass on which we were sitl 
be Fcstuca paradoxa Desv., long known as F. SAorfv 

though we afterward found it generally dispersed 
through Southampton and adjacent counties. I 
{Manual) indicates a range on "Prairies" etc. froi 
and North Carolina to northeastern Texas, north wti 
Illinois and Iowa, with an outlying station in Pennsy 
ing lunch we started to look around in the pouring r; 

tions (as to 1 d'-outline) of a few species, here met : 



-ntialh ,hr.aM.rlatitmlriM-.nuth.M-nMi-«.uri. Kntan 
///y/-,7, W as a most strange Isoetr,; the exact identity of 
been unable to make Mr. Wcatherby divulge; and, near 1 
Uirmnthrmum um.hm.sum (Walt.) Blake (map 8), the fir. 
of Wilmington. North Carolina, the plants still young 
flowers, but easily recognized. The Co rice* of all the 






332 Rhodora [September 

quite new to us, proves to be a perfect match for the type of Ctin.r 
rirhrijlom Wie^and from " Appalaehieola River bottoms," a species 
lieretofore unknown north of South Carolina. Farther out, on the 

takable panicle, surely C. crus-corvi (map 9), originallv described from 
New Orleans but now known, as stated by Mackenzie (N. Am. Fl.), 
in "Swamps, Florida to Texas, and northward in the Mississippi 
Valley to southern Michigan, southern Minnesota and eastern Ne- 
braska." Three Creek (emptying into the Nottoway) and the Me- 
herrin, where we collected the Cnrcx next day, are pretty far (600 
miles) from the easternmost Coastal Plain stations formerly known for 
Carcx crus-corvi; and upon close comparison I find sufficient char- 
acters to separate the plant of Southampton County as a well-defined 
geographic variety but surely not as a distinct species, which its iso- 
lation might suggest. The thrills of the late afternoon were crowding 
us and we had hardly come into the bottomland swales before we must 
find our way over to the cabin which James Thomas had placed at our 
disposal. Very wet depressions had a tantalizing mat of young plants, 
some not yet in flower: Rorippa aquatica (Eaton) Palmer & Steyerm., 
so like Proscrpinaca palmtris, mixed with it, as to puzzle us, but 
Promptlydistinguishedbynibbling;/^» <H ,,r«/M. t yoi/o//////b/««*, with only 
the tiniest of belated flower,: (, ratio!,, nsridula Pennell (map 10), 
beautifully flowering; Echinodorus radicans (map 16), recognized by 
its leaves; and Hi/drolru (juadrividri.s, beginning to show flowering 
buds. This, too, was technically "new to Virginia"; the old basis for 
including \ u-gima as the northeastern limit of its range being a col- 
lection ofHeller's made in 1893 (no. 1162) on the border of North- 
North Carolina, with the annotation <.n the North 



olina label: 



//„■ ■ ' „ 



strated as a Virginia plant, for Long and I later got it, flowering and 
Inututg, in Sussex County as well. Panicau, roanokmsc, with bluish- 
green flaccid leaves, abounded; but the species with it puzzled us, 
until vve found a few precocious panicles which showed it to be P. 
bona Ell the first evidence of the species extending northward into 
Virginia (Florida to Texas and New Mexico, northward into Okla- 
homa, southeastern Missouri and, now, southeastern Virginia). 
It took until midnight and a second long session next morning to 



1937] Fernald —Plants of the Inner Coastal Flam ol \ irginia *» 

of fruit, cornbread, slabs of country ham, eggs, about a dozen tYog'> 

chicken, ami coffee, we lingered about the cabin until noon! The 
small pond-like expansion „f Three Creek h> the cabin, the bathing 
pool for those brought up on the red or brown water of the region, was 
covered with a Cow Lily. This soon proved to be the southern specie 
which, whe./originallv published, was, b> the International Rules, 
correctly called Xumpham JluriatHis Harper; later, according to the 
International Ruies as interpreted at Brussels, correctly called 
tiyttvphozanthug fiumaiUis (Harper) Fernald; and now, owing to the 



decision of the 1 


nternational Congress 


at Amst. 


called (still com 


H-tly!) Xvphar Huriatii 


V (Harpe 


are the sad trutl 


is which will be elucida 


ted on a 


happier truth is 


that the range of A'./// 


iriatih is 


ward into Virgin 


ia. The dry pine woo 


.tTtni 


strata, and the i 
flowers of Cnidu 


<mlus sflWuhsUS (Mich 


x-.iKngel 


patch of rich woi 


,ds bordering the bottoi 


nland ne; 


fruiting nit i 


1 of the small southerr 


i Pawpau 



plantless open depressions; but the nutnherot specie . . . 
was hunted, although we there mad, tin a< M u. r . m ,H n , 

Baldwinii (T. & G.) Chapman, the first from north oi Vith < ,iohi»... 
but by no means the last, tor it later proved o ' ^ ' 
Su7s« anTlsle of 0r \Vight Coun ties. ^Similarly, the bottomland, above 
Halev's Bridge on the Mehcrrin gave us a repetition of the neh flora 
of the Nottoway system (including Three Creek), with I ratals 
Pluuno lW um and a few other species we had not already seen. i< 
Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, here had elongate fruits i »■ *«» 
form which was described in 1785 by Humphrey Mar-hall ^JJ^ 
htns uiqra oblonqa />''■'' lot f fruit id Walnut 



by th. 






diile we too often dozed, 



, Braxton To 
b of the App< 









the north side of the back i 



1937] Fernald — Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 335 

panulate flowers. When, in 1935, Griseom and I published our study 
of Khrjcio, we could get no ,. ( , n <'lusive evidence of Ii. t Mom from north 
of North Carolina 1 ; hut it has a good station in Prince George County, 



station foi 


• it In sout 




isemond. Grime 


s collected //. 


XtftJXUIIl 


near Willi,! 


insluirii am 


1 report. 


d it (Rhodora, 


xxiv. 151) as 


" new to 


Virginia." 


That wa: 


3 a nati 


iral inference fr< 


)in its omissi. 


mi from 


northern n 


lanualsluit 


, as a ma 


tter of f act, as al 


ready noted or 


i p. 324, 


the type w 


us a Virgin 


ian colic. 


lion of John Cla; 


rton's. A coai 


rae grass 


which we 1 


lad notice* 




■ was in flower, ( 


'ft hi ii in tiromuf ini in, a 


character!-, 


tic southei 


•ii plant 


(map 11) whic 


h, when we 


tramped 


through it. 


justified it 


s specific 


•name. The da> 


- being intolen 


ably hot 


and sticky 


and we a 


lrea.lv t 


ired from an ov« 


T-night train-ride, we 


ret timed t< 


) the cooln. 


•ss of til. 


• laboratory, then 


e to care for oi 


ar speci- 


mens, ,l,at 


we might 


get an 


early start on tl 


ic 19th for th 


e North 


Carolina li 












Passing 


without t< 


>o much 


temptation thn 


nigh Chesterf 


ield and 


Prince George Count 


ies, we were just crossin. 


g the line int. 


. Sussex 


County, w 


hen, tiring 


of the monotonous ride, 


we got OUt t. 


I stretch 


our legs l>y 


going dowi 


i an ..per 


i pastured slope t 


,. a bit of bogg; 


' VV ' ,)0,ls ' 



ough the saturated clay and Sphagnum, we foi 
idle in typical species of southern bogs, with \y 



330 Rhodora [September 

proved to be common (though not previously known north of North 
Carolina) and always very handsome in fresh flower, its petals large 
for the genus. On one margin of the bog, with the largest and hand- 
somest of Drosera capillaris we have met, another Xijris, very tiny, 
occurred, low, with short, blue-green, membranous foliage, very small 
spikes and bristle-form scapes which, upon pulling, promptly dis- 
articulated at base, in the manner of the boreal A', montanu. This was 
A r . Curtissii Malme (X. negkcta Small) at the first station recorded 
north of Georgia. Carex Collinsii Nutt. (map 12), also new to Virginia, 
was pushing its characteristic inflorescences (but now over-ripe) 
through the bushes; and the new Juncus, discovered in June, was so 
finely developed that we here made a large type-series. In the 
spring-heads a small pondweed was growing. Pulling out a handful 
and tossing it, mixed with Utricularia gibba, into the collecting box 
as merely Potamogeton capillar us Poir. (heretofore unknown between 
Delaware and North Carolina), I was proceeding, when Long, as 
usual not satisfied to accept an off-hand identification, mildly asked 
if I had ever seen P. ca'pillaceus with stiffly aeicular and ascending sub- 
mersed leaves; as he knew it it always has them flaccid and looseh 
divergent. That was surely the case, so we pulled in two more hand- 
i uls and when we separated it out and floated it next day we discovered 
that it also has subligneous black rhizomes. Its fruits are those of P. 
capiHaa us but the plant, which we reexamined on a subsequent day, 
lias none of the axillary rounded spikes of true P. vaplUaccus. It is 
a most distinct variety but, with no appreciable difference in fruits. 
I tan hardly call it a distinct species. 

We had left the car, to stretch our legs, at 10 o'clock. At 2:30, 
remembering that we had started a second time for the Carolina line 
and had not yet covered a quarter of the distance from Petersburg, 
we woke Carroll who, after hours of collecting butterflies, was bliss- 
fully forgetting the heat, and ate lunch, sharing the crusts with our 
now very familiar co-rooters. This area in Sussex County supports 
no village, but on the topographic sheet it seemed to be called Coddy- 
shore, a name we had never heard. Wishing to be reassured, we asked 
an elderly colored resident, "What do you call this community?" 
and promptly received the reply, "Homeville." Upon our protesting 
that Homeville is at least ten miles away, he replied, " Well, then, call 
it Sussex County, Virginia." On our la I. els we are railing it Coddy- 
shore, Sussex County. 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 337 

Renewing the southward journey, we succeeded in driving at least 
six miles, when, about four miles northwest of Homeville, we were at- 
tracted by unspoiled dry pine woods where there must be good south- 
ern species. There were; but the plants which really astonished us 
were two northern and inland types, both fruiting and living happily 
with their southern associates. These were Lycopodium trhtarhnim 
and L. complanatum, var. flabcMforme, both characteristic of the 

Carroll, attracted in the bonier of a cultivated field by the masses 
of white 'flower, of R.»e Mallow. Ilihiscu,- Mosckcutos, was busily 
sweeping with his net. Going over to tell him we were ready to start, 
I promptly changed my mind and shouted to Long to come and help 
me. At one end of the low field was an undisturbed and wet bit of 
bog, occupying perhaps an acre but clearly the last remnant of what 
must originally have been a shallow hog-pond toward a mile long. The 
Mbixcu* was 'there because it was wet and because of a water-hole 
which extended through the area. Great masses of the beautiful 
Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torr. of the southern Appalachian Upland 
and the Northern Coastal Plain at first attracted me; then equally 
extensive clumps of H^rinan ihnticulatum Walt., var. ovalifohum 
(Britton) Blake, of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. It was altogether 
disconcerting there were so many novel plants, but when Long came 
we each knelt in a pivotal spot and by collecting in a circle of ten-foot 

variations of J un,nn,/imn iniin<latuiii: } I"'"/" himnthitti, var. rittata 



e)\Veath.&Grisc 



orthern limit give 



by Small as North Carolina; Famcunt II HghHanum Scribn. (map 13), 
a species known at intervals from Central America and Cuba to south- 
eastern Massachusetts, but not recorded by Hitchcock & Chase nor in 
Hitchcock's Manual from Virginia, though abundant here and after- 
ward found by us twice in Isle of Wight County. Intimately mixed 
with these and a series of species of Fi/nrhospnn, and Sri, nn «:h a 
tussock-forming member of the former genus, with capillar} lea\ es am 
culms widely sprawling under the taller plant. Superha ialb somewhat 
suggesting several of the finer-leaved southern species, 



its fruits 
and I shall 



specifically different from those c_ . 

describe and illustrate it in Part II. At one end of the bog and along 



lostly reduced by grasshoppers 1 
eoause this tropical species (Bra 
ot been recorded from Virginia. 



tin-; day. but we did hope at least to see Homeville, four mile- awa\, 

«>t' ,i railroad station, therefore on the maps. But that had to be the 
limit. Long, noting across the road from I'ltuiciim h< niitomon a cut- 

the handsome new species which 1 have alreadx described as I'dtrirum 
mundum. 1 Turning back at the little group of house- constituting 
Homeville, Carroll drove, while Long and 1 slept, back to Richmond, 
or to the University, which is actually beyond Richmond, in West- 
hampton. We had with us at least eleven plants new to Virginia, 
four of them new to science ! 

1 he day Townsend took us to the stations where his grandfather had 
dioun him many local and rare species, we saw, sadly and impressively, 
an example of what is more and more happening to the bogs and 
swamps of the Coastal Plain. He had not visited these spots for some 
years; in the meantime deep ditching has lowered the water-table 
and what were once splendid bogs are now dried-out remnants, 
invaded by aggressive pines and oaks, with the open bogs he remem- 
bered now quite ruined and most of the then interesting plants now 
extinct . In these young invading pine woods southwest of Petersburg, 
in Dinwiddie County, a few struggling and hopelessly shaded plants 
of the two species of Sarracnna, S, flan, and N. purpurea, var. vmosa, 
stdl lingered and with them their obvious hybrid XS Catcuburi Kll., 



1937] Fernakl — Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain .»i \ irginia S6V 

nocaulon anccps and a few other choice species of the old bog per- 
sisted as the rarest of unhappy remnants; but, all in all, the pines and 
oaks of the newly dried-out and recently invaded area are rapidly 
conquering. It is certainly a pity that Man so selfishly or short- 
sightedly is bent on spoiling the treasures which future generations 
must do without; hut in eastern Virginia he is doing just what he does 
everywhere else, looking upon his temporary profits as outweighing 
all else. Here, so far as we could see, the total advantage to Man of 
the ruinous ditching was approximately the same as in many other 
such areas, practically nil. 1 

On the 22nd, starting again toward North Carolina, we success- 
fully passed Homeville, but near Littleton one of the rare depressions 
of unplowed land gave good promise. We there re-collected several 
choice species and met for the only time in the summer the very 
striking Polut/alu nininna, a slender-stemmed plant with a broad and 
dense lemon-yellow inflorescence, which, upon drying, changes to 
blackish- or livid-green. The white-fh.uer.Ml Sahatia pamculata and 
the very similar pink-flowered N. brarkinta abounded, as usual in 



,„H.Vrn.&Grisc.ofCap 

,,/,./„•„ linlihriniulirrurr; 


e Henry 


es now in fine flower. Pt 
n„ wuinbih Scribn. & Si 
iits. were equally almnd; 


mt;and 



340 Rhodora [Seitembkr 

we now got in full flower the common Everlasting of the region, 
Gnaphalium obtvsifolium, var. prarcox Fern. 1 When I described this 
southern early-flowering variety from South Carolina, Georgia and 
Ala ha ma, the only evidence of it from Virginia was an old specimen 
of Rugel's, without stated locality. It is the only Gnaphaliiini of its 
group seen by us in Greensville, Southampton, Sussex and Isle of 
Wight Counties; in September and October typical late-flowering 
G. obtusifolium, so common in Princess Anne County and on the 
Eastern Shore, was nowhere seen. In 1899 the late Eugene P. Bick- 
nell published the first of a series of studies of the genus under the al- 
literative title : "Studies in Sisyrinchiviii—I: Sixteen n< ir Speeies from 
the Southern States." In all our Virginia field-work we have yearned 
to secure a species so sibilantly set before the southern student of 
systematic botany. At last we were successful. Everywhere at the 
border of the sandy woods there was a plant thoroughly different from 
any we had met in Virginia. It was described by Bicknell as Sis- 
yrinrhium enrol 'ini 'an urn, from ••Western North Carolina and central 
South Carolina to Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi," the name subse- 
quently altered to S.fibrosum Bicknell (1903) because of the prior use 
of the name he first gave. S. fibrosum soon became an every-day 
sight in dry sandy woods of Southampton, Sussex and Isle of Wight 
Counties; but whether it is specifically separable from S. arenicoh 
Bicknell (1899), originally described from New Jersey and Long 
Island, seems very doubtful. 

Starting next day where we had adjourned the night before, we 
spent most of the time on the bottomland bordering the cypress 
swamp, and when, in late afternoon, we crossed Cypress Bridge, we 
lingered to enjoy the view, so exotic to northern eye's, the quiet black- 
ish water of the Nottoway there broadly expanded as a clear mirror 
about an apparent island and framed by giant cypresses with their 
bulging bases and innumerable tall "knees," the water bordered by 
the splendid Hibiscus militaris in full bloom, the surface a mat of 
huphar fluviatile in flower. That eminently southern landscape is 
permanently engraved on our memories. The margin of the inun- 
imp kept us busy until dark. We were delighted to 
had never before seen flowering, such as PhysosU .'/" 
" »t'n,h,t, t and Sabatia calycina. />,„.„„., ,„„„,,„„, s var , , ,„>*/> 
(Mohr) Fern., recently discussed and illustrated by me'-' was puzzling 



dated 



1937] Fernahl— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 341 

on account of its silvery-green panicles of slender spikelets and its 
perfectly smooth and membranous, elongate leaves. I'iola ajfimx, 
the ordinary simple-leaved form, abounded; but equally abundant 
was a plant wholly resembling it but with deeply palmated foliage, 
I". affini*, var. dial cos per ma (Brainerd) Griscom, 1 heretofore known 
only from Florida. Hypoxia U ptocarpa (map 7), gigantic plants, some 
requiring folding to go on standard herbarium-sheets, and the strange 
Isoetes of Three ('reek and the Nottoway higher up abounded; and 
Erhhtoclorti* r<ulirau* (map 10), now in flower and fruit, was not trail- 
ing, as we expected it to do, but had high-arching or doming, inany- 
wliorled inflorescences which developed leafy tufts when the tips 
touched the water or mud. Lysimaehia (Steironema) radieans, 
already reported from Virginia but not represented in the Gray 

not get into its real home, seeing only two individuals.^ V\e were im- 
pressed by the membranous and quite smooth leaves of Totara nrgtn- 
iana (L.) Ad&ns.(Polygomim rin/ucianum hX and when we dug plants 
found that they had unusually slender and elongate rhizomes. Sub- 
sequent study shows that the plant of the long-drowned bottomlands 
of all this area constitutes a well defined new variety. 

It was dark when we crossed the Bridge but we had to look upon 
one dryish, sandv alluvial bank. Engross hypnoides was beautiful, 
with long repent flowering stems, and Long soon held up one sohtary 

Hitchcock 7.1/,"'' ' 7r"m bnwn-n Georgia. Tennessee and southern 






'•idled by Hitchcock, in Gray's Manual, P. 

Hitchcock in his Manual with the very di: 
Bergius. The identity of these plants will be fully discusseo in ra. 
II. The present interest is that Chase and, after her, Hitchcock, 
have given its northern limits as in South Carolina, Kentucky , 
southern Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kansas. In September \\e 
found the real Virginian home of P. flutian*, on the alluvium of the 
Nottoway near Courtland. . , 

Deciding that the two species of Paspalum and other species wm 



342 Rhodora 

should grow with them must be on broader alluvial expanses up-ri\ er, 
we headed next afternoon for the Nottoway near Lumberton. where 
the map indicated a large pond-like expanse. But our new objective 
was never reached. Not far from Homeville we came to a small 
remnant of a once extensive boggy thicket, now drained nearly dry; 
but the few square rods still remaining damp and unplowed have a 
good colony of Ri/ncho.ipora mthira and. best of all, an abundance of 
the tall Lythrum lanceolatum Ell., heretofore known only from 
Florida to Oklahoma and Texas, north to South Carolina. What a 
locality this must originally have been! Near by the dry woods of 
hickory and oak had a singular grass, combining the characters of 
Panicum commutatum and P. Boscii, var. vwllc. Until we get more 
we will leave it at that. The comparatively rich woods were full of 
Clematis nchrolrucn, Carer striatal a Michx., Srrophalaria marihtndka, 
the upland Houstonia tenuifolia and other species we saw nowhere 
else during the summer, and some of the shrubby oaks were Quercus 
strllata, var. Boyntmi (Beadle) Sargent. (Q. Boyntxmi Beadle), the 
range given by Small (Man.) as "Appalachian Valley, Ga. and Ala." 
Darkness was coming on and I was going back to the road well satis- 
fied with the short afternoon's results, when Long shouted, " Oh! come 
and see the greatest thing you ever saw." Supposing he was joking, 
continued, but his "five, six, eight, nine, ten" piqued my curiosity 
and I went back to a spot within three feet of where T had blimlh 
stumbled through, to gaze on a beautiful flowering colony of Ilrx- 
nhctrLs- ,-ph-ata (map IS), the handsome Giant or Crested Coral-root, 
which occurs from Mexico and Arizona to Florida, northward to 
Missouri, Indian., iim |. r:,,K M I < :.,. ..,. t .,..♦;....< 



'see Wherry, Journ. Wash. Acad Sci xvii 3<i) -md (m-orv's in Vm- 
herst Co. (Claytonia, i. 14)) heretofore known in Virginia. That 
was a great climax for a great afternoon! 

Next day, fortunately, Smart could join us. Since he wished to 
photograph II,.r„hrtri*. we took him, under oath never to divulge the 
stJlTlon - >- To H "'»«'\ 'He to see it. Then we proceeded as far as the Nott- 
owaj Kiv.t, southwest of Burt. The alluvial woods, where we bot- 
'"." i ' ,T '' r lmi, ' h < ha(l the usual Coastal Plain and continental sedges 
" f '»»»>■ I'ottomlands, but we were really amazed here to find Car,x 
<>mw> MAP 19), for, like C. squarrosa and C. „„,/,;„„ with it, it is 
primarily a plant of the rich interior of the continent. ( ),, the opposite 



1937] Female!,— Plants of the Inner Coaxal Plain of Virginia 343 







\i i ctms bto lta northeastern area); 19, < « 



I. These were good indicators of what could he found under ad- 
vantageous conditions, hut it was a -weltering and hreathless day and 
he inclination to tramp was diminished. Riding seemed more in- 
- bering the North Carolina line, we went on to 

Cypress Bridge, stopping to collect still another strange Isoetes there, 
md proceeded southward as far as Sunbeam and a little beyond. 
Fuming at dusk, still two miles within Southampton County, we 
•rossed the Xottoway at Monroe Bridge, stopped to collect specialties 
n the dark at Sycamore Bend and, proceeding along a dirt road near 
here, saw within the beam from the headlight a fine colony of the 
A'hite- or pink-flowered Cirsivm XuttaUii (DC.) Gray, leaning out 
rom the thicket. It is not comfortable to dig thistles and to fold tall 
specimens of them in the dark; and Carroll was amazed at our rec- 

\Xe left Sunbeam half-an-hour back," may' have been undignified but 
ive should not have wished to pass Cirxiiu,, Xnttnllil, for it had never 






finished the daily 






us trip from Richmond to Petersburg, 



whence we entered the more productive areas, we spied Rhcxia vrnfri- 
cosa Fern. & Grisc., 2 of Princess Anne and Norfolk Counties, in a 
peaty spot north of Swift Creek. Rynrh^m, Wnqhfiana Boeekh. 
which, when we got it near Virginia Beach, was new to the state, here 
abounded; and Eu/intor-iiim L n<>olr ,,',,,, mireon-senied in tli - Gra\ 



1937] F< 




aid-Plan 


Herbariu 

in 190S a 
County, 


HI 


from bet> 

hough yot 
lant of Ply 


never be: 




e met true 



Inner Coastal Plain of \ urginia d45 

jth Carolina and Delaware, was rec- 
ce its discovery by Rich and Knowlton 
ounty, Massachusetts and Washington 
gularly passed as this species. I had 
;■;;/* in the field and was startled by its 
southern New England. In part II I 
<Tnm»iv marked and isolated northern 



\ few miles southeast of New Bohemia, in Prince George County, 

attracted b\ some spectacular plant, investigated. A Xyris, SUggest- 
ing X. tn,taSm.(X.flezuo3aoi authors), but with elongate and pointed, 
instead of round-tipped spikes and with c hestnut-brown and almost 

series for it is unde-erihed mid in late August we re-collected it and 

wJ.'lU'uX^h^lmth.rn"/'. JuMi.'rn >Grayl Small (MAP 20), 
in October found more abundantly and in fruit nearer Petersburg. 
In his recently published study of "the genus, McVaugh cited an old 
specimen "collected by Pursh in 1806 in Greensville or Southampton 
County" 1 and, still farther north, he had seen the species from James 



North Carolina" Otherwise as MrYaugh's map shows, L. ijhuululi- 
fera ' Pi* I i :tesof interior and western North 

GmruirinldVu.nT.^estrrn la.rida.' Vucl. a map as McVaugh's (our 
map 20) su»-.'-ests a movement in two directions from the old Appal- 
achian cenhT to the vouii" C<-^\-i\ Plain. This rather general type 
of dispersal lered in Part III, although it has 

already be« "id is receiving constant recogni- 

iinn.' ' iITi'nTtl -n for' tla'prc'em ' it was certainly gratifying to feel 
that in our summer's collecting we had been so closely on the trad ot 
the pioneer botanist, Frederick Pursh, 131 years ago (see p.£M). 
(■mtHionum Mitrrola was associated with the Lob,lh, our first col- 



■f ir in Virginia, though it had alread\ linn known in the stat< 
later found it along the Blackwater in Isle of Wight County 



«>rida 'cited \,\ Huchcnau l.ui unknown to Small), thence north 
rough Arkansas, Missouri, western Tennessee, Kentucky and theOhio 

illf\ , hit.) Illinois, southern Michigan and the region of LakeOntario. 
ist of the Appalachian axes it is even more scattered: Savannah 

larprr); near Charleston, South Carolina \li,;,nrh); High Point, 
uilford County, North Carolina [Cmibx,), well hack in the Piedmont, 
Ml -nth of Ashl.oro, Randolph Couniv. North Carolina ( 117, W 



the late A. B. Seymour n< 
fine colony of Ah-trl* «ur 



, 1U - plam of Montauk P< 



Wrujhtnunnn, Larlwoci 
'oik. Slid.il> cast of h 






34$ Rhodora [Septembbk 

a mid-western species, not supposed to grow naturally east of the 
Mississippi Valley, here very striking on account of the pendulous, 
( ylimlric pods up to 4.5 dm. long. Presumably originally planted, the 
tree is now thoroughly naturalized. 

The wooded Warwick Swamp, where the Suffolk road crosses it, and 
the bottomland of the Blackwater, west of and at Zuni (the I pro- 
nounced like the personal pronoun i, have many of the choice bottom- 
land plants we had seen elsewhere, but here we made our first bow to 
Lnrs-iu li'iiticulari.s (.map 22), handsome (quite distinguished) and with 
none of the highly objectionable qualities of the seinicosinopolitan 
L. oryzoides. In August we saw it, fully developed, on many bottom- 
lands, there the exclusive member of the genus; nevertheless, the 
range given in Hitchcock's Manual is from eastern Texas and Louisi- 
ana northward to Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the easternmost 
stations in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Kentucky and Indiana. 
Along Fontaine Creek, emptying into the Meherrin, it is equally 
abundant, and, remembering that KII years ago Frederick Pursh 
botanized through this country, it seemed to us improbable that he 
could have overlooked so conspicuous a plant. And he surely did not. 
Pursh explicitly records it from North Carolina and Virginia! 

" In wet gravelly woods in Illinois and Virginia. 2/ . July. v. v. This 
singular and elegant grass I found on the islands of Roanoak river in 
Xorth Carolina, and observed it catching flies in the same manner as 
Dionava mmciptda: the valves of the corolla are nearly of the same 
structure as the haves of that plant. I communicated specimens 
with this particular circumstance to Dr. B. S. Barton of Philadelphia. 
who has made mention of it in a paper on the irritabilit v of plants."— 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 62 (1814). In view of Pursh's observation, 
which gave origin to the English name "Catch-fly Crass," made in 
Virginia and Xorth Carolina, it is at least significant of the inadequacy 
of botanical collections from southeastern Virginia, that both states 
should be omitted from the mapped range of the species in Hitchcock's 
Manual. Its Virginia occurrence has been noted in Grav's Manual 
since the 2nd. edition. Can,,- was mostlv out of season, dead-ripe and 
unrecognizable, but in these wooded swamp, inundated during much 
of the spring, one very tall and handsome species was just beginning 
to flower (with young anthers). In August, when mature, it proved 
to be C. Joont Ha i ley, originally de-.rriT.ed from Louisiana, but now 



. .,■ 



ky : {>\ Alf 











es; 25, Cari:\ 






Rhodora [September 

eastern Texas, north to southeastern Missouri, western 
mil eastern Virginia, in this case reaching Maryland. 
>rder of the dry, sandy pine woods slightly east of Zuni all 
nihis Ijijlora was tall, slender and conspicuously villous- 
i horizontally divergent hairs, and south of Zuni it later 
l»e the regular representative of the genus in dry pine 
hi., localized plain of Isle of Wight County is var. hispi- 
ichx.) Pollard & Ball. When Michaux described it in 
hi* pi da, var. ?j. hlspidi.smma, he did not differentiate its 
that of his >S. hixpidu. var. y.. iitulhi.svuUi (typical smooth- 
. biflora (L.) BSP.): "in Virginia et Carolina." Later 
luring the more than a century and a third since Michaux 
not accumulated much of it in the larger public herbaria. 



rian form, with hirsute stems, . 


. .S.bi/lor 


d and western range of the phi 
, is from Alabama to Texas, an. 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri an 
y where Michaux found it is 


.1 Oklaho.i 



■i>»a. Incidentally, var. hi.spidis.si,,, 
i eastern Maryland by Dr. Robert 
eal "range" for it far removed fron 



ts of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia .V>l 

from South Carolina and Georgia I am not 
bieentrie range, as it now stands, is typical for 



By shutting our eyes to tempting 



as Wit 



uffolk), for we had set our minds upon looking into some 
of the "pocosons" which so generally appear on the topographic sheets 

advantage in determining whether these great pocosons, so definitely 
limited on the Virginia sheets to this area, have distinctive floras. 

by cutting and fire when- we saw it and we did not have a fair sample. 

comittTed the usual noneoiii'onnit \ between dirt roads on the maps 
<>f"horse-and-bu<>"v days" and the "stream-lined" boulevards which 
alone appear on most current maps. Quickly losing our way, we 
drove through Hoax and Carrsville and ignominously brought up 
in tu „;♦,. ,a- i.'„ i I;,, • ti„. ,,!,vm,,- uav home for most normal 



CnOahria northern limit. Obviously the 

b' tlirc!-\, '' '' '\ "'■' ' - "' : 'i i 1 -■'■Mil -it the I'niversity of Richmond 
b>r a third -'od \ ■• st l!> '' s; and, to our delight, Griscom was 
with tr 1 I tei and Smart, possibly desiring to 

ennl tt\ i ''" ** vacation in the lower 



helper, we did what 
, ia x of the hot spell. 



ill the party of eating and drinkini: between meals was 
urded (by the cashier) as putting away 85c worth of 
in a single forenoon; yet by the end of the day we were 

1 the procedure and drove, via the Emporia road, until 
le line into Greensville County. By that time we yearned 
me plants. So, easing up a little on our rigid plan, for we 
inching in town and it was now only 10 o'clock, we stopped 
orth of Emporia. The sandy clearing was full of Cimu m 
H'limitliiix iiiHjiisti((,iiiis, the usual complex series in 
nd other late-flowering species now beginning to show 
small Lrhra, at this late date just in flower, puzzled us. 



abundance of frui 



"° k " Vt ' r the ru '\™ds there. One species is worth recording, a 

&nnt,with very pubescent lower leaf-surfaces and irregular 

K* I can match only in Acscuhs discolor Pursh, which 

»-'^cr Man. Cult. Trees and Shrubs) cites as growing from Georgia 

T '. ( /|7/!|| ! 1 i ^ i ' ! , y , ' V : 1 ; : . H,merhl - ln;it '' n;i1 may alter the identification. 

' » MUi.ii,!. of Three Creek, where we went upon them, had 



l of Virginia -io'S 



)ut in a thicket not far from James River Junction there was I 
all and handsome Pycnanthem inn. Its pale-pink or lilac corolla 






<■"<•?. insisted on ri^kinu his neck in climbing out from a treacherous 
Inot-hold in order to collect i, from a host new to him, Brhda nigra. 

Having actnallv crossed the state line we could now start out to 
investigate the pine woods, noted by us in the dark, between /ami and 
Franklin. On the way there our first stop was at the boggy depression 

•I'''""* nimn2u\ to'see^f Mnything iVew was coming into flower. The 



<P»te so far gone in Jul. 


5 . win 


•n w 




ooke 


d h,oi Carer lUrmttn 


Schwein. & Torr. (map 21 


>), ap] 


«ren 


d\ the 


first 


f n „n Virginia. Taking 


the n.ad south from /in 


li uc 


-noil 


came t 


o th 


t . dammed-up brook in 


>e'uveK n \^ pi | , ) [ nV ,.) Vr ' 


Uoi 


,ur 1 


uck, g< 


T"; 


, a f ew desirable but 
e, however, as in open 


woods near Kilby and n 


ear Y< 


.rku 


,wn. vrl 


lere 


Long. Fogg and 1 had 



Louisiana. Much farther north, in southeastern Virginia, it is making 
J tself quite at home. A little farther on we stopped to investigate the 
«*&ide ditches, where Upocarpha macukda and a complex series ot 
species of Hi/prriraii) abound. Among the kit 



, //. dissimulntu 



iieknell, apparently not previously found in Virginia, though next 
:a\ ue found it abundant at the station of .1 uncus hmchjicurpus near 

ne, i, nowhere else in eastern Virginia nor is it represented in the Gray 
[erbarium from tin state; it y, is, however, collected in Virginia by 

nun Northwest in Norfolk County. The party of two brought in a 
eries of Xi/ris, X. difformis and A', ambiyua, and a few plants of the 
iew one which Long and I had got in Juh near New Bohemia. We 
ill went hack for more and during the quest found Dcstnodium tniiu- 



' Sheep Laurel, Kalmia angu 

Mnkhead.s^^wneMlHle^ 



1937] Fen 




Plants of the Inner Coasts 


il Plai 


in of Virginia 355 


woods, coll 


ectine 


woodland species of Agrim 


■onia 


{A. rostclhita and A. 


iiiirruciirj'ii 


Wallr 


.) and with them a single indivi 


dual of Galium uni- 


florum Mic 


hx..wl 


lich, when we got it in Princess Anne and Northamp- 


t0 On°h nt '- 


-mlw 


3 an extension north from ! 
e returned to the Zuni-Wa 


^.nili 


erritorv' 1 A colored 


tanner. M-t 


To- III. 


; with a handful of Xyris < 


m th 


> 20th, had said, "If 


von want ' 


O -rl ; 


i lot of that plant you'll fir 


ul pie 


nty in the bogs over 


that wax ' 


' India „ 


itine the direction of Blacl 




r River. Since bogs 


were what 


we were seeking, we st<>]>]H'il at li 


is hoi 


ne on the second trip 




furthe 


r inquiries. He was away 


. but 


fortunately his wife 




11 


gone fishing in the Blaekw 


"17 •! 


tnd told of'dozens of 
nd beyond the next 


and, folloi 


;!;;;"';; 


::::;::lE'Eir3' 


werT 


untry was confirmed 
directed, we entered 


one of the 


botan 


ical paradises of tl 


:T. an 


d confirmed an often 


forgotten ( 


ixiom: 


it pavs to ask the native. 






The thi: 






,„>■ u 


uvis Walt (Q- Cales- 


baHWek . 


x. ■'li 


rVearpeted with white sail 


id, wi 


th a dense thicket of 








:here was an opening 


.'xeitinir' 1* 


.erhs v 


veiv'-rmvinu'. Carplupho 


rua !>■ 


'■llidifolius abounded 



I could reach 



to Virgin 



found with Srfnralbra ammonia (MAP 23) in Greensville County, was 
here very abundant; its recorded northern limits otherwise in 
eastern and southeastern North Carolina. The wonderful cespi- 
tose Xyris of white sands, true X. flcxuosa, as shown by Harper, 1 
the plant with large spiraling eastaneous bulbs, stiff and slender 
spiraling leaves and large acutish spikes of showy flowers (A", amricolo 
Small) soon appeared, again at its first station between New Jersey 
and North Carolina. In sphagnous depressions and thickets Zujadi- 
iiiis f/!al» rniini.s and Sarrumtia pu rpurca, var. ft nana were both scat- 
tered, P(imcuii) Chit) v was frequent and Habcnaria blcphartfjlottix, var. 
cons,,;,-,,,, (map 27) was just flowering. Where the cart-road leads 
through an extensive sphagnous depression (undoubtedly one of the 
pond-holes of early spring) two plants specially pleased us: Ryncho- 
spora (listmis (Michx.) Vahl, heretofore recorded only from the West 
Indies and Florida to South Carolina; and Juncus abortivus Chapm. 
(map 28), a beautiful, tall relative of the northern J. pelocarpus, with 
coarse rhizomes (./. pilocarpus, var. rrassicaiuhx Engelm.), pri- 
marily of Florida but known, very rarely indeed, northward to a 
single station in Darlington County, South Carolina (Coker, Plant 
Life of Hartsville, S. C, 28). 

Long epitomized the situation as we all were conceiving it: "This 
is real botanizing!" Thirst, hunger and heat had been forgotten, 
though toward 3 o'clock we returned to the car, but, still wanting 
more, the insatiable hunter for rarities poked into one of the open bare 
white patches and brought us a collection of Armaria carohniana 
(map 29), the first from between New Jersey and southeastern North 

That had to suffice for the day's collecting in the pine barren. I liv- 
ing on to our terminal of two days earlier, we proceeded to Walters. 

n the way one stop was made to look into a patch of rich woods, 
with clay substratum. Immediately Griscom called "Come here, 
nn t tins Ponthieva?" Surely it was: Ponihirm mcrnio,a (Walt.) 
' ill! \ * r ° piCal plant ' g rowin £ from South and Central America 
and the West Indies north to North Carolina, and heretofore known 
m\ .rgimn only as collected by John Clayton' and at Grimes's and 

t^rn , nations (presumably near where Clavtnn ™t \^ Tn late 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 357 
August it n ; bud but Long and I got mature fruit in 

October. At the foot of the slope where Ponthicva grows (a station of 
fifty or more plants) the rare Malaxis fioridana (Chapm.) Kuntze, 

s,Ztn Swart/, was .rowing, its pale orange to vermilion flowers just 
expanding. At the only other Virginia stations, in Gloucester County, 
where it was found l.v Miss Jennie S. Jones 1 , and in the neighborhood 

rl. At our station the neigh- 



of Williamsburg, 2 


it grows in 


horing brook had 


doubtless ei 


the Miocene shel 


l-beds; at lea 


and I discovered 


in April of t 






to turn back. 




This was Grisc 


■om's last da 


night train north 


from Riehni 


programme ; but 


we took a la^ 


which crosses tl 




Carphephonw bcllidifoliux am 


hefore, had been 


so thrilling: 


time all summer 


the slender 5 



, Imrnr,; 


surely a local , 


ira> llerl 


Murium from 


.siilratiai 


|e of Wight C 






Wrtknd. Driving through the village of Lee's Mill, . 



So, after getting our presses in order, we started for our last day 
together in the held, to visit old spots where, on earlier trips, we had 
noted plants of interest coming on, and to collect on the bottomland 
near Courtland. Stopping to get a good fruiting set of Rluxia cilioxa 
at our first station for it ; again visiting a depression near Gary Church, 
to collect the autumnal state of a plant with all the characters of the 
glabrous Panieum lucidmn, except that it is pubescent and the leaves 
opaque instead of lustrous; then driving, conscientiously, over to the 
Nottoway beyond Burt to get mature material of the strange drum, 
we reached Courtland for a good afternoon along the river. 

The wooded bottomland had the usual lush vegetation, with fruit- 
ing Gonolobus festooning some of the trees, and a tall, diffusely 
branched and small-headed Boltoma, which we had earlier found with 
Gnscom, rather scantily, near Stony Creek, here abundant, an ap- 
parently undescribed species which had been represented in the Gray 






f the Nottoway there are here many open sandy 
t has stood, but in August largely dried out or 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 359 

hians, now with fully developed panicles and more representative 
than the young material collected in -Tune on Three Creek. Cy penis 
(Inhwarxpitosus Mattf. & Kiikenth. (Kyllinga pumila), Lipocarpha 
metadata, Hcmicarpha mirrantha and other nice sedges (some of which 

states the southern limit in the Last as "Pennsylvania, West Virginia" 1 
etc. At last we were in the home of Paspulum fluitam (map 17), its 
only previous definite Virginia station heing that at Cypress Bridge, 
where one starved individual was found (p. 341). But we were most 
pleased with a matted plant with the narrow opposite leaves with 
stipular liases and with the characteristic axillary fruits of the Rubia- 



die dusk and a fitting climax to Long's and my last field-day together 
for several weeks. 

Actually there was a little more collecting. The presses were full 
and needed overhauling and we were thoroughly tired, overheated 



( , )llections from about Franklin at 
reported by Ward from just south of Kniporia > : and there were sple 
did thickets of the handsome Lyonin hu-Uh (Lam.) C Koch.- which 



nvanlof the 



of his arm towar. 
right smart sand , 



>ry just before midnight, 
upper) after finishing the 



Meet mature Eupator 
ek,wewerediaheartei 

must work against 



1937J Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 361 

could be found to make a decent series. At the boggy depression there, 

was now flowering, and there was a colony of Solidmjo gmmimfolia 
var. puli/n phnla Fern. (.S. poh/nphala Fern.) at a new southern limit. 
Everywhere, whether in dry open places or in depressions, the splen- 

sentation in northern herbaria. perhaps because of its very late 
flowering. Southeast of Ivor we looked over a wooded slope above a 



id, where the pla. 



^usly of the I>oh /q onanar, it looked like / W,,/,,, //.. but not any 
known in the "nnnu-d ,-„,, " 1 had found one plant, and Long. 
for obvious reasons wanting another, we sought in the increasing 

-te nf tir<m, m !,riginal planl " 'pinall « itl * ''''^ ^^l 
far as Lwss' would' p"n.,it in Z. T" '" n rrl.ing different. Re- 
turning after half-an-hour. 1 heard Long's gleeful shout: "I've put up 
!7 sheets so far." There, fullv occupying one of the open plats oi 
sand, and apparently only one, 1 was a solid carpet of Polpgonrllo. 



r great find was at twilight! 

rdiid day, \vc stopped near Walters, to collect 

of Gcrardia and other difficult genera, which in 
ig. At the border of swampy woods the two 
'ponaria and G. pa ni folia (Chapm.) Britton, 
nge of the latter now extended inland from 

and the Hasten) Shore. It is a very handsome 
', short and broad corollas open at summit. 
"///(/ for the Sip, optic, Flora Asa Gray scarcely 

KUiottii Chapm., not G. Elliottea Raf.) and he 

that it extends northward almost to Maryland. 
cription of G. Saponaria L., "corollis . . . 
<is," and its " Habitat in Virginia " it has seemed 
have had some G. pa ni folia before him. This 

My friends at the Linnean Herbarium and at 
have supplied me with a beautiful series of 
•itical specimens. Happily, the sheet in Lin- 
11 marked by him G. Saponaria is that speeies 

lonbus ventrieosus cainpanulatis erectis qilin- 



ranklin 


for lunch, v 




ere 


stru 


ck by i 


he sup< 


waste 


places or 'in 


ope 




»tS a 


t Lee's 


Mill a: 


Frankli 
•f South 


n, of Tagetes 


>,,;„. 


d 1) 


v s! 


iall as n 


I punger 

aturaliz 


• There 


Ms enough n 


ear 


Fra 


I.klin 


to sup] 


)ly all t 


. qhhuh 


T L AublT 






troi 


:i:C|'T: 


new to 



ijhidhitu one 
of the group 
Hack. Sinn 






large fruiting clump s 



,ns quite like the Florida type. 
ha (\Ym. 






; fruit of the Lech 



xt afternoon to Factor, Hill, we proceeded to the 
!, swung slightly into that state and hack into Mr- 
afternoon's collecting southwest of Whaleyvillc. 
ill there are sandy pine woods, which, earlier in the 
te for proper exploration, would ■ ield great results 
mow what great results could have been achieved 
nee of Man. A few shrubs of Ammwa parrifiora, 
oader than the most extreme in the Gray Herba- 



iat had been here before th< 
us ditching. Mildly impress 
ves of a Black Oak, Quercm 



'31) to show that they 
ulside trench just enou 



1987] Fernakl, -1'l.nits of t In* Inner ( 



There was only one .lay more and we had n 
shore nor in a hraekish marsh or fresh esti 
marshes seemed to he plenty in the comity <: 
Waverlv, where we had earlier found a ho: 



Wharf. 



Where we saw it,"it> waters were covered with Woltjia 
"''>(///' //'/ Jh> n<lu,,a. just as we had found them together o 
^ore. 1 A llUln,* of the perplexing In, m-ronp ahou. 






iiul of other puzzling plants. The 
' the bridge crossing the \ottnwa\ 
vhich we had collected in the sum- 
re expected so many species, had 
limp, the plants were difficult to 



1937] Fernald — Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 379 



LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNER COASTAL PLAD 
OF SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA 



Part II. Entmkration and Discission of 

In the following notes the procedure of the last two papers on 
Virginia is followed, of recording such species and stations as seem to 
h e significant in working out a fuller knowledge of the flora of the state. 
Although primarily ., record 'of collections made in 1936, note is made 
°f earlier or la1er*eolleetio,H in , feu cases.-' The name, of species 

"-terisk. In <„,,„. ,„.,, r,vi'i„,K of ,.to,im. surest ed hy the work on 



rhose .u^'Ttat ions'; 



seemed important 


to clarify the discu 


ssions. The 


pho 


tographs have 


been made chiefly 


by E. C. Og 


DEN, th( 


j cost covered 


! in i 


>art by a grant 


from the Milton 


Fund for Researci 


i, in part froi 


n an 


appropriation 


from the Division 


of lh"olog\ 


of Han 


ard Universi 




n part by the 


lir,i\ Herbarium. 


The large e 


expense 


of reproducin 


.g ih 


e photographs 


has been generously met, as st 


■veral ri 


mes before, h 


y in, 


y most helpful 


Zlr^r^Z* 


ZTZZ 


aled, Ba 


yard Long. 


foil, 


,wing up and 


Dkyopteris ce 


:lsa (Wm. I 


>almer) Small. Nai 


sSKM 


[OND County: 


inundated cypress 


> swamp aloi 


ig Somerton Creek, 




Factory Hill, 


F. & L., no. 6750, 


See p. :;t;:; 










Equisetum hy 


EMALE L., 


var af 


fine (Engeli 


n.) 


A. A. Eaton. 






thicke 


t by James 


Ri' 


ver, Clermont 


Wharf, F. &L. t no." 6764. ' 










Hardly to have 


J been expec 


ted on 


the Coastal 


Plai 


,i; presumably 



i "Iamooktox ( Ai'iLLACF.rs Poir., var. atripes, var. nov., rhizo- 
! li;il ': ! " 1,i; -at is; foliis submersis anguste lineari- 

'•■ finnis adscendentibus nee subcapillarilms et Haecidis, 2-3 cm. 

smatis— Virginia: in clay of spri. _ jmih bog. 

< "ddyshony Sussex Countv, Jnh _'(!. lO.'Jfi /•■,,-„„/,/ ,(■ /,,„„,. no. :><>7b 
In its black and almost ligneous rhizome and in its firm and dark, 
niM ::" 1 "*' XvYy rf °ngate and flaccid submersed leaves ("like floss- 
H ' k . -M»i-"i'jlK var. atnprs is a striking departure from I'otauwgcfon 
'■ii I'll "" us. The greater development of lacunae in these submersed 
' ;' ' " :,ih1 ,}lr ^'x'nee of the usual subglobose spikes from their axils 
are noteworthy characters; but occasionally sonic submersed leaves of 
the delicate-leaved P. capillar, a, have extra rows of lacunae and the 
">»enee of tin short submersed spikes is no, realh distinctive, for 
<'therw.se typical P. capillar, ,,, inav sometimes bear'onlv the elongate 



IM7| I'Vrnald. riiints of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 3S 

separation. It grows in very plastic Tertian clay (highly arid 
whereas typical P. at pill ace ux, which we have never seen from Vii 
ginia, is a plant of sandy, gravelly or peaty bottoms. See p. 336. 



Kcmxonouus kaoicaxs iN'uttJ Kngehn. Bottomlands of the 
Xottowav and its tribntarv. Three Creek, in Southampton County: 
Courtland and Cypress Bridge, F. <v /,., nos. 6452 and 5980. See pp. 

The roots (rarely well represented in herbaria) bear abundant fusi- 
form or sausage-shaped structures suggesting the "tubers" on some 
species of Eleochari*. 

* miles south of Stony ('reck, F. 

Usually a plant of rich interior habitats; here on the inner edge of 
the Coastal Plain. 

*Festuca pakadoxa Desv. (F. Skortii Kunth). Southampton 
County: sandv alluvial bottomlands of Three Creek, Drewryvtlle, 
and- dry woods, thickets and clearings along Three Creek, F. L. & &>., 
•ios. 5(',:u and 5635; open argillaceous thickets south of Courtland, 
F - L. & S., no. 3636. Sussex County: dry sandy, hickory and oak 
woods, Burt, F. & I., no. 6035. Diwviddie County: border of dry 
sandy woods near Carson, F. L. & S., no. 5637. See p. 331 and map 6. 

A typical plant of the prairies and bottoms of the interior of the 
country, most surprising to find in abundance and in various habitats 
oh the Atlantic Coastaf Plain. 

*Glyceria uaxydexkis (Michx.) Trin. Prince George County: 
>^hy swamp southeast of Petersburg at head of Poo Run, F. & L., 
no. 6034. See p. 334. 

A characteristic species of Newfoundland, eastern Canada and the 
"orthernmost states, here -rowing with Carvx bullata (also new to 
Virginia), within ;I >hort distance of the i 






totrtg mtrea, Rhexia 

MUHLENBEBQIA C 



Joilcnindrn, 
,v\\ austral 



Ackostis klata (Pursh) Trin. Prince George County: argilla- 
L'ous and .siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 miles southeast of 
Vtrrsbuni, at head of Poo Run, F. L. tt S., no. (5776. See p. 363 and 
[ap 20. 

Akim ida \ ik*. a i a Trin. Sussex County: dry pine and oak woods 
bout 3 miles southwest of Waverly, F. & L., no. 6774. Isle of 
Vh.iii (oivn : dn sandy pine barrens, south of Zuni, F. G. cf- L., 
os. 65(H) and 6") 11. See p. 354 and map 26. 

Recorded by Hitchcock, Xorth Amrricuii Sprrlr.s <>f Aristida, Contr. 
'. S. Xat. Herb. xxii. 579 (1924) only from the Dismal Swamp. 

A. ]>i< hotoma Michx., var. Curtissii Gray. Greensville Cot my: 
ry sandy clearings and borders of woods along Fontaine Creek, 
outlnvest of Haley's Bridge, F. G. & L., no. 6510. 

Recorded by Hitchcock, 1. c. 536, only from Bedford County, the 
vpe region. Our station is well out on the Coastal Plain. 

Ctentum akomatktm (Walt.) Wood. Prince George County: 
.filaceous and siliceous boggy depression southeast of Petersburg, 
I head of Poo Run, F. & L., no. 6031. See p. 335 and map 11. 

Ri.i.kma i.f.vik n.ARis Michx. Southampton County: sandy 

n " vlal u ls > bottomland of Blackwater River, southeast of Ivor, 

• cv L., no. 6026. Greensville County: sandy alluvium, botroiu- 
uids of Fontaine Creek, southwest of Halev's Bridge, F. G. & L., no. 
)0J>. See pp. 348 and 353 and map 22. 

1. iikxaxdka Swartz. Sussex County: sandy and peaty <le- 
j'j^'y! 1 ' y < an (I .hallow pond), about 4 miles northwest of Home- 

. ' ,, '"" | ,,MV "»«-xat.m (Schultes) Chase. Prince George 
",' XI J : . £ s:,l,(1 . v ''J^inngs about .'! miles southeast of Petersburg, 
1 '"' " f ' "" linn. F. L. & S., no. 6763. Southampton County: 
'■'/'"'" - r " lili ' 1 ' ( "'n-tland.F. & L., no. 6764. See p. 363. 
I, X Vi V "| M ! > '^ K,T, ' M L - Southampton County: open sandy 
Nottoway River, below Cypress Bridge, F. &L.,no. 



doubtless washed c 


lown fr 


om a more suital 


^ered) up-river. 






(Ell.) Kunth, Rev. 


(Tram, i 


. 24 (1829). Ceres 




l ( .'. pi. I 


>, fig. 4 (1816). 




"'• /'• 


natans Le Conte 



iver, below Cypress 
pools and denressi. 
J- * «t I., no 64fi 



Although the northeaste 
her, by Hitchcock us in Sou 
fluitans was treated by Gr 
" River-swamps , Vi rgi n ia , 



rhwanl." Tin 



the Gray Herbarium, without statement of locality but with a labe 
written by Rugel and exactly similar to his more complete ones fmi 
Western Branch (in Norfolk County, near Portsmouth). Incidental! 



The plant of the southeastern Coastal Plain and the Mississippi 
Basin passed, correctly, as I'a.yxihnti fhiitaim through the four suc- 
ceeding editions of Cray's Manual, there properly described as "An- 
nual," but in the 7th edition iP.XlSi, the late Professor Hitchcock, 

/' mm-mLtZ, Muni! 'TsIt' and inn.nvetly cited its synonym as 
"P.flmtan* Ell.", rather than /'. fluitou (Ell.) Kunth; Elliott (1816) 

Throughoul fluUana, the annual (possibly 



ies as much as 27 cm. long i 



<:in hardly recognize the "Annual" of the 
'•'bribed by Hiteheoek in Cray's Manual, ed 
late, 2.5-15 cm. long, 
"»d "tpikdeb . . 
***tOdy glandular ha 



384 Rhodora [October 

As treated by Mrs. Chase, and subsequently by Hitchcock, the 
aggregate Ptuptdum repeng has an extraordinarily disrupted range: 
Florida to eastern Texas, north to South Carolina, southern Indiana, 1 
Illinois, Missouri and Kansas; Jamaica; southeasternmost Mexico 
and Central America (Tabasco and Guatemala southward); and 
tropical South America. With broad gaps in the range, from Jamaica 
to Florida and from Tabasco (tropical) to eastern Texas, as indicated 
by Mrs. Chase's citation of specimens, it has seemed to me important 
to check the question, to determine whether P. fluitans has been cor- 
rectly treated by most botanists for more than a century as an en- 
demic species of the United States or whether it is wisely merged with 
a geographically remote tropical species. 

Mrs. Chase gives detailed statements regarding the types of the 
species she merges under Paspalum repvns. P. rrpais itself was from 
Surinam (Dutch Guiana) and Mr.. Chase's identification of it with 
the characteristic South American plant is unquestioned: " Kergius' 
detailed description, especially the statement that the mouth of the 
sheath is hidentate, referring to the prominent auricles characteristic 
of this species, and the plate, leave no doubt as to its identity. The 
spikelets are not said to be pubescent so that it is to be awuned 
those of Bergius' specimen are glabrous." 

The other South American plants referred bv Mrs. Chase to Paspal- 
um rcpens are three. P. gracile Rudge (1805), from Guiana, is shown 
m the plate with the characteristic slender auricles at the summit of 

the sheath, but it differs from , , South \„„,-i,- m M»eeimen. ae- 

<-'-^",MoMrs.Cha S e,inthat"Thespik,!,-- li ,Me'nuo-l' pubescent " 
P. pyramidale Nees (1829), from Brazil (beautifully described " Vay- 
,n ae . . . apice utrinque in dent. 'm lanceolatum •icuminmim 

Dedem' """"f*- ' ' ' Fo ** ■ ' fi ™^ P" 1 ™ :,<1 

peoem cum quadrante longa 6-8 lineas lata. . . Spiculae 

i , ' " glabrae ' • • • H Hneae longae, Vntherae 

vulvae ) was clearly the coarse South American plant. P 
;:; {; ::;:' *° Chst < 1854 )> ^m Surinam, was named obviously 

ligula m appendices 2 stipulaeeas elongata"; and Mrs. 
Chase, examming the type, reports that it „ has gkbroug ^^ » 

1 >blo (like Virginia) has 









Kentucky side of the C 



Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 3 

true Paspalum rrpcns (figs 1-5), 
vith long leaves, the summit of t 

bribed In- all authors of supposed n 



thespikelets (figj 

Mrs. Chase jui 

rMes which sunn 

ate North Ameri 



State Z^M^to fiTtltn! lmt ZlZSPinL 6-10) 
they are represented l>v weak deltoid projections 1-3 mm. long. 
Walter (1788), who mistook P. fluiUni* for P. pamculatum L., did 
not mention them- neither did Klliott. whose C nr si a fluitans was 
accurately deseril.ed ■••/;.!,;/ jinnualV . . • Ira res 2-3 inches long, 
4-5 lines wide, ... Calyx, glumes . . • sprinkled with hair, 
Anthrrs white." Muhlenberg (1817), correctly describing 
the "Cal[vx] 2-valvis puberulis" of his P. mucronatum, did 

not note prolonged auricles; neither did LeConte (1820), in describing 
Ws P. nutans, nor Steudel in characterizing his P. Frankii (lSo-O, 
although he looked sharply enough at his New Orleans plant to de- 
scribe the "spicu lis . . . puberulis." In short, I find the original 



his species [P. n 
iP.flvitansoi- 



P. HEPENs Bergius. Coarse perennial; P^&SES^ 
hrm and opaque (translucent when long submersed), the pn^pa - 

Pigs. 1-5. • ,. 

P. fluitans (Ell ) Kunth Weak annual, perhaps sometimes perennial, 
teaf-bUdee lani • principal ones 0.25-3 dm. 



long, 3-25 mm. broad; summit of sheath exauriculate or with thin deltoid 
auricles up to 3 mm. long; the flange at base of blade narrow, with :i 
narrow sinus; spikelets 1.2-1.7 mm. 1< iprs subquad- 

rate, whitish, 0.3-0.4 mm. long. Eastern United States. Figs. 6-13. 

Panictjm strigosum Muhl. Dinwiddie County: boggy woods 
mar hca.l of Old Town Creek, southwest of Petersburg, F. & L., no. 
■>!»%. Prince George County: argillaceous and siliceous boggy 
depressions, about 3 miles >outheast of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run. 
h ■ I- .t N., no. 5596. See pp. 326 and 338. 

Reported by Hitchcock & Chase only from Norfolk County. 
i oxsaxguineum Kunth. Prince George County: argillaceous 
ami siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 miles southeast of Peters- 
burg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 5597; border of dry woods 
east ot I mice George, F. L. & S., no. 5598. Sussex County: depres- 
;'""^ '" "'-illa.eo,,. fi,.|d m „. 1M of Littleton, F. & L., no. 5998. 
Southampton County: damp clearing in sandy oak and pine woods 
northeast of Cypress Bridge, F . & L., no. 5999. See p. 326 and map 47. 

Intensions inland from Princess Anne County. 

P ;u NI 7i DL ™ Lam - Nan «emond County: dry sandy pine woods 
south of Factory Hill, F. & L., no. 6769. ' 

Extension inland from Princess Anne County. 

P. MAiTAMt skkktkxse Ashe. Henrico County: exsiccated peatv 
clearing, \\ estover Hills, F. & L., no. 6001. Prince George County: 
;;'" mi, : : : tt "«"" ,s " vsT " f *™ Bohemia, F. L. & S., no. 5601. Nanse- 

;,'" M 1 ' t I" ; ' w band margins of border- 

2<[ '< ■'■ southwest of Whaleyyille, F. <<• /,, no. 676S. See p. 364 



//,/.""', KKi ,;^ K Asll <'. var. Clutei (Nash) comb. nor. 
>Vn.HTc'„; u '! ' ; T ? rr - Bot , Cl - xxvi - 56 » (1899). Isle of 
nuth f7 r " ° r ' : ri >;ui.l\ pine barren.-. 

. ;'; juni, t.G.& L no. 6482. See p. 356. 

I >.TcipuM Ashe, var. opacum, var. nov., foliis opacis 

1.5-1.8 mm. longis.-Prince George County, 

1 »>W> depression north of Gary 

-;'■ •■**'• l '"'"' 11 ' 1 - ! -""'.i <v *>•»»(, no. 5606, August 25, 

r,H w\ n °TT^ 84 (TYPE in G ™y Herb.; isot'ypks in 

p m r*?'' Herb - Umv - ^chmond and elsewhere). 

'■■"■ ""e of the almost ubiquitous and most character- 
11 >oggy spots on the coastal plain of Virginia, has lustrous 

', ;. -];;; :';;',;, ;;;;;; i , ; ;l ; , l sp : kelets ran ^g from i. 8 to 2.1 mm. ion* 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal P 

growth in an extensive bog.uy depression, whei 
several localized species: the new Jwich* descril 
unusually pubescent form of Paninon long; 
minor (Britt.) W. Stone, Xyris mnhigua Heyri( 
etc. In other similar boggy depressions of the 
dum seemed to be the typical glabrous plant. 

*P. Wrightianum Scribn. Sussex County 
pression (exsiccated shallow pond), about 4 mil 
ville, F. & L., no. 6005. Isle of Wight Com 
of pine woods about 3 miles southeast of Zuni, 



P. COMMONSIANUM Aslu 

barrens, south of Zuni, F. 
Extension inland from < 

Three separable entities- 
I have been referring wit 
Baldwin, the on,- first de.< 



*P. trifolium Nash Sussex County: dry pinelands 
miles northwest of Waverlv, F. & L., nos. 0010 and 6011. 
George County: dry sandy woods and clearings about -Uw\ 
east of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 561 / ; e: 
argillaceous depression southeast of Petersburg, on head* 
Blackwater River, F. & L., no. 6009. 



oggy depression north of Gary Church, F. L. d- ■$., no. 5621. See 

I*, si ABuirs, tl.-m Ell. Prince George County: swampv woods 
h.'iit :: miles southeast of Petersburg, on headwater, of HI.-,', U,,n ■ 
liver, /'. /,. ( f S., no. 5628. SOUTHAMPTON County: sandv wooded 
.\ainp southwest of Cypress Brid-e, /•'. <(• /.., no. 6016. 

P. (ommitat, M Sehultes, var. Joorii (Vasey), comb. nov. P. 
;»"•" Wy, I'. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Bot. Bull. viii. 31 (1889). 

[.'■ M,T ! im ' f: Scribn. & Sm. Southampton County: dry sandy 
rtheasl of Cypress Bridge, V. A- L., nos. 6021 

>(l1 tHAMPTow County: sandy alluvial bottomlands 

| ' 'I' 1 M'ek, Drewryville, /• . /,. ,(■ .v., no ,V){)4; open sandy borders 
p , , : " 1(: : : _ < : of Nottoway Kiver, Courtland, 



shii (Britton) Fern. & Grisc. 
ak and pine woods northeast of 
lee p. 330. 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 3S9 

Extension inland from Cape Henry. 

C. globulosus Aubl. (C . rckiimtiis (Ell.) Wood). Isle of Wight 
County: sandy waste -round and roadsides. Lee's Mill, b. A- A., no. 
6785. Seep. 302. For diseussion of tins speeies see Fernald & Gris- 



*Eleoch\ris \CK I 




l'.J'r. & S. Southampton County: 


open sandy borders o 


/'pools 


and depressions, bottomland of Notto- 


way River, Conrtland 


. F. & 1 


. no. 0535. Seep. 359. 


E. obtusa (Willd.; 
County: sandv alluv 


iaulntl! 


es var tfjun\ Fern. Southampton 
mii land of Xottowav River, Courtland, 


F. & L., no. 0780. 







south of Zuni, F. G. & /.., no. I 
Extension south from the Williamsburg region. The Sebrell 

Scirpus divaric vrus Fll Yerv characteristic of alluvial bottom- 
eGeorgi County. See p. 330 and map 4. 

HttiuiPA™, vvmv , y.,1,1. Briiton Sot thampton County: 

, ... ii„ r . ;,„ w bottomland of Nottoway 



^Fem Less psncral. Prince 

George County' sim^u . U.-v -sale '..iiili.^t of Petersburg, 
:nhei,dofl- i S.-^kxCoi-sty: sandy and 



Im. longis; foliis vix 1 mm. latis 



;i ,n. latis involutis; eynn- 
lil )US <; i;> mm. latis laxis; 



Rhodora [October 

,iici> ohlongo-lanceolatis 4-4.3 mm. longis subsessilibu.>: 
■riurihtis ohlougo-ovatis obtusis cuspidatis, interioribus 
aeuris; achaeniis plains rotundato-obovatis lucidis 1 . S- 2 
.4 1..) nun. la t is; set is antrorse barbellatis quam achenium 
■t'l <'iiiii trrc aequaniibus; tuberculis albidis anguste del- 

> 1 1.3 mm. longk Vihi.i.m.v: sandy and peaty depres- 
ted shallow pond), west of Jerusalem Plank Road, about 
iwest of Homeville, Sussex County, July 19 and 20. li)3»i. 
,ong, nos. 6063 (type in Gray Herb., isotype in Herb. 

m frichoplu/lla, in its promptly involute and delicately 
leaves and small cymes, closely resembles several other 

( Joastal Plain of the eastern United States, especially R. 
ay, R. Wriqhtianu Boeckl., R. filifolia Torr., R. distans 
hi and R. fuscoidrs C. B. Clarke. From R. gracilenta, 

Rhodora, xxxvii. t. 390 (1935) it differs at once in its 
erianth-bristles, which ally it with R, Wrightiana. The 
er, (figs. 7 and 8) has smaller spikelets (2-3.5 mm. long) 
with the round-tipped tubercle only about 0.5 mm. long. 
k.s. .) and (i), likewise, has smaller spikelets, its perianth- 
l.v exeeed the very small (1-1.3 mm. long) achene, and its 
gular short tubercle is serrulate. R. trichophylla has the 
li"f'T perianth-bristles of the southern R. distans, but its 

us tulxTcIes are very much longer than in the plant 
-nin ,i> l(. (It.sf(i)is. In size and shape of achenes R. tri- 

> suggests II. fuscoidrs (figs. 9 and 10); but the latter 

<KH »<■!«>,■ /„„■« trirkophiftla is as yet known from only a 
"- uit i several other plants which we met nowhere else 

> 'hum have !>,.<.„ t , shallow boggy depression or pond 

" '" >' ' ie blender-leaved species of Rynchospora were 

!r " " <l "i Their occurrence from Chesterfield and Prince 

tu ' s _t<> the \orth Carolina line. Csually a single such 

'■ti-nzes each undisturbed depression; onlv rarely were 

it. mn fhrn (M\rhx.) Ell., not closely related to the 

mrilota or its coarser var. diirrsifoli" 

to which ft. trichophyUa is most closely 



'/;//? 



[!):;?) Fernald — Plants of t 

related, was found in only i 



orders of swampy wc 
\l Wri(';hti.\v\' li. 






*K. Hvhvkv, W. Bo, 



^ |'|>ta\> (Michx.) Yahl. li 

;i^'i^MVi; , v^ , V; 1 ;; v N iM!,\M ,, ( 

i'rincr (u>oi-e. /\ /.. 



Ma 



i,»nd . ;il>o 



■r.\ short eiliation r,f rhe bracts, is rare so far 
mix collection is from Isi.k ok AYi^tCofxty: 
of Zuni, F. & L., no. 6548. 
>er. with flat leaves .'* (1 mm. wide, fuller an. i 
•iues. pubescent scales and almost fimbriate- 
oecasional: FIf.xru o Co.nty: exsiccated 
bie Avenue. Westhampton, F. I. & S., no. 
y: sandy and peaty depression (exsiccated 
miles northwest of Homeville, /'. <fc £., no. 
- i'nd clearing, same locality, f. A Z., no. 

nskmonu CYm'nty: about Suffolk, /A/A/', no. 

he reduces S. Elliottii without qualification m 
is the //<•//<■, collection, which is of character- 
her a collection from the interior which I haw 
lerbarium typical slender S. dliata is not rep- 
-ntheastern Virginia and southern South 



d the very pube 






ges of the two. 


Of the i Virginia rolled 


ions cil 


* Gray Herbari 


urn. Two of these are 1 


typical 


ana to be the wii 


le-spread plant of the st 


ate. 


ypical). Repre^ 


;ented bv specimens fro 


Ill -l\M 


fcsrp 


SSKXamlXAXSKMoM.r 

a (Willd.) Wood. Xa: 


«« 



1937] Fernald — Plan 



lhceous boggy depressions, a»»«>ut •» imle. .M.uthrast . 
lead of Poo Run, /\ L. & S., no. (>7S7. See p. 803. 
*Carex crus-corvi Shuttlew., var. virginiana, 
76, fig. 1-5), foliis subcoriaceia albido-glaucis, vagi 
ix rubro-punctatis ore firmo; paniculis griseo- \'el 
albidis; perigyniis glaueo-virid" 



1 r ■ ' ^ .. *"■ & • 

obsolete pauemervjis ventre enem 


is.-Rich alhi 


ivial botto 


Southampton Countv, Virginia: s; 


mdy alluviun 


,, bottonil 


Three Creek, Drewryville, June 22 

Smut no. .1(177 (type in Gray Herb. 


■'■slrmM-sn! 1 






■ mland ofvlel 


urrin Rive: 


HHl.-'^I!riX ( m j!nM.'j:! M 'in';ii. M ^ < , 


-nald, Long A 


• Smart, n< 


See p. 332 and map 9. 






It was, naturally, very surprising 


to find Carez 




acteristic plant of the Mississippi 


Basin and of 


the Gulf 


Plain eastward to the Apalaehieola 


in northwest 


i-rn Kl«>ri<lj 


dantly represented, on bottomlands 


of the Innei 


• Coastal : 


Virginia, isolated from the west by tl; 


,e full breadth 


oftheApp: 



crus-corvi is one of the most distinct and conspicuous members of the 
genus. If it occurs in the alluvium of the Appalachian Valley, the 
Blue Ridge and the Piedmont (between the Blue Ridge and the 
Coastal Plaiu) or if it is found along the east-flowing rivers tmm 
northern Florida to Virginia it has not been reported, whereas plenU 

var.' rir,,;,.;, '" '•", * .",'." ' , '.•.''.', . .'i,. IV es the ventral band of the 



white and usualh im- 
j th( . 1T ...inewhat thiek- 



[October 
whitish bul- 






a distinct 


?z 


ies. Thedif 


Terences 
figures. 








have subco 




dots 


of the she) 


1th J 


ire obscure, 


and the 


nun 


r sometime 


;,';;; 


i ancestral t 


^the" 


hut 1 


ong-enougli 


sep 


arated to hw 


remade 


itlVrc 


ntiation. 








SSEX 


County: 


dry 


sandy hickory and 


.. (ill 


1. See p. 


:;l\ 







Maturing; 
atnpy <le- 



of the bottomlands and woode 
Kent County. See p. 348. 
County: exsiccated argillaceous 
" 71 L. & S., no. 5686. Prin 
' New Bohemia, F. L. & i 

<arex vcstita are in decidedly moist or ev 
ew England and New York the plant 
. in dry sand and gravel. Mackenzie, 
gives the habitat "Open dry sandy woo 
experience with the plant in the latitu 

ssex County: spring-fed, wooded, argill 



ill Phil 


n of Virginia 395 


Hun. 


nty: bushy swamp 
F. & L., no. 6119. 


: bord< 


ap of wet deciduous 


.. .")ti!»l 


. Sussex County: 




15. Seep. 330. 
imps, frequent from 


-m>sk\ 


County. See pp. 


rivers 


ramps, general from 


,x Coi 


rNTY. See pp. 330 


th the 


two latter in sandy 



,kokge Cor: nty : argilla- 
ut 3 miles southeast of 
no. (1790. See p. 363. 

I)i\wtddie County: 
southwest of Petersburg, 
i y: argillaceous and sili- 
•heast'of Petersburg, on 
N . no. 5698. Isle of 



ew Bohemia, Prince 



"umerous bulb. | 'lo'min in dh'ui.-ter "--I- ""ii. h W cornmonly 
dust «*l and forming tufts'(ot. old crowns up to 50 scapes); its spikes 



l.-'t.Ti.l 



thicker-ovoid V 1" nun lon<> and rounded at the summit; .- 
nsuallv have a iVw trirho.m-s tufted at the tip. Typical 



•urs from Massachusetts to Minnesota, south 


to Virginia, 


dins of Georgia, Arkansas and Texas. In s 


mthea^teni 


i- occasional and some of our collections sIioa 


transition 


ropnilii. Some of the material from Arkansas 


and Texa> 


e latter but its bases are too poorly collected 


for positive 



My reason.-, for treating the more northern ami inland plant a> 

pit "il A fortu are the facts that the original material was collected 
\ Kalm and that Smith emphasized the "globose" and obtuse spikes. 

*\. a.miuoia Heyrich. Prince George County: sphagnous boggy 
vn\c southeast of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. & L., no. 6122; 
•.cillaeemis and siliceous boggy depression north of Gary Church. 
. /.. d' S., no. 5700, F. &■ L., no. 6560. Sussex County: spring-fed. 
nndcd. argillaceous sphagnous bog, headwaters of Jones Hole 
vvamp, north of Coddyshore, F. & L., no. 6126; swamp', depression 
northwest of Waverly, F. G. & L., no. 6558. 
?LE of Wight County: peaty swales and margins of woods south of 
urn, t . &• L., no. 6124, F . G. & L., no. 6559. See pp. 335 and 354. 

Xyris ambigua and X. difformis are the two large species of Xi/ris 
iroughout southeastern Virginia. X. „,„/,;„„„ has firm and opaque 
.•>v t -s and the lateral sepals with ciliolate keel; A', di forms has softer 



rgillaceous ana 
' Petersburg, at 
ty: depressions 



1937] Fernald — Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 397 

Extensions inland from Princess Anne and Elizabeth City Counties. 

*.!. brachycarpis Eiigelm. Prince George County: exsiccated 
liliaceous swale about o miles southeast of New Bohemia, F. & L., 
00.6137. See pp. 346 ami 339 and MAP 21. 

*,]. diffi'sismmi •> Hucklex . Puixc i. (Ieorok Coixty: argillaceous 
mul siliceous ho.-y depressi,',n>, about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg. 
;ii head of Pooliun, /•'. /,. d- N., no. 5707. Isle of Wight County: 

*Jrxcrs (§ (iHAMiMKui.ii Longii, <\>. nov. itah. 4m, ho. j ■*;, 

Hexile. >tolonibu~ ubt< ran- < <>nlifonn us mmierosis deinde 0.5-2 
dm. longis 1.5-3 mm. erassis paleas lanceolatas fuscas hyalinas 
uerentibi'is imenm.lii- Do 1 em longis; eaulibus foliisque ut in J. 
~uw<jhmt» lb.stk.'; eaulibu, 1 :! !irmi> graeilibus 4- 7.5 dm. aids; folds 
enriaceis atro\ iridibiis an-uM i — ime iinearibus; intloreseentiis com- 
|.«. d he.ni.pb, riei- ,el'nbla«b ! 3 em. aids 1-4 cm. lads; glomeruli 
2-4-floris- braeteis tlorum ovatis livalinis mucronatis; flonbus 2.5-3.5 
mm. longis olivaeeo-brunnei>; sepalis (tepalis externis) ovato-laneeo- 
iatis aeuminati.-subiilatis olivaeeis; pelalis (tepalis inter' 
'•blongb obtusis oli\aeeo-brunneis inargine late alb 
<taininibus :»; antberis purpureis 0.8 mm. longis filament;- duplo 
brevioribus deciduis; capsulis perianthium paullo - 
ellipsoideo-obovoideis nitidis imperfecte triseptatis; seminibus luteis 
l^ieeolao.-fii.itnn.iibu. s 1 "-r„!;i t is apieibus rufescentibus , mae- 
Mualitrr . l |bi.. ( .-...i..:..ii> Damp or ex-ieeated argillaceous depres- 
M«'i.s. -omluMMern V.ia.mv: argillaceous and siliceous boggy de- 
Pression about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg, on headwaters ot 
,- County, June 25, im hrnahi, 
l-»»U .1- Smart no ,71 1 ■ argillaceous and siliceous boggy depression 
-■-. 

'-M s,;„;„ no ,712 ; ,•> 'd rgill - s,aleabout3 miles 

-iitluas, . • (, ( .or-e County, July 28, 193b, 

F,nUi /,,„,,, „;,,,,!;.■ ,',!'"' ],1J; near head of Old Town 

I CVa" V',"? , "' rn' , '''| 1 '!!';; j vest of Peters- 

»r« >, ' ; ; i ■ »•■■ ,1 } 4 ; i: 

.'."':::, !':: , !,,^;l 1 ;:: l ;V ::;;;;; 1 ;!i; 1 " >:";';.<: ;•;"£! 

'' An ol 1 N ' <M,p - :LN i U1<l :i f ' . . „ itp i » /,, r ^/ rt w Washington. 



Rhodora [Octobbb 

sat once distinguished from its nearest allies, -/. mar- 

hort and thick rhizome (fig. 5) which often becomes 
arming tussocks (fig. 6). J. biflorus, likewise, has 

knotty rhizome (fig. 9). In J. biflorus the long 
nd persist and become conspicuous after anthesis 
larginatus (fig. 7) and J. Longii the short anthers 
>r become hidden after anthesis. In both J. biflorus 
narginatus (fig. 7) the bracts below the flowers are 
ttenuate or -subulate; in J. Longii (fig. 3) they are 
ind less tapering. In both J. biflorus (fig. 10) and 
i. 7) the green center of the petal is clearly separated 
margin by a brown band; in J. Longii (fig. 3) this 

In J. biflorus the reddish-castaneous seeds (fig. 11) 
orm, 10-16-ribbed and with usually dark-colored 
arginatus (fig. 8) the seeds are paler-brown, plumper, 

with short tails or apiculations; but in J. Longii 
(fig. 4) are very slender, fewer-ribbed and with defi- 

. is characteristic of damp sands, peats, ditches and 
4s, where elongation of stolons might ordinarily be 
rginatus, likewise, is in damp habitats, not unfavor- 
of rhizomes and stolons. But all the habitats where 
iderlv stoloniferous ./. Longii were, during the dry 



■iosa (Walt.; BSP. Pkixce George County: 
ccniis boo., ,| ( . pr( ._j, m ^ a | inut ; . lu ;i es southeast 
ad ot Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 5713, F. & L., no. 
xty: Waverly, Jnly 20, 1891, .1. B. Sri/manr. no- 



1937] Fernald,-Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 399 

13; depression in pinch mds^ about ^ miles northwest of Waverly, 
f k«i sc^roxicVu (Walt.)' Gray . Xansemond County: 

In sun.h pine u Is south of Factory Hill. I. & L., no. 6/94. See 

P- 3G4 - „ j ' • s„ 

ZlGADENUS GLABKRRIM1S Michx. Sussex County: depre.-.unsj . 
mnelamU about I miles northwest of Waverlv. b. A" L, no. hi., 
Istf of Wight Corvn ■ moisi <■! " 

SK^utlwrf Zun! *\ «. A, no. 6569. See pp. 347, 356 

""aletois aurea Walt. Prince George Countt: argillaceous and 

Mli«vnu>l.u^v,lrpr,-io„>. il l M .ut:;.niles southeast of Petersburg ; a 
head of Poo .Run. /'. L .V .S.. no. :,71«.; M.nilar habitat on headway 

to River,/ 1 . /.. A- n.. no. :,7i>(». Srssnx County: deprea- 



k - S no '.T-'D SrssKX Cor\TY: <tei 
ilrs'nort Invest of Waverly, F. & L., 



n .1. ,/»/■ ./.the flowers 
)K(;K County: argiUa- 
;> miles southeast of 



■ interior, the range, under Xrmcria Imonmron (Hook) 

■ Small: " Blue Ui<lge and more northern provinces. Ga. 



os ( OREA Ql \ I I RNA I A [Walt.J lllu ' j 
''•'•'"* n', lln''^! "' M '"" ( " ,Vn ' T 

*nts of south,,,.,,,,, Vi r ,i„i„ ,n:,y l,av, tb, l«.v.~ -- " ■ 

^-s beneath, n pi,,,!,. ,,„„,,,■„„,„ ,\Yilli„,»sb.,r,-. <,m»r,, no. 3MO, 



irimift, no. :r>_'i' . bartlett illustrates the rhizome of 1). (jhtuca as 
■oarsely branched and contorted "often forked and with many short 
ateral branches equal in diameter to the rhizome, usually contorted 
ind forming dense masses," while his description of typical D. qua- 
, nmta assigns it " Rhizomes about 1 cm. in diameter, straight or some- 
imes forked, with few or no short lateral branches.'" Our material 
vith leaves obviously pale beneath was most carefully dug. The 
specimen retained at the Gray Herbarium shows a strictly simple and 
•a titer slender rhizome nearh 2 dm. long, bearing the flowering stem 
)f the current year and the stubs of stems of two preceding years. 
In other words, this material, good /). ijJuuia in the pale lower leaf- 
surface, is good D. quaternata in its simple rhizome. The very large 
L-apsules, mostly 2.5-3 cm. long and definitely as long as or longer 
than broad ('ellipsoid To ohovoid.) distinguish this species in fruit, and 
its seeds 1.8 cm. broad, with the translucent pale-brown wing broader 
than the orbicular embryo (5 mm. in diameter) clearly mark D. 
yuaternaia (including gfauca) as a species. Unfortunately, Bartlett, 
with the assembled material before him, did not describe the seeds but 
he laid undue weight on the presence or absence of trichomes on stem 
•r leaf, characters of much less stability than those of the seed. 

*1). hikticauus Bartlett, 1. c. 17 (1910). Prince George County: 
^illareous and siliceous swale south of The Crater. F. L. & S., no. 
■>o>0; argillaceous and siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 mile> 
of Petersh 




K.stal Plain of Vii 



are all 



Ti,« 



t2^7n^Zn^^ of little s[gn[ ^~ 

■ , if I 4 mill long separating the small 

Xinmil^ of fllvrr.; in />. /"V/W** the staminate panicles do not 
Inn,,, tl„ -liM.tlv l-n-er <d< » .mtu les remaining .uhapprosunatt. 
loosen, The sl.ghtU l.i'u. ,'< ">< r fcr are 

The pistillate inflorescences (when well dexilopul) .^ ^ -^^^ ^^ 
elongate and :. |S-ll,.weved; tlios. ■ o^ ^^^^^^i;^!^ different: 

^eeds (mature ones known to me only from °ui """ " V' /; ,:-/,,,.., 

October 18) of />. hh-fimul^ furnish the best chain, tti. 

,h,, v ,,,, ,, • , n i ,„ . llini , ,1,,. von broad whitish to pale brown mug 

( „ , .,1, .i.-^dl^. broad); m 

/rwi;;;;: i ;;;:; n :; ;!:,::;,■ .,i , ^^^> d ^T^ 

with -i linn hand extendim- from about the embryo nearly to tne 

Unfortunately, most collected material of Dmsenn" '^' ^ 

fruit. In view of the strikingly different seeds of th ^ cur / go0(1 

fruit ot /J //„' /,!, - I'.utht- l.muature fruit ot it, with ^^ 



*D villosa L. forma glabrifolia H ■ ' ' '" « ■ 
lxnuonhta, var. qla'.nUJia Bartlett, 1. c. b> ! !■' •' ()ur 0]l!v \,r- 

• ett) W. Stone, PI. So. X. J. 358 {w~h____^ 

ZTTZnTtherwise glabrous 






i little of the lower lew-* ^^ 



1)2 EUiodora [Octobbb 

inia specimen from Prince George County: sandy and peaty 
ivale southeast of Prince George, F. L. & S., no. 5729. 

de that of I), quaternata (typical) and to satisfy the requirement of a 

eographic yariety, I), rillnsa. forma (jldbrifoJiii is scattered through 
■ie range of the plant with lower leaf-surfaces pubescent. 
*Iheo\is i.ki'tix akpa Engelm. & Gray. Southampton County: 
""> alhmum of Three Creek. Drewry ville, F. L. & S., no. 5732; 
'Hilar habitat, bottomland of Nottoway River, above and below 
[» « L ;! " Ll - ''■ iV l > nos - 6163 and "164. See pp. 331 and 341 

H. mi« haxtha Pollard. Prince George County: dry sandy pine 
"ods about 3 miles .southeast of Petersburg, on headwaters of 
backwater River, F. L. & S., no. 5733. See p. 329. 
luis (MiisMATr* a I'ursh. Henrico Couk 
vale. Libbie Avenue, Westhampton, F. I 
otxrv: depressions in pinelands about 1 n 
. <V /... no. 0170. See p. 347. 
Northward frit pri^natira is nearly coastal in range, but southward 
takes to the Appalachian Upland. In southeastern Virginia it is 
ell back on the Coastal Plain and in the Piedmont. 
* >IM lils . { mrM A«KMroLA Bicknell (S.fibromm Bicknell). Sussex 
',", N ' ' u " y sa " dy hlckor y and oak woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 6168. 
I '" , ' '" V1V: (lry S '" <!,v yellow P ine and oak woods near 
•<i "y. / . d . i no. 6169. Southampton County: drv sandy oak 
northeast of Cypress Bridge, F. & L., no. '6167. 
ot< (i elsewhere m these three counties. See p. 340. 

Bd Study I am unable to separate the southern Sisi/rhi- 
™ ri "' northern 8. arenicoia. The two constitute a 
~ ' *' ldU & v u bully characteristic U>v many species. 

of Wight County: thriving in 
: ''.v'"'',' ;!t l " ,r, l' 1 i" "f swampy woods. Striug-of-Logs 
-u. north <>t Windsor,/'. &L.,no. 6172. 

X ^ephariglottis (Willd.) Torr., var. cwspicua 

i*le of Wight County: moist or sphagnous depres- 

- p. :;^, ,, ;, 1 ,',! M ";; '- rrens ' south of Zuni > F. G. & L., no. 6574. 

^.T.T'in T ?-i! J ' A ' A (L> ? Ames " Prince George County: 

» and sdiceous boggy depressions, about 3 

J . -r ,t 1 etersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 



ober, 1932, H. M. Walton. 

vim <.f tlie" \pi i'l i. I i-in a\i< here within the edge of the Piedmont 
wdering the Coastal Plain. 

POXTHIEVA KACKMOSA (Walt, Mohr. IsLK OK WlGHT CoUWY: 



ch loamy wooded slope north of Walters. F. 
Although Malaxisfloridana has recently been 



vmy of the West Indian M. .spiral,, Swart/. I can 

from Apalachicola, is no* known, as a local plant, from Fl< 
Virginia. Its details were l.eautifully shown by Mrs. Ames n 
Contrib. Ames Bot. Lab. no. 1. pi. vi (1904). She there c 



that they 



lobe longer, acuminata 1." luhrlJum luhn-vimh' •• ^// y] 
adscendens trilobum, lobo medio longiore, acuminata. ^ :i ! U , 
fniOc. Hi. 1442) and he so illustrated it. Fawcett & Bend* 
1 42. 43 (1910) question Swarte's account, saying "&e 

«e not evident", but thevelearlv describe the lip ot the VVesi ■ • 
fant "lip broadl, elliptical, with a prominent l^-;' ""^"J- 
ob e." Drs. Lyman B. Smith and A. R. Hod-don. ^<> ' 
'^ted il/. , />y>fl/ „ in Cuha whi] , we wer e getting - 17 - ^''^ ',,,.,,,;,. 
&nia, tell me that the lip is greenish (certainly not orange ot % 



Hi! ahodora [Octobib 

ion); and all the West Indian material which is in good condition 
shows a prolonged linear-oblong tip; and at each side a subtruncate 
or shoulder-like flange which might easily be taken as two short 
Intend lobes. Mr. Charles Schweinfurth suggests that these flanges 
are due to inrolling of the margin. That they occur in the broadly 
elliptical green lip of the West Indian plant and not in the broadly 
cordate-ovate orange to vermilion lip of the continental plant is 
Mircly significant, 

Hexalectris spicata (Walt.) Barnh. Sussex County: dry sandy 
hick.-ry and oak woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 0182. See p. 'M2 and 






a (L.) Adans., var. glaberrima, var. nov.. 
lin ^ '"< demde dnhmtis iu.-nihrana.vi-: rlnzo- 
-Alluvial woods and bottomlands of Notroway 
K, Southampton and Greensville Counties, 



Ti an /\ filaceous alluvium bordering cypres 
Hand of Nottoway River, above Cvpress Bridge, 
', no 6201; rich low woods near Moore's Mill. July 1" 
inciM & i jfmg% no ( iL >|)-j; . ani j, ,. t |j, r i;l | W()I)( | S , bottom- 



u n A «* Vnttnwnv Hirer southwest of Burt, Julv 25, 1930, Frrnnhl 
ALmgX^ m- inC-r.-,: H. ,-k. <-n -,k in Horb. Phil. Acad.); 
moist clearing, bottomland of Three Creek, north of .lames Kiver 
Junction. Frrwihl, (irisrnm & Long, no. 6591. 

Typical Torara virginimia, throughout its broad American ran^e. 
has the rhizome heavy and knotty, often forming an unpressable 
mass, and its leaves are strigose above and often scabrous. The plant 
of the bottomlands of the Nottoway system is striking in its smooth 
foliage and the slender and cord-like rhizomes. See p. 341. 

•Poltgonella polygama (Vent.) Engelm & Gray Isle of 
Wight County: open white sand in dry pine barrens, south of Zum, 
/. A- /... no. liSoi). 1'i.vn I7s, fic.s. (i-S. 

A verv localized station, the first known north of Wilmington. 
Xortl. Carolina. See p. 361. , ._ . 

The exact identity of r«hjijn,nUa pohigmmt needs clarification. 
Mielniix ori-'ni'db collected the plant in dry sands somewhere in the 
Carolina, tin aridi-iini- (arolinae). From his seed the plant was 
m'own in the (Vl> (crden n'ear Paris and fully described and beauti- 
l.u.. •„ , * '',, , .' .'/ „>„ 1,'v Ventenat, Descr. PI. 






^inform raceme/, ri',' ii\ the latter simple or forking- Ventenatjs 

semble une panieule .I.,.,,,!,,,..-." The ochreolae (fig. 8) are scanous 

and nearly unifom, ttMe,,,,,,- and after the fall of the fruit the pedioeb 

i .. 7 ii nnlunnmn With (lllaitti 

arely show. Tins plan,. m„ Ml,:,: II,, l' J >"""^ tatBa a v 

-- '■>..-"■ •■ ■■■•■>.** x;*-— : 

near Wilmington, North Carolina (1883, Ur. U ooa, V d QV £ U 

October 8, 1897, Biltmou Herb., no. 717a) and by the no* •> ^ 
npe material from Virginia. It is not known where .Mien. - 



406 Rhodora [Octowm 

his material. His chief Carolina center was, of course, Charleston, 
whence we have no material, hut he visited Wilmington and made 
collections of Dionaca and other specialties of the region. 

In its essential characters true Poly gum Ha puhiijania is very like 
/'. Croomii Chapm. (figs. 9 and 10), which occurs on sands from 
southeastern North Carolina (hare dry sand, White Lake, Bladen 
County, October 6, 1933, Oosting, no. 33,648, as P. polygama) to 
northern Florida. The only differences I can find are the much nar- 
rower leaves and slightly more prolonged tips of the ochreolae in P. 
Croomii. The two plants seem to me extremes of one species. I am 
accordingly treating the narrower-leaved plant as 

Polygoxella polygama (Vent.) Engelm. & Gray, var. Croomii 
(Chapm.), comb. nov. P. Croomii Chapm. Fl. So. V. S. 3S7 ( lK<i()i. 
*igs. 9 and 10. 

The Florida plant (figs. 1-3) which generallv passes as PolygoneUa 
Voimmmn is coarser and taller, with horizontally or at least widely 
divergent open branching, the divergent branches bearing many short 
and divergent racemes; the leaves (fig. 2) are oblanceolate or spatu- 
late, the larger ones 3-5 mm. broad; the ochreolae are subcoriaceous, 
with strongly differentiated broad margin (fig. 3) and after the fall of 
the fruit the stubs of the pedicels are more often evident, projecting 
"•'•'in the ochreolae. I am unable to separate this divaricately 
^J'" 11 ' 1 "'' 1 F|nri<la P 1;in < with dilated leaf-blades from P. bmchysUu'hm 

, '! > "' FI,,S - ' ;iih1 :,i ' w!,n linear- or linear-spatulate leaves, except 

-" t ie -londa /'. hriifhi/ntnrhjfa |, ils ;l broail-leaved and a narrow-leaved 
^tre.ne. The broad-leaved plant I am calling 

(t^ItT^ ^r ST 'n" VA Meisn -' ™- laminigera, var. nov. 
nvirn', « - ; v <'! sparhulatis, pn- 

, ;." ; n ;; n - h,t ;r ■ ' Vf>l - : -»<b < ( ,il t Indian River, Florida, Sep- 

■ , '■• 1 - lL( " l i l '^^-2AXM m (h^ Herb) 

Co. VY , ?ne mA ^V^ ^ & G ') Ch »P™- SOUTHAMPTON 

/. / ,. s 'ik of Nottowav River, Courtland, 

. -.Vol < Vrr'"' n ■ : T U ' V ° f ' ir ' v SJ,m! . v " ;lk il " d P^e woods north- 

d ' nd^Tk- K, ; / -/' / '-' ,H .y: border of 

"'k woods. Burr,/', ,f /. .. no. (1205. Isle OF 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal P! 
muddy pool in Tlnve Creek, I >rewryville, F. L 



On p. 333 I jeered slight 


lv at tluMne(>nsisteii 


sidered different genera. 


After subsequent 


bered the original Nympl 


uica of 1753, usage 


tained Nymphaea for tht 


! manv-petaled Wf 


for the Spatter Docks or 


Cow Lilies. Bytl 



national Congress at Vienna (1905), however, it was thought ; l:1 
must use Nymphaea for the Spatter Docks and CwUiVu for the Wain- 
Lilies. Such usage became established in the work of all who conscienti- 
ously followed the International Hides of 1905. Then Conard, dis- 
liking to give up Simvluu u in its long- established sense, succeeded in 

A^X^^C^ f«"»™*S ^he Liter- 

national Hides, eoiisequently, now restnets A ymplni' " 

seemed to leave .\n/)li<ir (late 1S0S or early 1M • OI 



Keeper 



wptowoniAw [iVympfcozonfM. 



I'.n 



(1919), I took up A///.//-//ov/////n/.s, as expliei 

ernational Rules, especially after the refusal 

wp/wr; and other conscientious defenders i 



Hru.^eU 






l>har (late 1S08 or early 1809) in 
1808) before* it has been decided 
1 or not, is to follow the strict letter 



nomina eonservanda adopted at Brussels, l.ut this was because it was 
anticipated that the name could be retained under the unaltered 
operation of the International Rules. A new situation has since 
arisen owing to the discos cry that Nuphar is antedated by Sijmpho- 
zantktu."—T. A. Sprague, Bot, Soc. and Exch. Club Brit. Isl. Rept. 
viii.pt. v. 926 (1926). 

The "discovery" that Nymphozanthus had right of way was not 
made subsequently to the Brussels Congress. As pointed out, it was 
emphasised by James Britten in the Journal of Botany, British and 
foreign. That those who ruled out Nuphar at Brussels were not 
laimhar with the content of that cosmopolitan journal was "too bad," 
especially since James Britten's successor both at the British Museum 
and as editor of the Journal of Botany had long been a member of the 
International Commission on Nomenclature. 

Now, however, at Amsterdam, in 1935, Nuphar has finally got 
conserved! It is hoped, however, that in the future those who have 
been honored by the Congresses by appointment to legislative com- 
missions will not g„ out of their way to upbraid sincere followers of 
the Rules, if perchance they take up an earlier valid name for some 
"ther which has tailed of conservation. If a name has been rejected 
lr "»i conservation, it should not be treated as conserved, even if the 
" ^ rt,nl! mv "Iy«'d "tily partial knowledge of the facts in the case! 

Ninec the chief specialist on nomenclature at Kew feels that in wises 



wopsis Caroline n.ti, (1897). Nevertheless, in Sir 
»»'■* TMaropsin, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xlvii. 535 
ime, L. eamlinrn,;, (1X97), is upheld, while the 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 409 

exemplified in Hill's nomenclature of Lilaropm) is sometimes prefer- 

.Mv following the .ynrit of the Rules. To the uninitiated it looks i.s it 
Hill w;m .till working under the <rood and sensible old "Kew Rule," 



been offic 



410 Rhodora 

depressions, about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg a 
Hun, F. L. & S., no. 578(5; similar habitat, headwatV-rs 
River, F. L t fr S., no. 57X5. SrssK.v Cor.vn : sprii 
.- q)ha.«nous hog, headwaters of Jour, Hole 
•-I Coddyshore, F. ,v /.., no. 0210; sandy and pean ,1 
created shallow pond), about 4 miles north w«-i of II, 
L., no. 0218. See pp. 326 and 336. 

Crataegus. Report withheld for the present Se\ 
distributed, doubtless under wrong names ! 

*(Tt;tM <a. vadkx.se Jacq., var. brevipes, var. me 
i<.. I ,i), planta hnmtlis -raeili.Mpir; caulibus 2-1.:, , 
hreseetitihus superne -la nduloso-puheruli- ; lolii, „ l( .„,l, 
pinnati, remote _> 3-ju-is toholis uiinuti 
munitis; folns superioribus pinnatis vel simplieihu I,, 
pedunculos axillares valde superantibus; pnlunmli- 
1 -•■> em. Ion-is audi, vel minute hraeteati, p,,l „ T .,|i - ■ 
'yl'-nnn inteniodiis Mipcrioribns -labri- v< 

^ p| " <'*<"""» '^'Vm 1 !^' t 'i 'Wj l ! ! i pu > 'u, , ' f 'i,! , ,V ( n i ) r ! T h ',, 

:;""'-- ;,l!llvlil1 woods, bottomli.nd of \„tto«a\ li.\er 
Burt, Sussex County, Juh 25, IW, /•',,■„„/,/ (l -' / „„„ „', 

';.' (;r ;; n ; r, »- '>"np,,'in h,.,.,, r , n i. A( , ( | - ■{; 



*G. CANADENSE Jaeq., var. cam, 

Uhodohv. vxiv. 4!) i.p.22). \> Hl , 



ie Cedar Ish 



tern both in 

elearly (lis- 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 41 1 

tinguished the two, treating us ('. tiuinlandivu a northeastern plain of 
alluvium and rich thickets with sparsely hut usually definitely villous 
summit, with a slenderly clavate gland at the base of the petiole, with 
linear-setaceous stipules, with inflorescences many-flowered, with 
ovaries densely and intricately long-villous, with the legume, Ioom-K 
villous, their segments as long as broad, the seeds flat and orbicular- 
(.uadrate. As a separate species Shafer clearly defined a glabrous or 



r segments much shorter than bi 



nlandica. lb Cassia foliolis octojugatis ovato-oblongis aequahbus, 
nlaixlula baseos petiolorum Hort. mjf. io». 
Hort. ups. 100. Roy lugdb.J67 

Cassia mimosae foliis, siliqua hirsuta. Dill. ellh. 3oi. 

CasslfinaSandica, pinnis foliorum oblongis, calyce 
floris reflexo. Mart. cent. 23. t. S3. 

Habitat in Virginia, Manlandia. % 



ll.»nu. 



Si.ater 



Just what Linnaeus had is not ole ' . 

-•■-.., ■:- • ■ - ^ ; . - ■ , -■ ~ ' .•.■.-■■;.:-. 

and plate, however, is ,.. Martyn's plate, 

as establishing this as the true Cassia Manlandica u. 
also cited by Linnaeus, is characterless. 1 

From the pubescence of stem, petiole, * a ±° V £*ZfZrt Z 



412 Rhodora [October 

name Ca.ssia niuriUtndiea. But turning to the true Linnean material, 
his own specimen, labeled by his own hand' when C. tnarilandirn was 
published, it is equally without doubt that Linnaeus himself had the 
smooth and few-flowered C. Medsgeri. Mr. Savage has kindly sent 
me the photograph (our plate 480) of the plant which Linnaeus had 
when preparing Sj ecies Plantarum (1753). Its stem and petioles are 
so smooth as to appear glabrous, the petiolar gland (seen on the 1st, 2d 
and 4th petioles from the base) is of the low dome-form of extreme 
C. Medsgeri and its leaflets and its sparse inflorescence arc most char- 
acteristic. In Species Plantarum Linnaeus gave no new diagnosis, 
merely referring to his own earlier treatments and to the accounts and 
plates of other authors which he thought to belong with his. 

The Linnean specimen, it will be noted, was one from the Clifford 
Garden; in other words the Hortus Cliffortianus plant which Linnaeus 
had was C. Medsgeri. Although Shafer found Martyn's plate, cited 
by Linnaeus, "characterless" for the hain C. mnrihindied, it assumes 
some character when checked with the Linnean type-specimen of 
C. marilandica and with Shafer's material of his own ('. Mtdsgeri: 
a glabrous plant with very sparse inflorescence, the stipules lanceolate. 
the petiolar gland (see one of the upper lea ves on the right in Martyn's 
plate) low and sessile. The plant illustrated In Martyn was sent in 
1723 to Peter Collinson and cultivated in the Chelsea Garden. In 
its distinctive characters it so closely matches the plant which Lin- 
naeus had from the Clifford Garden in 1737 and in 1753 that it was 
probably all from one source. Incidentally. Mart\n called the glab- 
rous plant with lanceolate stipules, sessile petiolar glands and few 
flowers Cassia marilandica. That seems to be the source of the name 
which Linnaeus took over. The Linnean treatment in his Hortus 
Upsaliensis adds nothing; and Roven simply copied from Hortus 
Cliffortianus. If we are to base our interpretation of .nixed Linnean 
species by the material he had prior to publication and which he 
properly identified, rather than by the plate, of other authors which 
he incorrectly associated with it (and this, naturally, is the only 
logical course), there is no doubt that Cassia marilandica L. (1753) 
is the smooth plant which was described as C. Medsgeri Shafer (19(H). 

In confusing the glabrous and the pubescent species Linnaeus and 



1937J Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 413 

his predecessors were doing no worse than all the American botanists 
for a century and a half following 1753. To Shafer belongs the credit 
for clearly demonstrating the confusion which had existed. It now 
becomes necessary to find the proper name for the pubescent plant 
with clavate petiolar glands, full inflorescences, long-villous marie- 
and long-segmented legumes which Shafer misidentified as Cassia 
Hiurilamlicti; and, singularly enough, there seems to have been no 

that in the North American Flora, xxiii 4 . 257, Britton & Rose, treating 
all the sections of Cassia in true Brittonian and Rosean fashion as 
genera, cite under Ditremexa marilandica (L.) Britton & Rose two 
synonyms: Cassia acuminata Moench, Meth. 273 (1794) and C. 
reflexa Salisb. Prodr. 326 (1796). Moench's C. acuminata was de- 
scribed with "calycibus lanceolatis acuminatis pilosis: pinnis lineari- 
bus acuminatis; stipulis lanceolatis trinerviis" etc. This is surely not 
a recognizable diagnosis of our pubescent plant with its elliptic or 
narrowly obovate round-tipped usually glabrous sepals, its oblong 
and obtuse to subacute leaflets and its 1 -nerved setiform stipules. 
Only by the unfortunate citation under C. acuminata of C. mari- 
landica as a synonym would any one knowing the latter plant or that 
which has passed" for it think of associating Moench's diagnosis 
with it. The only other name given by Britton & Rose is Salisbury's 
C reflexa. That was a mere substitute for C. marilandica L. and it has 
no value. Rafinesque, likewise, simply renamed C. marilandiva (in 
its undifferentiated sense) Senna riparia, saying "I would call this 
species Sr/inti riparia, the name of Marilandica being ... im- 
proper; it was given to it because sent first from Mariland to Europe" 
— Raf. Med. Fl. i. 94 (1828). It seems to be necessary, therefore, to 
name the plant treated by Shafer as C. marilandica. I am calling it 
, Cassia hebecarpa, sp. nov. (tab. 481), planta habitu C wnri- 
landica simillima; caulibus supra >par>c 

X'ta.'eis; ,l,n.lnla a basin petioli clavata stipitata: toliohs oblongis 
vel oblongo-lanceolatis; racemis 
•nim.sve paniculatis: ovariis dense longeque villns.s 
leguminibus linearibns 7 12 cm. longi, sparse v.ll,- 
elongatis: - ■•il.us.-Alluvn.l 

southwestern Maine to Wisconsin, south to western N«.r. 
and Tennessee. Type: damp thicket, Newton, Massachusetts, 
August 6, 1898, IF. P. Rich, in Gray Herb. .„ 

Fig. 1, type-specimen, X Hi fig. 2, base of petiole ,. 
peduncle, showing petiolar gland and stipule, X *. *«*• ' • 



HI Rhodora [Octobeh 

ovary, legnmes'and ,eed are we'll Torreva, iv. 

ISO, fig. 1 (a-d) as C. marilaiulua ( 1904): simili.r details of C. man- 
ia,,, I Ira (('. Mrdxgrri) are shown in Shafer's fig. 2. 

We have not yet met Cassia hebrcarpa on the Coastal Plain of 

C. makilandic.v {('. Mahgcri) we have from Sussex County: 
border of dry sandy woods, 4 miles south of Stonv Creek, ¥. (i. & L, 
no. 0009; dry woods along Gray's Creek, near Cross Creek Landing 
south of Swann Point, F. & L., no. 6821. 

The Type of Baptisia tinctoria. Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. 
rests upon Sophora tinctoria L. Sp. PI. 373 (1753). Linnaeus gave an 

ius, Plukenet and Ehret. So long as B. tinctoria was treated as an 
unvarying species no one troubled about looking up the type in the 
Linnean herbarium. In 1903, however, Small separated off a southern 
plant of Coastal Plain dispersal as B. (iihhrsii Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 599, 
1331 (1903) and I later treated it as B. tinctoria, var. (Hbbrsii (Small) 
Fernald in Rhodora, xxxviii. 424 (1930). Now, however, I have 
through Mr. Savage a photograph of the plant which Linnaeus had 
before him when preparing his diagnosis, consequently the type of 
the species. With its largest, leaflets only 1.1 cm. long by ry.o nun. 
broad, all narrowlj cuneate or with concaved bases and with fully 
developed flowers only 1.1 cm. long, the tvpe i.s'verv characteristic 
B. (hbhnii or B. tinctoria, var. (iibbcsii. The coarser and more vide- 






sia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. in Ait. Ho 
■turia L. Sp. PI 373 (1753 
U. S. 599, 1331 (1903). B. Hndoria 
in Rhodora, xxxviii. 424 (1936). Leaf 
'lightly concave sides below the broad si; 



■ long, strongb 



mature fruits 0.5-1 c 
'-land. Passing into 



Hampshire, southern V 



1937] Fernaki ,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 1 1 

ciduous woods, Wilbraham Mt., Wilbraham, Massachusetts, 2 
July, 1927, F. C. Seymour, no. 679, in Gray Herb. 

In both typical Baptisia tinrtoria and var. crcbra the termini 
racemes are short, 0.3-1, very rarely -1.5 dm. long. In the mour 
tains, at least from Pennsylvania to western Virginia, there is 
remarkable development of the species, with the foliage of vai 
crcbra but with the primary raceme 3-4.5 dm. long (thus suggestin 
B. alba), the flowers large (1-5-1.6 cm. long) for the species. This 
am calling 

*B. tinctoria, var. projecta, var. nov., var. crcbra similliinn 
racrmis primary 3 1 5 «lm l.m-i>: Horibus 1.5 1.6 cm. l«»ngis. 
I'kwsyi.vama: laurel woods, hilltop. Warrior, Mark, Huntmgdo 
6ountv. June ->7 1«)"1 K M Win/mid. Virginia: dry woods, He 
i!7. / W. 11 //. 2nd, no. 469 



C Pins™ DC. Nansemond County: about S 
n <U<r, no. 1107 as C. aagittalig; Suffolk, 1895, -/. H. I 



.><l^outir«J'Zi.ni,'/\i , / h .,°no.6613. 
tifolium T. & G. Isle of Wight Cou 



16. Seep. 



PROCUMBENS Michx yar. ki u.n ii ;- leaHng nf)rth 



elliptica Blake in Rhodora, 

ot Emporia, F. G. & L., no. 6618. 

Blake's type was from Fairfax County. He also 
fr °m Campbell County. 



►37] Fernald -Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 4 

LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNER COASTAL PLAIN 

OF SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA 

M. L. Fernald 

(Continued from page 415) 

ZOENIA BRACTEATA (Walt.) Gmd. SOUTHAMPTON COUNTY: 



"Plentiful in a dry sandy field at l-'n.nklin." IV ;. //• //' r, no 1029 
"new to northern range." Isle of Wk.ht Corvn 
carpets, border of sandy yellow pine and oak woods north ot waiur , 
F. G. & L., no. 6624. See p. 354. ,, T; , ) 

Stylosanthes biflora (L) BSP., var. hisi'Idissima tMllllV 
Pollard & Ball/ Isle of Wight County: dry sand; > 
woods about 1 mile southeast of Zuni. F. * L., no. 6241, similar 
habitat near Walters, F. & L., no. 6242. See p. 3o0. 

Lathykfs vKNosrs Muhl. Sisskx CorNTY: <\vy sandy hickorj 
ami oak woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 6244. 

This species, like several others with it, seen only once on the 
Coastal Plain. 

*Lathyrus hirsutus L. Henrico County: roadside entrance 
University Heights, Westhampton, F. L. & 8., no. 5814. ^ 

A European species becoming established in severe par s 
country. 

*Galactia Macreei M. A. Curtis in Bost. Journ. 






Torr. 



Am. i. 287 (lS3S)/'us r p. " Macraei." Prices s --■ 

limbing 1 2.5 m., thickets and woods, Dam .Neck t. <v ... 

•*«-T thick, , -■■s Pond, Sand Bridge,/- .^ 

3980; both distributed as G. pabfrifr (L.) Bntton. Corolla 

pink, with purple center. ssin M 

Galactia Macreei is one of three species which ha\e »*■" - ^ _. j( 
''■ colubilix. Linnaeus based his IF iltl*'"'" 111 C,H " "!'.',, ."" - jj or t 
'•"')3) upon the plate of H. trifolhnn tcamlm* -I H cm -^ f ^ 
Elth. 173, t. 143, which, in absence of other material, m ^ 

type. The Dillenian plate at once suggests G. mo lis _ i 
as recognized by Miss Vail in Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xx ■ 
In the latter species, however, the dense pubes 

and peduncles ascends or points upward; in ( ' ■' 

« is renexed, as in the Dillenian plate. The distinctions 

Nncm-i and G. volubUis follow. loosely 

C. volubilis. Pubescence of stem, etc., loo f !f j^Vad: peduncles 
reflexed: leaflets oval to oval-oblong, the larger 1-3 cm. or 



434 Ehodora [Novbmbbs 

and flowering niduses stiff, pilose, in the best-developed raceme- -'Ml 
cm long, floriferous nearly to base, the true peduncles only 1 mm-3.5 
cm. long; the groups of flowers 0.5-2 cm. apart: full-grown flower-buds, 
just before expansion, diglitb curved; the beak (sepal-tips) about 1/3 
length of body: cab \ -mi .. it ii-pilose, 4-5.5 mm. long: the basal bracts 
ovate: corolla pink, essentially unicolorou<: keel-petals 6-7 mm. long 
(in var. mississipiensis Vail 6-10 mm.): legumes densely spreading- 
pilose, 2-5.5 cm. long.— Dry thickets and borders of woods, I londa to 
Texas, north to Long Island, Indiana, Missouri and Kansas. 

G. Macreei (isotype in Gray Herb.). Pubescence of stem, etc., 
minute, retrorsely >trigillose: leaflets oblong, the larger 0.5-2 cm. broad: 
peduncles and flexuous rachises filiform, retrorsely strigillose or glal»rous, 
in the best-developed racemes 0.7-3 dm. long, flowering only well above 
the base; the true peduncles 3-7 cm. long; the groups of flowers 1.5-4 
cm. apart: full-. with longer and more falcate beak: 

calyx subappressed-pilose, 6-10 mm. long, its basal bracts linear- or lance- 
subulate: corolla pink, with deep purple center: the keel -pet a Is !M0 
mm. long: legumes minutely strigose, 3-7 cm. long. I ijiiiip or wet thick- 
cm woods, Florida to Texas, north on Coastal 
Plain to southeastern Virginia. 

When Miss Vail, 1. c., said " Galadia Macreei, the type specimen of 
which is preserved in Herb. Columbia College, is merely a very slender 
filiform-racemed variation" of G. volubilis, she evidently did not make 
close comparisons of the details. At that time she treated G. pilosa, 
var- angustifolia T. & G., 1. c. (1838) as G. rolubilis, var. intermedia 
Vail. 1. c. 508, changing the name because of an earlier G. angustifolia 
Kunth, Mimos. t. 56 (1824). G. pilose, var. angustifolia T. & G. and 
G. wlubili,, var. intmmdin are G. pare! folia A. Richard, Essai Fl. 
Cuba, i. 414 (1845). Should it be felt that this smaller plant of the 

G. pilosa, var. angustifolia T. & G. (1S3S), in no way based upon (!. 
angttftifolia Kunth (1824), would be the correct one to take up. 

When Torrey & Gray changed the spelling of Curtis's species, from 
»««r Wilmington, North Carolina, from the ordinal Macreei to 
"Macraei", as G. pilosa £, Mumni, thev presumable associated it 
with the Canadian W. F. Macrae, who sent plants to them, one of 
which was n;tI „e,l For him as Cnrallmhha Marraei Gray, (J ray citing 
'»»> as "II. F. Macrae." In their preface (xiii) Torrey & Gray 
acknowledged the help of the Canadian " Mr. Macrae." As a matter 
of fact, Curtis, as indicated on his p. S4, was naming his Galactia for 
a Carolina botanist: "Several [species] are Furnished bi Dr McRee. 
from his plantation, at Ro<k\ Point, ', ft.\\ mil,- ,,,,,-tli of Wihning- 



1937] Female!,— P 



the datj 


»: James Fergus McRee (1794-181)9), horn 


near Wil- 


Ml, M. I 


). (College of Physic, and Surg., X. Y.), 1814 




- sandy 

iy: dry ; 


ridanum (Trel.) Planch. Dinwiddie Coun- 
woods near Carson, F. L. & $., no. 5817 
irgillaceous field north of Littleton, F. & L... 


. <r»IA 

, no. 6251. 


discussi 


on see Fernald, Rhodora, xxxvii. 429, pi. 


390, figs. 


(1935). 







north of Littleton, F. d' L., no 

Stillingia sylvatk a 1, 
Isle of Wight Countv, near 1 
of dry sandv woods near Jr 
Seep. 357. 

I., no. 6633. See p. 352. 

1893, Heller, no. 1032, "nev 
IF. Jl'. K( J(J Uston, no. 4917; ir 



'''I'l.nl^nnnhwctofWav 


er\y,F. & L, 


OUNTY: depressions in arg 


filaceous field 


[lu'",.'\\i'iiT'roixn: 
franklin," 1893, Ilrlln: n< 
yyner's Bridge, F. V. & 


"collected in 



pnn.l) „■. • of Hoinex 

See p. 337. 

*H. dissimulatum Bickn. Prince Cteo 
argillaceous swale about 3 miles southeast o 
L, no. 063S. Isle of Wight County: san< 
Zuni, F. (i. & L., no. 6639. See p. 3.>3. 

*H. petiolatum Walt., var. tubui.osum i 



430 Rhodora [November 

xxxviii. 436 (1936). Triadmum longifolium Small. Southampton 
County: sandy wooded bottomland of Xottowa\ River, Courtland, 
F. & L., no. 6646. See p. 358. 

Lechea. 

Pending the publication in the next volume of Rhodora of Dr. 
Hodgdon's monograph of Lcchra, the Virginia records are withheld. 

•ViOLA affinis Le Conte, var. chalchosperma (Brainerd) Griscom. 
Southampton County: siliceous and argillaceous alluvium bordering 
cypress swamp, bottomland of Nottowav River, above Cypress 
Bridge, F. & L., no. 6289. See p. 341. 

♦Viola lanceolata L, var. vittata (Greene) Weath. & Grisc. 
Sussex County: sandy and pcau dcpiv>sion (exsiccated shallow 
pond), about 4 miles northwest of Homeville, F. & L., no. 6290. 
See p. 337. 

*Lythrum lanceolatum Ell. Sussex County: wet sandy thicket, 
Burt, F. & L., no. 6295. See p. 342. 

Rhexia ventricosa Fern. & Grisc. Prince George County: 
fallow argillaceous field east of Prince George, F. L. & S., no. 5855. 
Chesterfield County: exsiccated argillaceous swale west of Peters- 
burg Turnpike, north of Swift Creek, F. & L., no. 6301. See p. 344. 

R. mariana L., var. purpurea Michx. Prince George County: 
sphagnous boggy swale southeast of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, 
F. & L., no. 6300. 

Extension from Southampton and Norfolk Counties. 

R. ciliosa Michx. Prince George County: dryish upper border 
of sphagnous boggy swale, about 3 miles southeast of PtUisbuig 
at head of Poo Run, F. & L., nos. 0290 and 0020. Isle of Wight 
County: sphagnous depression in sandy pine woods south of Zuni, 
r. <£• L., no. 6025. Nansemond County: damp sandy and peaty 
woods and margin of bordering ditch, southwest of Whalcyvillc, 
A . (v L, no. 0841 . See pp. 335, 358 and 304. 

I.i'Du igia hirtella Raf. Locally abundant in peatv depressions 
and b„ggy swales of Chesterfield, Prince George,' Sussex and 
Nansemond Counties. See p. 335. 

L linearis Walt. Prince George County: sphagnous boggy 
swale, about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, 
t. & L., no. 6052. Southampton County: sandy wooded swamp 
southwest of Cypress Bridge, F. & L., no. 0300. See p. 335. 

Oenothera fruticosa L., var. humifusa T. F. Allen. Sussex 

County: fallow ploughed field in pineland, about 4 miles northwest 

»t \N;" crly, h . & L., no. 0440, F. G. & L., no. 0057. See p. 347. 

Ue fruticosa, var. Eamesii (Robinson) Blake. Sussex < oi N n : 

-<'ding,F. <&X.,no.0439,f. (i. A- 1., no . 0058. See p. 347. 

rBOSERPINACA PECTINATA Lam. IsLE OF WlGHT C»r my : swampy 
depressions in sandy woods, south of Zuni, F. G. & L., no. 6660. 



1937] Fernald ,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 437 

Sanicula gregaria Bickn. Chesterfield County: wooded 

river-swamp along Appomattox River, near Hopewell, F. L. & o., no. 

58 *S CANADENSIS L , VET. FLORIDANA (Bickn.) H. Wolff. few OF 
WIGHT County: drv sandy yellow pine and oak woods north ot 
Walters F G &1 do 6661. Seep. 354. 

hSrocottle cInbyi C. & R. "isle oe Wight County: along 
diteh bordering swampy woods, east of Joyner s Bridge, F. & L., no. 
6846. 

Extension inland from Princess Anne County. 

H ranunculoides L.f. Surry County: margin of pond in «-ypr,» 
swamp. Sunken Meadow Beach, F. cfr L., no. 684.,. >i sskx «J 
, ', , , , ,| miles northwest ol ttaverly,/. A L., no. 

6314. 

Extension inland from Princess Anne County. 

OXYPOLIS RIG!DIOR (L.) C. & R. . ^^Ss^Xst^ 

gillaceous and siliceous boggy depressions about 3 miles 
Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. bM». 

The only time seen by us south of the James. 

Kalmia angustifolia L. Isle of Wight County: ~£* 
Hn," 1893, Heller, no. 1124; dry sandy woods and pine 
of Zuni, F. G. & L., nos. 6665 and 6666. See p. Si*. 

The only area in the southeastern counties in which we • 
this essentially northern (even Hudsonian) species. The sh | 

material is transitional to the glandless southern extreme. 

K akpi^tifotta L vir caroliniana (Small), comb. do*. * 

material of the variety seen by me is Iroin regi 

Hiltmor, Hrrh., no. 1344 C . , o „ 4 , fPTnv County: margin 

Lyonia lucid a (Lar 



•ypress swamp 






F. & L., no. 6667. See p. 359. Bigeloviana 

*Gayi, .-SKAUIA oi-MOSA (Andr.) Torr & Ora , ^ of 

Fernald. Prince George County: border ot drv 

Prince George, F. L. & S., no. 5874. pine-barren 

The copiously glandular northern extreme. 

areas only typical southern G. dumosa was seen ^ ^ 

VACdNiuMELLiOTiiChapm. Tail,oto^« SoUTH ampton 

m. high, abundant in thickets and along streams 

C< ^da™a 3 ^aRbulata Michx. Isle ^ Wight^ CprxTv: 

dry sandy pine barrens, south of Zuni, 



438 Rhodora [November 

Galax aphylla L. To the few Coastal Plain stations add Isle of 
Wight County: rich wooded hank of Blackwater River near Joyner's 
Bridge, F. G. & L., no. 6668. 

Lysimachia radicans Hook. (Steironema radicans (Hook.) Gray.) 
Southampton County: siliceous and argillaceous alluvium bordering 
cypress swamp, bottomland of Nottoway River, above Cypress 
Bridge, F. & L., no. 6332, distributed as L. Umirolaia, var. hybrida. 
See p. 341. 

Lysimachia radicans, characterized by its sprawling or arching habit, 
with the prolonged stems rooting at nodes and soon reclining, with 
long-petioled and membranaceous lanceolate to lance-ovate blades, 
and with small nodding flowers 8-12 mm. long, the calyx-lobes only 
3-5 mm. long and exceeded by the capsule, has been standing in our 
manuals as a plant of Virginia. In the Gray Herbarium L. radicans 
has heretofore been represented only from the Mississippi drainage, 
Mississippi to eastern Texas, northward to western Tennessee and Mis- 
souri. Our material, though very inadequate, can be matched only 
in that species, but it shows an inclination to whorled leaves and its 
flowers are all solitary on simple peduncles in the axils of the primary 
leaves, instead of being borne on axillary branches as in most true 
L. radicans. Fuller material may show the plant of southeastern Vir- 

The Identity of Lysimachia lanckolata (Plate 482). In pre- 
paring the Synoptical Flora of North America Asa Gray revived the 
genus Stin-onrma Rat', for an American group, which some later 
authors, for instance Knuth 1 and Handel-Mazzetti, 2 treating the 
genus from a world-viewpoint, have put back as a section or a sub- 
section into LynmacUa. Handel-Mazzetti shows that the characters 
relied upon to keep American Strimticm apart break down in some 
Chinese species of Lysimachia, and that Shimm-ma "cannot be 
treated as a different genus as has been done recently by some Ameri- 
( ' ;| " botanists." Returning Sfriron, ma to Lu.simachia is simple enough; 
the difficulty is in identification of some of the older types. 

When Gray reviewed the plants which he treated as Strironema 
luncolatum (Walt.) Gray, based upon Lysimachia lavccolata Walt. 
Fl. Carol. 92 (1788), he made it an inclusive species without clearly 
defined varieties. He published the combinations in 1876, in Proc. 



Flora: 
S. lanceolatum, (Jrav. Stems erect, a foot or two high. mii.|>Ic ' 
aewU i angled: leaves lanceolate- 

.,.,: . :,- -..,_. ■ ' - • ^ ' ! ' - ' ' ' ' ' 

, f .. , , . ... ,. ,- i ■ - : . " 
• 

x-l.^>. ^ Proc \m \- il 1 < s ' ,; , ;;,; 

N. ihrri'iu, Baudo, 1. c, chiefly. An- 
i. 1. L,,,;marhin hnnMto. Walt (jar. <>->/.. 

■ • ■ ■- ■' ' ' . ':" ' . 

: . 

Var. hybridum. (Wine leaves .m.sth I 1 "! "• , , ( . L 
broadl 3 linear L» • l0 nernortii- 

'■■,/.-»,/,... MiH.N. I.e. /,. heterophylla, Ell., Nutt., <Kc. 
ward and westward. . , . „ onftn to 2 feet high: 

Var. angustifdlium. Stems more branched a .span to -w ^ 
cauline leaves linear, acute at both ends, more* 
fc^ T^^f^or Bat. Mag.-The more marked 



/.. fjti'mtrijlont 



them may account for 



d that" The species 
, each other." Thi? 
s inclusion of Ly<n\ 



^// a M i ch x .FI.B,,,-An, i . 1 ,.,0S0,, ; ne : , : > ;;: . ; , 

species. There are certainly two well define s .^ 

(Ws general coneept In ^ /^''^V J' !ts in th, - 



from Florida to Louisiana 
southern Michigan and Wit 






,,ften abbreviated : !;.<-" '« ■' ' , 



440 Rhodora [November 

pale beneath; calyx-segments (inn. their lateral nerves not evident. 
Figs. 1-4. 

Farther north, extending from Quebec to western Ontario and 
North Dakota, southward through the northeastern states and more 
locally to Florida and Texas, is a coarser plant of wet shores, sloughs 
and swamps. This may be called 

Xo. 2. Stems stoutish, from a soft base, without stolons or slender 

procumbent, the autumnal basal rosettes sessile or on short thick 
offshoots; cauline leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong, mostly petioled, 

calyx-segments herbaceous, 3-nerved. Figs. 5-7. 

Xo. 1 is the plant described very clearly, though briefly, by Mich- 
aux (1803) as Lysimachia: 

heterophylla. L. gracilis, glabra: foliis oppositis; imis suborbk-u- 
latis et brevi-petiolatis; snperioribus linearibus, ses>ihbus 
basi ciliolatis: floribus cernuis. 
06s. Flores omnino Lysimachiae ciliatae. 

Pluck, mantiss. t. 333. fig. I. Affinis. 
Hao. in Georgia. 1 

Lamarck as 

l!»77 bVSLMACHIA angustifolia. 
L. foliis linearibus, basi 'eili;,tis. scssilibiH; podnnculis unifloris; 
corollis calyce brevioribus. 
E Carolina. D. Fraser." 



Both nos. 1 a 

near-laneeolate 
>ng. Itbecom. 



into ins var. (Uigustifolhim; and those with 
petioled, from oblong to broadly linear" into 

on Li/.siniachla hybn'da Miehx. The really di 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 441 
not noted by him. It consequently becomes significant, in going 
back to Walter's original account of his L. lanceolata, to read: 
lanceolata foliis lanceolatis subsessilibus, petalis acumine ter- 

The subsessile leaves and the abundance of our no. 1 {L a,uju,^ 
folia Lam. and L. hctrrophylla Michx.) in Walters terntun an. n«. 

tion of the Walter type of utmost importance. Studying Walter - 
herbarium on February 9th, 1839, Gray, with more modern American 

a +v, tTiPmnrindunr Limmacnw 

In, lain! mine from Michigan." This Michigan ^pennren. u.W- 

"Hkhh. A. Gray" and marked in Gray's hand: «M.,h. P a., -< 
Coll.", is very typical broad-leaved L nn^tlfoha Lam. or /.. A- - 
opAytt. Michx., showing clearly the cord-hk- 
tipped basal leaves, the subsessile ciliate-based can u ' 
characteristic gravish sheen beneath, and the finn sepals, lms p< , 
positively identified by Gray in 1839 with \\ alter.. ty P < . >, = , . ^ • 
settle the identity of /.. lanrroh.ta Wait. *»^ .,[ ^ ;i ^. 
ever, in the Synoptical Flora, where he re ie. l' 11 " 1 '^ ^ T } u . AIi< In- 
line, Gray so far forgot his comparison of 1MJ a* ^^ Iin kin 
gan specimen as " St.iwnaun lanceolatum, var. hybndum, 
the already confounded confusion still worse!. oXK0 . 

With no. 1 of page 439 reasonably settled as L ™ lMA ^^ 

lata Walt., the proper name must be found tor no -■ 
thiek-stenuned nonstoloniferous plant with noddle and up,* 
more petioh,! and «nrn Umealh. and with 1-1- 
ealvx-lobes Apparently the oldest name tor it i> !>• " ] ^^ ^ ^ 
Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 12(» (1803). There is no reason:. . ^ < ^^^ 
identity. Miehaux was disiinguishi.ui «'iir •»». 1 <•> > m lati „ ,, sl . 
His L. *„/,„■,/„ has "foliis oppositis. lon,e peunl.,tl>. ^ 



Rhodora [November 

In Rydberg's Flora of the Prairies and 



rounded i 
mostly lanceolate, cuneate at the base; . . . 
,s, S. filial tint is thus described just below: 



ty: margin of dried-up pond y 2 mile south of Ewell, 

44N1. IIkxkko Corvn: exsiccated argillaceous swale, 
mc, Westhampton, F. L. & S., no. 5888, distributed as 
///</. SrssKX Cor.vn : rich oak womb near Moore's 



F Three Creek, Drewryville, F. L. & 

Heretofore known from Louisiana 



Fraxixts (arollviaxa Mill., var. pubescens (M. A. Curtis), 
>mb. nov. F. ijlati/rarpa, ;. puhrs-rms M. A. Curtis in Am. Journ. 
ei. ser. 2, vii. 408 (1849). F. Hrfuiriana Lingelsheim in Engler, 
'Hanzenr. iv-« 42 (1920). F. caroliniuna, var. Rehderiana (Lingels.), 
argent in Journ. Arn. Arb. ii. 17:; (1921 >. -Quite as common as the 
labrous-leaved typical F. caroliniana. 

*Lk;ustrum sinense Lour. York County: border of dry woods, 

miles south of Yorktown, /'. L. & F., no. 4991. Nansemond 
'ouxty: dry sandy woods and adjacent clearings, /•'. L. & F., no. 
990. Isle of Wight County: border of dry sandy woods south of 
iuni, F. (i & L., no. 6670. See p. 353. 

Cyxoctoxum Mitreola (L.) Britton. Prince George County: 
xsiccated iirgill;ieeous swale about 3 mil.-, southeast of New Bohemia, 
\ & L., no. 6339. Isle of Wight County: muddy margin of Black- 
.■ater River, near .!.»;. U vr\ Bridm-, F. & L., no. 6851. See pp. 345, 346 
nd362. 

Sabatia paniculata (Michx.) Pursh. Frequent in dry argill"- 
eous fields, thickets and clearings of Chesterfield and Sussex 

ellowish or saffron- 



of the Inner Coastal Plain 
•a me from press had lost t 






Sec 



,,,, v forvn- san.lv woods and clearings 

thwest of Homeville, /*• & £■, no. W44 oij ^ s npar Waverlv. 
,on,F. <££., no. 6345;seenmabundance nearer „ 

W&** oracfcata has very handsome rosy-pink .Mfe 

Occasional alln .,u ,.,. ..,[. ^ ^ W j^*^ 

suggest S. panicuMa. Their corollas however, are bug 

not change to saffron-color after drying. The albino ^ b -IU 

•a -bLuta, fornra candid, I nov., corolhs dW-^J-»: 

ground, Franklin, 1893, JM* ™'"]*'^lx , and i,r,i ! - 

Three Creek, Drewryville, f. L * *'' Z' hotnnnkind of Nottoway 
m»i.s alluvimn honlerin, cypres <w, np ; - « » [sLE 0F WlcHT 
River, above Cypress Bi d^ kwate r River, 

County: sandy alluvial woods, bottomland o 
Zuni, /•'. A- /... no. C349. See p. 340. County: argillaceous 

S. campanulata (L). Torr. F,:r rt head of 

and siliceous boggy depression >■■ all( l peaty 

Poo Run, F. <t L., no. 6350 3 tt0 rthcast of 

depression (exsiccated shallow pond), about 
Borneo tile, F. & L., no. 6351. See p. 66t. (1753)) 

Typical^ -T>^£1SZ£«* * *' 

upon which it rests, is, as shown d\ V ?_ ptts t0 eastern \m- 
Savage, the plant which n,n,.s from > -" South Carolina 
ginia, thence taking to the mountains ... > ^ ^ plant the 

and southward to southern Geo. _ ,, pedice ls are 

primary cauline leaves are oblong-li ; ts (excep t m 

naked or only slightly bracted, the *£^U«* MJT-; 
small secondary flowers) 1-2 cm. long, Louisiana and North 

long. On the* Castal Plain from 1- ^/^only reduced out- 
Carolina occurs S. graril * M>^ < *' ' (leVelopme nt, however, it is 
right to S. campanulata. In n> " M " ^^ , inoar , the upper 
smaller throughout, with the lo* "er c-.mu i f Jf the linear- 

very narrowly so, the pedicels mostly eat> ^^^ 6-14 
acicular calyx-segments 6-14 mm. long. ^ ni& stan ds midway 

mm. long. The material from southeastern 



444 Rhoclora [November 

between most typical S. campanulatu and N. t/racilix, having the 
narrow leaves and calyx-segments of the latter but many of the 
pedicels naked, and the long calyx and large corolla of the former. 
This transitional series in southeastern Virginia makes it clear that 
S. gracilis should be treated as a geographic variety: 

Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torr., var. gracilis (Michx.), comb. 
nov. Chironia gracilis Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 146 (1803). 

Gentiana Porphyrio J. F. Gmel. Nansemond County: very 
rare at border of dry sandy pine woods south of Factory Hill, F. & L., 
no. 6852. See p. 364. 

Bartonia paniculata (Michx.) Muhl. Prince George ( ovum : 
argillaceous and siliceous boyuv depressions, about M miles southeast 
of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 6860. Nansemond 
County: damp sandy and peaty woods and margin of bordering 
ditch, southwest of Whaleyville, F. & L., no. 6859. 

Trachylospermum difforme (Walt.) Gray. Frequent in damp 
thickets and at borders of wet woods, northward to Henrico County: 
exsiccated argillaceous swale, Libbie Avenue, Westhampton, F. L. & 
S. t no. 5897. 

Here noted because not included in Merriman's Flora of Riehirumd 
and Vicinity. 

ASCLEPIAS RUBRA L. PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY: argillaceous and 

siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 miles southeast of Petersburg, 
at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 5901; similar habitat on head- 
waters of Blackwater River, F. L. & S., no. 5902. See p. 326. 

Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eaton. Prince George County: 
dry pineland west of Prince George, F. & L., no. 5900. 

The only time seen by us in the southeastern counties. 

Breweria humistrata (Walt.) Gray. Frequent in dry sandy 
woods and openings, Southampton ami' Sussex ('(.unties. See pp- 
333 and 339. 

Hydrolea quadrivalvis Walt. Sussex County: water-hole in 
sandy and peaty depression (exsiccated shallow pond), about 4 
miles northwest of Homeville, F. & L., nos. 6362 and 6671. South- 
ampton County: sandy alluvial bottomlands of Three Creek, Drew- 
ryville, F. L. & S., no. 5864. See pp. 332 and 338. 

Although the species appears in manuals as a native of Virginia, our 
collections seem to be the first from north of the extreme southern 
boundary of the state. Heller's collection (no. 1162) of 1893, the 
previous basis, is slightly equivocal. It bears a label, headed " Plants 
of Northeastern North Carolina. Collected near Margarettsvill''. 
Northampton Co.,'* but the label bears the annotation "On the Va. 



1937] Fernald -Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 445 

Heliotropium europaeum L. Henrico County: waste places 
,,_j rnnr , -] (i< u;,.| mmn ,l / / & S , no. 5904. , . 

I " * '■ nnMN .x CouNTY:sa 

ofNot^v Vwri', umIhh! F &L.,no.m2. Seep.366 
OxL);!;.-'. whox.smm'^.) A. DC DiNWiDom County: 

border of dry sandy wood, near Carson, F. L. & S., no. 59U5. 
The onlv time seen in the southeastern counties. 
*Vv "- ihv Y-ihl Surky County: border of I 

! ' H ' "'■ M . sl!, V v '' ,' , , (1 ^ ( rt . t . k Landing, south of Swann 

^TRT^nl^M 1 mnlo'inMlM 1 1 "' var. puberulum Fernald & Gris- 

Cb» bostj m\ dice . u teglandu- 

('oni, viir. no\ .. cauhb .southeastern 

losis MX pilots. Mississippi I- I ii7| . (in Gniy 

Virginia, type: Duval County. Honda, (. Mr. .-, 

"t^ , I el ve see* from north rfFfcrida is our col- 

seen from Floi-nla him! Mis-i,Mi>i» i- '; .' '," ,.' v Westherby 

»n studying i In i,|» • . . .,,„ ulueli 1m- 

irr? ^■■••v i "1 ...I «'•«'»'""'• uiually lon , ger " 

::;t,,':!::,. , t;:,- i , l ;::l:u::.- s^--.^-^^ 

^-wyros, ;;;:;-;;: TY:drysa „ayyen„wpine 

T. lineark Walt. Nil ... W t«.i" < " n • -- border of drv 

and oak woods north of Waller,, /./'^ /--, '» ■ ( . ( ,_. ; Seep .35/. 

sili^iTsT, r ,*"... dlnvuu,, l-^-fS r 7 S It P no. C368. 
"V" d' t'no' 6369. See P- 340. ^^ c 



ISLK ,„. \\l 



water Kiver, Zuni, /■ . & Jv., no. iww ~~- ; 

Pycnanthemum clinopodioides 1. « -j,, ^ u 
border of rich woods, >...,■ 

NANBEMONDCoiNT^'ii woods and 

F L. & F., nos. 5023-5025 Sussex » 
clearings northeast of Homeville, t . &^> l 

An inland species rare on the Coastal Plain- ^ FernaW , var. 

*PycnANTHEMUM PYCNANTHEMOB . , ot ibUS ™X 

■ ■•■ n " • i " 1,, \ i,uu , ! ,,, : 1P T t , spai- -.•'-''- <r ; , ;; i ;; 
- . ■ - 

.,„, no. Ob.S 
Uiver Junction. August 19, 193C, lernaM, 



440 lthodora [Novembkk 

(type in Gray Herb.; isotypes in Herb. Phil. Acad., Herb. Griscom 
and elsewhere). See p. 353. 

Typical Pyt themoides of the mountains from 

Virginia and Kentucky to Georgia and Alabama, has, as originally 
described by Leavenworth (as Tullia pycnanthemoidcs from eastern 
Tennessee) the' leaves whitened beneath. Their lower surfaces are 
canescent with minute soft pubescence and the ealyx-lobes are 
abundantly supplied with setae. Var. viridifoliu m is a coastal-plain 
extreme, with the large oval leaves and the very large- lilac-purple and 
conspicuously spotted corolla of the mountain plant, but only the 
uppermost or bracteal leaves are whitened, the others green and 
rather coarsely hispid beneath, while the calyx-teeth have only a 
single (rarely more) terminal bristle. Exactly the same variation is 
represented in the Gray Herbarium by an old specimen (without 
locality but presumably near Santee Canal) from //. IF. Ran tui; and 
one of Asa Gray's collections (again without stated locality) shows 
mixed with more characteristic P. jn/niaiitlo moid ex from "Mts. 
Carol. 1843," a specimen with the green leaves and the pubescence 
of var. liridijolium but with the more bristly calyx-teeth of the 
mountain plant. 1 

P. virginianum (L.) Durand & Jackson. Sussex County: wet 
sandy thicket, Burt, F. & L., no. 6376. 

The only time seen in the southeastern counties. 

Lycopus europaeus L. Surry County: roadside by sandy 
thicket, Sunken Meadow Beach, F. & L., no. 6865. 

*L. americanus Muhl., var. Longii Benner. Prince Georcjk 
County: argillaceous and siliceous boggv depressions, about 3 mile- 
southeast of Petersburg, at head of Poo" Run, F. L. & S., no. 5910. 



1 



2 in sandy and peaty 



: ■ id.nut 4 miles northwest of Homeville, F. & L, nos. 
i;3vJand00Sl. Nansi,moxi> Co, vn : ,|ilches bnrdrring sandv woods. 
I'Vtory Hill, F. & L., no. 6682. See p. 329. 

*Mi< kaxthemum umbrosum (Wait.) Blake. Sen hia.mimon 

I ouxty: sandy alluvial bottomlands of Three Creek, Drewryvdle. 

t L & S., no. 5913. Isle of Wight County: muddy margin ol 

River, near Joyner's Bridge, F.ii:L, no. 0*66. See 

pp.331 and 362 and map 8. 

Cheloxe Cuthbertii Small. Prince George County: swampy 
woods west of New Bohemia, F. L. & S.. no 5911. Southampton 



i-:: > ^ k "T:::r:z^^"« 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 447 

County: sandy wooded swamp southwest of Cypress Bridge, F. & L, 
no. 6388. See p. 328 and map 3. 

Penstemon australis Small. Southampton County: dry sandy 
uAand pi... «<hhK northeast ol <\pi«~ l'»i d„. I <r L, no. 6384; 
sandy thickets and openings along Nottoway River ; 
Bend./ ,V/ ..„. .,!sf. N^xCo.Nn.ai^amhlmknr; and-,d 
woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 6385. Isle of Wight Coivrv: dry .and, 
yellow pine and oak woods near Walters, F. &I,,no. 6387. Seep. 339. 

Slight northern extension. 

Scrophularia MARiLANDiCA L. Sussex County: dry sandy 
hickory and oak woods, Burt, F, & L., no. 6383. See p. 342. 

The only time seen in the southeastern counties. 

•Seymkkia < assioides (Walt.) Blake. Greensville County. 
sunk clearing north of Emporia, F. G. & L no. . 6690 Isle of 
Wi(,„, Co, xn : drv sandy pine barrens south of Zuni.f. 0. <&L.,no. 
6691, F. & L., no. 6867. See pp. 352 and 355 ^d map 24. 

BUCHNERA AMERICANA L. PRINCE GEOBGI 

pine woods about 3 miles southe; . MU ' 

ter River, F. L. & S., no. 5918, F. & L, no. 6.36. 

w „ ~n the Coastal Pla 

Vallev Vo',' it' in thi'easte^counties. See p. 329. . 

S ■„;, „, v vMKHic™ L. Greensville County: sandy ,te 
north of Emporia. /'. G. <fir I., no. 6695. See p. 3d- and M -• 

Our material is very mature, mm • 
ing, but on the lower internodes and on the inia.t ir» ■■^ ' '■ 
the characteristic reflexed hairs are apparent and ;' H ' '^ ^ u ; ; ( , 

Pennell treats as typical Srluralhm amvncana. " ^^^.-^ ,-,.,,„. 
eussion of the group Pennell eit ^J Z\\^ Vn ^ a "' 
Ma&sachusettsandNew lorkto Aiaixi.m t ^ s 

Pennell, Scroph. E. N. Am. 486 (1935). He there s . 

Clayton obtained the plant, and even whether it e ^ 

-■neernun. su,c (,-onoviusMabel ^ ^ ^ I think u 
Plant very uncommon, wholly »"to- n of Tourne fort/ while 

agrees in most respects with the i larm ■ ^ ^ Xumn . 33 , 

doubtless recording the year of receipt by Gronovius. 



448 Rhodora 

The statement of Clayton that the plant was " wholly unknown to 
me" apparently simply meant that he did not recognize it, not that 
he had received it from some source outside Virginia; and his state- 
ment hardly justifies doubt of his having personally collected the 
plant. At least, we now know Schwalbca americana from Virginia, 
whence it was described, although it is possible that Clayton secured 
it farther to the north in the state, our station being in one of the 
southernmost counties (bordering North Carolina). From Clayton's 
map of Virginia, however, it is evident that he was cognizant of the 
region southward, he showing the Nottoway River (his no. 48) with 
its tributary, the Blackwater (no. "49 Nigra aqua"). 

Pennell separates the more southern material (North Carolina and 
Kentucky to Florida and Louisiana) as Schwalbca australis Pennell 
in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. lxxi. 289 (1920). His key-differences, 
in his later treatment, are as follows: 

"A. Pubescence of stem, pedicels, and calyx consisting of up- 
curved, usually short < s ipi ic-oval, 
usually about 1.5 cm. wide, usually more obscurely 
veined; anterior calyx-lobes acute or acutish 1. S. auslralis- 

AA. Pubescence of stem, pedicels, and calyx consisting of 
recurved hairs; leaf-blades elliptic-lanceolate, rarely 
over 1 cm. wide, usually evidently veined; anterior M 

The more extreme specimens are well marked but minute "up- 
curved" pubescence occurs on some Massachusetts specimens; in 
fact, a fine specimen in the Gray Herbarium from Sandwich, Massa- 
chusetts, has such pubescence and Pennell has annotated it in the 
herbarium as Schwalbea australis. Its anterior calyx-lobes, however, 
are blunt as in S. americana, but its oval leaves are 2 cm. broad, 
extreme even for S. australis and surely for S. americana as defined. 
Although in the Gray Herbarium Pennell correctly marked this 
embarrassing plant as S. australis, he cites it as S. americana, I do not 
see how it and Curtiss, no. 6742, type of S. australis, essentially 
differ; the latter, as represented in the Gray Herbarium, likewise has 
its lower leaves 2 cm. broad. Narrower-leaved plants do occur in 
both the North and the South but of the 7 southern sheets (S. aus- 
tralis) 4 have their broadest leaves onlv 8-13 mm. broad, while the 
majority of northern plants show their broadest leaves 7-12 mm- 
broad. I am unable to separate two varieties and much less two 

Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. Chesterfield County: wooded 



1937] Fernald— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 449 
river-swamp along Appomattox River near Hopewell, F. L. & S., no. 
5919. 
Slight extension southward. 

"An important di.-.-owry. ..unu u- a >tat ■ 

:,and i% Hitchcock I 

■ •. • • ■■■• ' ^ :v ■.../. • - • 

about as far west of Cape May as the Savage JNecK st a™» , d the 
I apologize for. overlooking the record, somewhat obscured 

*Cvr.ui'\ spkmosa Warder. Southampton County: border oi 
drv wood's h„r prok.blx ordinal trees planted but now well . 
uralizeu F. &£, qo ?6396, F. G. * £-, no. 6696. See p. 347. 

Thf Type of (Jalivm cikcaezans (Plate 483). Valium rlr- 
rm-ans consist" of two well defined geographic varieties. The WK e- 
i ' ' 'i- i v 1 f r „n Maine and southwestern Qnel.ee u 
Minnesota and Nebraska, south in the uplands to ...-«- ^^ 
Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri and Oklahoma. i> «"ai>u ^ ^ ^ 
southern extreme, its larger leaves 2-S cm. long and ' -■ ^^ ^^ 
their nerves conspicuously long-hirsute beneath n ^^ ^ ^ 
Florida to Texas, the plant is more slender and u in >>^ ^ _< ^ ^ 
pubescent leaves, the larger ones onh L.5-2 

broad, the nerves beneath sparingly short-hispu to ^^^ ,.,. 
southern extreme meets the northern ... N ir *" ,u a ^ ^ ^ ^ 
tending very locally to Rhode Id. ! <imirirn(V 

tucky and southern Michigan, i ,, has seemed 

7""'"""; "■' ,■'":;, x ; ■ , ;;.:. l i; 1 n ,'.''' ! ' rh, 1 , 1 . 1 ',;,!.' ",'l;:- r, K.i' 'A' < 

described (•. rircar-jiiis liont v aiom ^ ^^ l i;(Ve ., ,,._ 

of Professor Humbert and the skill ,.l M. '» ■ l {j ^^.^ ()f t|im . 
markablv clear photograph of the type i M«, • ^ ^^ 1 v _, 
fruiting "stems of the southern ^^^^I^^tered hi, ; idit: 
cm. long by 7-12 mm. broad, wu , Mi( . hall x. 

on the veins beneath. T+ was Dertecth c n>»^ _ / _ m , lt( . 

"folii.s miaternis. ovalibtt: . 
oculi)hLutul is ";anditi3thel 
plant described as G. nr 
New York. 

Since typical (iiilnnii rn 



,tofc«fl. Britton, 



450 Rhodora [November 

small and sparsely hispid to glabrous leaves, the more northern ex- 
treme may be called 

Galium circaezans Michx., var. hypomalacum, var. no v. (tab. 
483, fig. 3 et 4), foliis majoribus 2-5 cm. longis 1-2.5 cm. latis, nerviis 
subtus longe hirsutis. — Dry woods, southern Quebec to Minnesota, 
south to the uplands of North Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri and 
Oklahoma, type: open dry woods, Peoria, Illinois, July, 1903, F. E. 
McDonald in Gray Herb. 

The bibliography of typical Galium circaezans follows. 

Galium circaezans Michx., var. typicum. G. circaezans Michx. 
Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 80 (1803). G. boreal, / Walt. Fl. Carol. 87 (1788), not 
L. G.circaeoidesR.kS. Svst. iii. 256 (1818). Var. qlnbmui Britton 
in Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xxi.*32 (1894). Var. qlabellum Britton, Mem. 
Torr. Bot. CI. v. 303 (1894). 

In plate 483, prepared by Henry G. Fernald, fig. 1 is one of the 
type specimens of var. typicum, X l A; fig. 2, the lower leaf-surface 
of var. typicum, X 5, from Marietta, Georgia, R. N. Larrabee. Fig. 
3 is the type of var. hypomalacum, X Y% fig. 4 the lower surface of 
a leaf, X 5. 

Houstonia tenuifolia Nutt. Sussex County: drv sandy hickory 
and oak woods, Burt, F. & L., no. 6400. See p. 342. 

*H. lanceolata (Poir.) Britton. Nansemond County: Suffolk. 
July 15, 1895, J. W. Blankinship. 

A species of the interior of the continent, Alabama to Oklahoma, 
north to Kentucky, Illinois and Missouri. On the Atlantic slope, 
locally from eastern Virginia to southern Maine. 

Only station seen for this and several companion species on the 
Coastal Plain. 

*Oldenlandia Bosch (DC.) Chapm. Southampton County: 
open sandy borders of pools and depressions, bottomland of Nottoway 
River, Courtland, F. & L., no. 6700. See p. 359. 

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench. 

The frequent statement that Symphoricarpos orbiculatus is natural- 
ized or a garden escape eastward does not apply to southeastern Vir- 
ginia. From Dinwiddie to Surry County and southward it is a con- 
sistent part of the native thickets and undergrowth. In fact, it was 
recorded from Virginia by Pursh, in 1814, as Symphoria glomcrata. 

Lobelia glandulifera (Gray) Small. Prince George County: 
argillaceous and siliceous boggy depressions, about 3 miles southeast 
ot Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F L <£• 8 no 6877; exsiccated 
argillaceous swale about 3 miles southeast of New Bohemia, F. & I, 
nos. 6406 and 6876. See pp. :;;;<.. :; j;, , U( | .;,,: ;m( | map 20. 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia l.d 
The Varieties of Eitpatobium album (Plate 484). Kuputunui, 
album L., distinguished at a glance by its oblaneeolate, narrowly -.1, 
ovate," broadly oblong or narrowly ovate leaves and it- pi-l- ■•.... ■ 
acuminate or attenuate scarious involucral bracts, has proved »me 
what perplexing in the field. Upon studying all the mat* 
the species seems to resolve itself into four geographic varieties, tore 
of them strongly defined, the fourth perhaps better treated as I 
forma, though, because of a certain geographic segregation, I am. to 
the present! maintaining it as a variety. For a beautifully -I., 
photograph of the type of E. album I am indebted to the well- 
? Mr. Spencer Savage, Assistant I 



; Secretary of the Lin 



Society of London. As I understand the 



t breaks ; 



a. Principal leaves spatulate, oblaneeolate ° r "f™^^^ 
vate, obtuse, narrowed at base, they ana tne sw 
or strongly pilose. Var typicur 

Involucre glandless or essentially so -.- ,.,;,„„/„/,„ .. 

oblong-ovate, acute, the broad bases more rounded, then 

teeth o, ''";' ,„. , VI ,|,'. : [i, 

U iSTiSt iJtSSLSS from 



typicum. 



Mam 



o\Co\ 



•-"■' , .„ the Eastern bnore NMir. 

or essentially glandless involucres) «>ni> < • f the spe cies in 

is abundant. We have never met it or an) van to lhe 

two southeastern counties; but from Xansemom ^ ^ ^.^ 
Line all the plants (very many) which we ha\e * 
glandular involucres and belong to the next. (l(wdn j (mr!l Mi< 

*Var. glandulosum (Michx.Womb. »"' , ;',' Mi<( -, l,". 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 98 (1803). /-'■ »t><n>i<>t<>«" "• p-'lmont of Maryl 
(l846).-From the Inner Coastal Plan, and ^ ,.-,,„,,,. ..n! 

and Virginia to central x ., FlG. 3- ^ p 

Alabama southern Mississippi and (: Loui>i« ■• ^ .. in( i,d 

Miohaux's .liagnosK »™l.,,fl.us "ff^'^Z^ ^ ! 
ininetntis, linenri-siilnilati-." -upliortert n> • I 






[No 



("in aridis sylvarum Carolinae") secured by the late Dr. Robinson, 
leaves no doubt as to the identity of his E. glandvlosum. Similarly 
Bertolini's beautiful plate and his "squamis . . . linearibus, 
acuminatis . . . nigropunctatis " satisfactorily identify his E. 
stigmatosum. In our Virginia field-work we did not meet var. gland- 
vlosum on the Eastern Shore, where var. typicum abounds ; conversely, 
although var. gh.ntdnlosuin nbounds on the Inner Coastal Plain, we 
met no satisfactory var. typicum there. 

*Var. monardifolium, var. nov. (tab. 484, fig. 4-6), foliis oblongis 
vel oblongo-lanceolatis vel anguste oblongo-ovatis firmis scabris basi 
rotundatis apice acuminatis margine grosse serratis vel serrato- 
dentatis, dentibus utrinque 10-20. — Cape May, New Jersey and 
adjacent Delaware; Prince George County, Maryland to western 




North Carolina. New Jersey: dry, sand 
August 26, 1922, Fogg, no. 195. Delawaj 
September 5, 1908, ./. R. Churchill. M\k 
Muirkirk and Contee, September 5, 1910 
gravelly field, near Chillum, September 2 
9723 (type in Gray Herb.). Virginia: woe 
ley, Fauquier Co., September 29, 1 935, // I 
Carolina: Burke Co., Buckley (cited b\ 
doubtfully his var. siibreno.von) -'moist grouri 
ber 2, 1897, BUtmore Herb 'no :m [ >- v 
September 14, 1909, BUtmore Herb., no. 381 
When he described Eupatorium album v 
Island and the Pine Barrens of New Jersey 
County plant with doubt; and on the she 
3-nerved." This is indeed the case and » 1LU u 
?k™ d£mt l T h , an l the harsher and firmer leaf-surfaces the pinnate 
irdifolium. Its limited and rather inland 



Cape May Point, 
copse, Rehoboth, 
dry soil, between 

, S. F.' Blake, no! 
ge north of Bever- 
l, no. 994. North 
in Synop. Fl. as 
Biltmore, Septem- 



ray cited the Burke 
noted "Leaves less 



: thus far kn 



olation at Cape May and i 



1937] Fernald, IMiuns <>)' the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 453 

jacent Delaware are interesting in view of the considerable continental 
element in the Cape May flora, as emphasized by Stone and others. 

Var. subvenosum Gray, Synop. Fl. N. Am. i 2 . 98 (1884).— Known 
only from pine-barrens of Long Island, New Jersey and Delaware. 
Figs. 7 and 8. Map 38. 

*Eupatorium leucolepis (DC.) Torr. & Gray. Chesterfield 
Co.: exsiccated argillaceous swale west of Petersburg Turnpike, 
north of Swift Creek, F. & L., nos. 6408, 6878. Prince George 
Co.: argillaceous and siliceous boggy depression, about 3 nules 
southeast of Petersburg, at head of Poo Run, F. L. & S., no. 6879. 
See pp. 344 and 360. 

The first collections, apparently, from between South Carolina and 
Delaware. See p. 345. The Virginia plant, like the material from 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and Louisiana is quite 
like the typical plant of Delaware and New Jersey. The species was 
based on'/;, glatteescens, leucolepis DC. Prodr. v. 177 (1836). This 
was the characteristic New Jersey plant, as shown by a photograph of 
the type secured by the late Dr. B. L. Robinson in 1905. 

The plant of southern Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts 
which has passed as Eupatoriwn leucolepis is a strongly defined geo- 
graphic variety which I am calling 

Eupatorium leucolepis (DC.) Torr., var. novae-angliae var. 
nov. (tab. 485, fig. 3-5), caulis internodns superior.!;..- m 
foliis plemmque planis subacuminatis acut, 
tentibLsubl r V'T 

Hovntis l,asi l„,gr deeunvntibns. Pond-shores Plymou \ C< • 
MassarhuM-n^and \\ '" ^7^^ hlh 

September 1! l' r '~> / /» ^' I''- '■'• " S '" '•"'"' t: ' {, ^ e iii'i'^ 11 "'" 
Plymouth, AiimisT _'<;, I9l»s. <■ >-<" • "" 1 -'-; n( ' ' v ''''""'!'' „"." V." 
leaved); gravelly upper beach of King Pond Hymo uth Aug ust 30, 

Lakeville. Auuust LMI, WW, F,r,mhl * Long, no ». , . 
Gray Herb.). Rhode Island: sandy and peat; 
ofLongPond, South Kingstown, September 

no. 11,444; granitic gravel and sand aboutf i« I- »1 /< ,,, jn 

Pond, South Kingstown, September 5, 1914, lolint, 
PI. Exsicc. Grayanae, no. 280. ^^ of 

In typical Eupatornon ln,^ ^^l clnerec^er- 
thestcm is nmi'li fim-r tl...n "Hat- """" "■•''' .. 

I,,,,,. („,-.. 2): ,!„■ I,,.v,, ..n mn..>nlv plimte ..ml blunt. ».th sup 



454 Rhodora [Novembwi 

pressed or appressed low teeth (fig. 1), the lower surface minutely 
and canescently puberulent (fig. 2) or subglabrous, and the triple 
nervation starts at the base of the leaf (fig. 2). Ordinarily the leaves 
are smaller and the\ decrease in size more rapidly up to the inflores- 
cence. In var. novae-angliae the upper internodes and the lower 
leaf-surfaces have longer and coarser pubescence, the usually Hat 
leaves are subacuminate, usually larger and more gradualh decreasing 
in size to the summit of the stem, sharply serrate, and the 2 strong 
lateral nerves, producing the "triple-nerving," leave the midrib well 
above the base, their lower one-fourth or one-fifth being decurrent 
along the midrib. 

Fig. 1 is of a plant of typical Eupaforiirm \> iicoh pis-, X 2/5; fig. 2 
an internode and the bases of leaves, X 4. Var. novae-angliat is 
similarly shown: fig. 3 the type, X 2/5; fig. 4 internode and leaf- 
It is noteworthy that the New England stations of the variety are 
all in the areas which recent studies indicate were uninvaded by Wis- 
consin ice. The migration to or from southern New England over the 
now submerged continental shelf was in pre-Pleistocene or in an early 
Pleistocene inter-glacial epoch, antedating the Wisconsin. The 
southern and the northern areas have, consequently, been long enough 
separated to establish marked varietal differences; but the involucres, 
achenes and corollas show no constant differences which we should 
demand if the two plants were to be considered specifically separate. 
Kuhnia eupatorioides L. Dinwiddie Cottnty: border of dry 
sandy woods near (arson. F. /.. & S., no. 5930. 



< \KPIIF.PllOR. s HEU.IIMFur.il s (MidlX.) T. & G. ISLE OF WlGHT 

;,'" v 7 : (lr - v sand ^' P ine barrens south of Zuni, F. G. & L., no. 6707, 
t & L. no. 6883; border of dry sandy woods near -Ion no- Brid-e. 
*-i>- & L > no - 6708. See pp. 354, 355 and 357. 

L. tomentosus (Michx.) T. & G. Isle of W t ight County: open 
white sand ,n dry pine barrens, south of Zuni, F . C <v L., no. 6709, 
F. & L., no. 6882. See pp. 355 and 361. 

hiAiuis squamosa (L.) Willd. Frequent in Henrico County. 
Otherwise seen by us only in Prince Geor<,e C'orvi^ : dry sandy 
open sod south of Petersburg, F & L no 6416 

Chrysopsis gramlmfolia (Michx!) Nutt. All material collected 
by us on the Eastern Shore and in Princes Vxn. County, west- 
ward to Isle oe \Xu;m and Xaxse.moxo (V,, vm,- is the glandless 
typical form of the species, [n Prin, ■,. C,,,^, Count v all colonies 



woods about :: miles northwest of Disputanta, t. cv i. ...... - ■ - 

border of argillaceous and siliceous boggy depression noun 
Church, ¥. & L., no. 6712. _, . 

*Chrysopsis mabiana (L.) Nutt., var. macradema -r - 
1|v „ ls ( , ,1,, :l rt \\ prd.mculis .nvolum- 

1 „.didisvelfuscis.-Virgin ! 
forth Carolina. ^following a* 
' ' :•■..: "n -..» „u,l,,k,«^Uabout3mdes 

barrens, alt. 3000 It, Swain Co^ 

Wavnesville. September 25, 1897, 7. G Harbison, below a 
Highland-. Srp..Mube. 2, 1002./. h.Maijn: 



the minute glands are pale. •' ' • ^ struck 1>; 

nlnnt wi"th miniitp and Dale glanduhmty. we w«-n' ".^^ , (t j,, |n , 

rAUegiie;^ 

C. mariana, var. floridana (Small), con.b. 
Small, PI. Se. U. S. 1183, 1339 (1903). ^ s &{ ^ ^ 

.rieti^ whirl, n!v„r in Virginia are shown to make cleai 



Mill. 



, be in Isle of Wl< 



450 Khodora [November 

*S. gymnospermoides (Greene) Fern. Northampton County: 
open thicket back of salt marsh, east of Eastville, F. & L., no. 5528. 

A characteristic species of the prairie region from Minnesota to 
Nebraska, south to Louisiana and Texas. Its isolation in the East 
very surprising but singularly paralleled in a few cases, such as 
Eleockaris Lindheimeri (map 58) at False Cape. 

*B0LT0NIA Sp. 

The plant referred to on p. 358 is an undescribed species otherwise 
known only from southeastern South Carolina. Its publication awaits 
completion of an extended study of the genus. 

Aster cordifolius L. Surry County: border of woods, Clermont 
Wharf, F. & L., no. 6895. 

Apparently an intrusion into the Coastal Plain by way of the James 
Kiver. 

*Gnaphalium spathulatum Lam. Henrico County: waste 
places and roadsides, Richmond, F. L. & S., nos. 5940 and 5941. 

G. calviceps Fern. Dinwiddie County: roadside at border of 
sandy woods near Carson, F. L. & S., no. 5942. Also noted but not 
collected near Hopewell, Chesterfield County. 

Extension inland from Cape Henry region. 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., var. praecox Fern. Common in 
borders of dry sandy woods and thickets in Greensville, South- 
ampton, Sussex and Isle of Wight Counties. See p. 340. 

Silphium compositum Michx. Borders of dry sandy woods and in 
sandy clearings, frequent northward to Chesterfield and Prince 
George Counties. See p. 329. 

Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet, var. solidaginoides (L.) 
comb. nov. Silphium solidaginoides L. Sp. PI. 920 (1753). 

Photographs kindly sent me by Mr. Savage and by Mr. Rams- 
bottom of the material in the Linnean Herbarium and similar material 
in Clayton's herbarium at the British Museum show Silphium solida- 
ginoides to be a small-headed southern extreme of Heliopsis helian- 
thoides. Besides the Clayton collection the following have been 
examined. 

Virginia: dry wooded slope, Tutters Neck Pond, southeast of 
irg, September 24, 1921, Crimes, no. 4462; rich woods, 
Great Neck, Princess Anne County, September 5, 1935, Frrnald & 
I. nu,j. no. 5122. West Virginia; near Miller School, Lincoln County, 
■July 2. 1929, (I . Va. I'nir. Hot. K.v,»d. Ghow.l \ : open field by Dixit' 
Lake, 2 miles east of Athens, June 21. 19:U. /.. M. /Ym/. no. 1092. 



19371 Fernald -Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 457 
Var. solidaghmdcs (litters from the wide-ranging typical BdioptU 
l,.li„„lh„;,l,, in its very small heads and thinner and basally more 
tapering leaves. In typical 11. hOMMk. the firm leaves arc 

com „h i.l gh no, always) more rounded at base; the mural 

I largos, l«Mls unMuuel, ««r* T . with the outer tarts o . mm. 

broad, the disk 1-1.6 cm. high and 1.7-2.5 cm. broad; the hgules are 
.-, s ,„„, l,r,,a,l; .1,- disk-,„rollas 4-5 mm. long w.th prolonged lobes, 
the achenes also 4-5 mm. long. , 

IMinp,;, Uia.Moul,,. var. mlulap^nl,, ... ,ts small heads 
achenes approaches the southern B. S racilis Nntt. (1841) - "• ™ 
(Hook.) Mohr (1901). The latter is a slender more or less decumbent 
lant with much smaller leaves (1-3 cm. broad), smatter ,,,,!- 
sl„„-,,r a, hones. It occurs from Georgia and Florida to A k " y 

98 (1835), described from Drummond's matenal from Lo ■ 
good she of which is before me. When Kara, ,„,,< ; he »< 

tion H. MianthoiJcs, var. »«or (Hook.) Farwell » Mich Acad fa. 
Rep. xix. 260 (1917) for a monooeplial.ais M„- ..*... p .. 

able tba, his n.a.cri as not like that from Lou.s.ana^ ^ ^ 

•Rudbeckia hikta, var. corymbifera, var. nov- { A ' tis 



folbsis'^dumuns abbroviatis (1-5 cm longis ■ hgn'- -';,; 

Argillaceous fields -ddearmg^ of Chester he^ ^ 

("..unities, \irgm.a. '.",..',) pvjli f". nmU. '"»:» ■'* 

■sterfield County, Virgmra, J« M .fv}X' Phil. Acad, and 

---..17 ,i„ Cray Herb., »^£^), F. W .W. '— 

..,„..,1|. also Iron, same station (topotjpes;, 



George Counties. Virginia. Ivre: argia c f „,'„/</ It 
House, Chesterfield County, Virgmra, J« M .fv}X' Phil. Acad 
S««rf no. 5947 (in Gray Herb., ' s0 ^Z^^FrrnM, 
3 from same station i-P 
Femald & Ions, no. 6432 
Var • VI deuirts it once from the other varices 

i„ i,s v,.,,v sh,,, or almost suppressed pedunc - ^'^ ,, 
develop,,,,-,,, 1,1... H I, is unusually "lions an , ll|:K esling 

.he ha' ,s 1, ., dese and very soft pubesce c . ... -^. __ _ ,. 

•>-.,»■ -,.,,,,-, ' '•■». '■■""■^: , ;;., , ; i r , ;;:,;:,. h — >- 

monfiroln' ;m<l var. />V///<»"' ; ' ;iil h ' m . " I>M hinele .J-*"' <'"'• 

fW ™ } M A inn Wl „f the stem standing high on a P 



m Rhodora [Novjsmbbb 

appending the following key. 

a. Heads definitely peduncled, the first or leading head of the 
primary axis on a naked peduncle becoming 6-35 cm. long 
(1/5-1/2 height of the plant) above the uppermost well 

b. Basal leaves oblanceolatc, 1-3 (-5) cm. broad; cauline 
■ r oblance- 
olate, the lowest sessile ones 0.5-2 (-3) cm. broad, entire 
or nearly so. 

Pubescence of the lower leaf-surfaces variously spreading, 
with broad - between the conspicu- 
ous greei trichomes /.'■ hirta 'typical). 

Pubescence of both leaf-surfaces closely appressed (or 
chiefly BO ibiefly parallel with the 

midrib ire pale bulbous bases Var. aericca. 

b. Basal leaves ovate to rhombic-oval, 2.5 7 cm. broad; 
cauline lea res most] . est sessile 

ones (2-) 2.5-6.5 cm. broad, usually coarsely toothed. 
Inner brad olate Var. monticm- 

Inner bn »ng Var. BrittOim. 

it. Heads subcorymbose, on slant leal'v erect branches, the 
central head on a peduncle only 1-5 cm. long (1/60-1/15 
the height of the plant); leaves as in typical R. hirta in out- 

FlG. 4 is of characteristic pubescence, X 10, of the lower surface of 
a leaf of typical Riatbcckia hirta from Khode Island, to show the 
scattered trichoma and their large bulbous bases; tic. .'5 is of char- 
acteristic pubescence of the lower surface of var. srr-ia-a, and fig. 2 
that of var. corymbifera. 

These three varieties of Rttdbeckia hirta all become weedy; and 
typical ft. hirta and var. scricw have spread generally over the North- 
eastern States and eastern Canada. So far a.-, we yet know, var. 
corymbifera is restricted to the inner border of the Coastal Plain in 
\irginia. Vars. montkola and liritftmti arc more conservative wood- 
land plants, the former occurring from Berkshire County, Massachu- 
setts to Illinois, south to Georgia and Alabama, the hitterfrom western 
Virginia and West Virginia to Alabama. 1 am taking as var. Brittonu 
the plant described and illustrated by Small, originally from " southern 
slopes of White Rock Mountain," one of "the highest points in 
Virginia." Something seems to have slipped, for in Small's Manual 
(1M3) his ]{. Briftonii is given the restricted range "Ala. [baina] to 



1937] Fernald — Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 459 
Helianthus mollis Lam. Sussex County: locally abundant on 
railroad bank about 3 miles southeast of Waverly, F. & L no. 6«£ 
•BlDENS connata Muhl., var. fallax Warnst) Sherfr Slssex 
County: swale at border of woods, 4 miles south of Ston> Creek, 
^otEOPs's' gladiata Walt. Nansemond County: thicket, and 
ditches bordering sandy woods. Factory Hill, t. & L., nos. o*-o « 
^ot^nl^r'^'so^MPTOK Co™™ roadside south , rf 

:;;;:,;"::; , ;;, , ";: , ;:,';;:r!;„d £&& S3. ^ *■ * ^ - 6912 - 

See pp. 362 and 366. ,«««, fNntt ^ T & 

lands, Prince George, Sussex, Isle of Wight and 
Counties. See p. 360. 

(To be 



LOCAL PLANTS OF THE INNER COASTAL PLAIN OF 

SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA 

M. L. Fernald 

(Continued from page 459) 

Part III. Phytogeographic Considerations 

The flora of the Coastal Plain of Virginia is far more com plex than 
has been generally recognized. Without attempting at this time. 
general discussion of all the floristic elements, it seems <*™ 
take up certain features which do not require prolonged ^r^ 

1. The Pine-Barren Flora. The idea has been much pro^j 
that Virginia has few of the characteristic species which *ve s pe . 
interest I the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and *b «g«» «^ 
on Wilmington in southeastern North Carolina. This ideahas been 
specially developed by the southern botan ; st ; D ;^ ne W ba ^ Lther 
having known some of the more concentrated pine *?« ^ 
south, has seen, from the moving express trair ,Wto ^ 

in eastern and southeastern Virginia. His veru ^ ^ 

coastal plain of Delaware, M^ ^ ^^ pine - 
many of the species common in Ne* Jersey ^ ^ 

barrens, though some of them will probata oe f ^ ^ 

parts are better explored.- "Of the com ^^ ; ,, 1(! ,,„,, 
Emporia there is little to be said . . ^ ^ ^ pine .barrens" 2 ; 
were seen west of Norfolk . • • u - ^ par t s of 

"For some reason not altogether obvious, the flora ot 



466 Rhodora 

the eastern United States where either Pinna Inula or Pin us crhinata 
is the most abundant tree is rather uninteresting, as it consists of 
comparatively few and widely distributed species; and such regions 
are consequently not much frequented by botanists and not often 
described in botanical literature" 1 ; "The pine-barrens of New Jersey 
and those of the southeastern states have been celebrated botanizing 

between the Delaware and Roanoke Rivers [the lower Roanoke 
River in .North Carolina] there seem to be very few typical pine-barren 

plants, or other species, which are not more common elsewhere. It 
is not surprising therefore that comparatively lit tie has been published 
about this region." 2 

Handicapped, then, by the abundance of either Pinus Tarda or 
P. crhinata, the Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia should not, by 
Harper's interpretation, be worth visiting by a botanist. Xeverthe- 



as Punicuv, lannamnn, K,p,rlio, P ora , 
var. mm (Chapm.) Fern., Xyris 


lisfans, Srlr, 


aborfivus (map 28), Zigadmus glabcrrin 


ins, <}u,rrus 


Polpgonclla polygama, Armaria caro, 


'i nia na (M\ 


'"''"""folia and Purthii, Zarnia bract 


•ata, Dcsmo 


Euphorbia Ipeeacuanhae, Rhexia cil 




Kalinin angustifolin, Pi/xidantlu rn bn 


rind at a, ' />V 


'In chaste ma linran , Ptnstcman nustrulh 


i, Sn/mrria c 


Carphcphorus fommtosv* and bdlidifolii, 


'.s'a.ul Ifrlin, 



the Inner Coastal Plain of Vi 
ames and Chesapeake Bay at 



done, many other wc 


»rth-\vhile pine-barren or pine-land sp< 


Andropogon Mohrii, 


Panicum strigosum, commiguhmun 


nitkhun, longiligulai 


urn, albomarginnhim and mutim 


Agrosiis data (map « 


50), Ctmium awiuaUcirm (map 11), 






(map 25), Xyri* am 


biqua and Curtisdi, Laclnwmuloii m 


canton decan&dare, '. 


Tofieldia ran worn. Ah hi, nun a, /////■ 




■frs- lilrarirata (MAP 2), Qufivn* run ;■ 




\ n 'nfnlin, Baptism rillotii. lihynrhosi, 


Li n um jhridanum, 


/V ,„ , llarpm and (superabun 




,,, Mosui. Il'-r comtoria, ////,»>- 






and denticulatum VI 


'>,//,//;</' l.mrhiuh, Coitlanu Porplniri 






rubra, Schwalbea am 


""' '| <J ""[ V whose demands for a 


Such lists seem pr 




Bon .tit exa 


It in^'ln fact, of the "Ch.irart, ri^ 



l>o.vlln, P, 



alties of the ew ;j^ ; n yi inia> in spite of the 

,t New Jersey, a<tuaii. ,. it . s have been added 

n given the latter an ---' < ' ^ is safe to predict 
t «> the 1 k,,ownH ° ";,„„,," Co.nersely, checking the 
tlU> ° tlu ' rS ; 1U ; y ^designated as growing in pme- 
[Ws Manual **££%£ that at least 115 such 
Virginia, inci- 
^erbg plants in easternjir- 



, their'northoni known limits in 



the unfavorable i 



468 Rhodora [December 

of the flora already quoted. New Jersey has been intensively and ex- 
tensively botanized; so have the regions centering on Wilmington, 
North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina; Virginia is still 
largely a botanically untouched field. In spite of the host of keen 
botanists from Pursh, Conrad, Nuttall, Collins, Pickering and others 
of their period and the Smiths (A. H. and C. E.), Canby, Parker and 
their contemporaries to Stone, Long and the others who have studied 
every square mile of southern Jersey, new discoveries are still being 
made in the Pine Barrens and elsewhere in southern New Jersey. 
Similarly, Walter, Elliott, M. A. Curtis, Ravenel and many others 
gave great impetus to study of the regions near Wilmington and near 
Charleston. But the Old Dominion has drifted along since the days 
of Clayton (two centuries ago) with no outstanding native student 
of the flora. With the awakening now going on real activity is hoped 
for. 

Many of the southern Coastal Plain species which occur in south- 
eastern Virginia have not been generally recognized as occurring 
north of southeastern North Carolina— the region centering upon 
Wilmington. Whether they are actually so isolated is a problem for 
the botanists of North Carolina. Others seem as yet to be unknown 
between South Carolina and southeastern Virginia, while others 
appear in Virginia to be still farther from their southeastern centers. 
These cases, which need not here be enumerated, suggest the need of 
extensive field-work also on the Coastal Plain between Virginia and 

Parenthetically, so to speak, it is impossible to overlook one aspect 
of the implication of utter poverty in interesting plants of the Coastal 
Plain of Virginia, already noted in the quotations in the opening 
paragraph of this section. The watching of vegetation from a moving 
train is and long has been a regular diversion of field-botanists but 
it is Harper who has so far developed the art as to draw considerable 
deductions from observations thus swiftly made and without verify- 
ing specimens. 1 A milder form of the sport is botanizing without 



1937] Fernald,— Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 469 
slowing down from a speeding automobile, "rumble-seat botany" as 
Dr. Lincoln Constance calls it. A slower period gave us the "horse- 
and-buggy" glimpser. Like the more up-to-date methods, even 
"horse-anddmggv" identifying was subject to possible error. For 
instance, in the paper of the late Lester F. Ward, already referred to 
the author gave an account of a driving trip through Richmond : mo 
Petersburg to the Roanoke River in North Carolina. " My f amihanty 
with the flora of Washington and vicinity rendered it both l ' as > '^ 
interesting to note the more conspicuous changes . . • - ""< '"> 
notes were almost wholly confined to this aspect of the question. 
They were usually taken from the carriage, without stopping t.. n ^ 
special researches" 1 and in the preceding paragraph it is stated ma 
the notes were made "usually without collecting specimens. The 
notes are interesting and many of the identifi-ati on ; >"^ 
tinned, but Ward's "Kubuseuneatus . • • K -hi Ii the al e, 
of the Nottoway river . . . has the habit of the ^northern black- 
berry and forms dense brambles . . ■ *» the height oMB 
eight feet" would be clearer, in the light of P^"*^^ 
Rubus, if he had made specimens! But horse-and-buggy *"*~ 
seat botanizing, without slowing down to collect ^^^ ,,,. 
as botanizing from the express train are all obsole>( < n . 

exploring a flora the best. The "bug© , ''"' '^'^ ^ ^ inmi ., 
automobile are invaluable aids, so long as th«\\ i o no • ^ 




470 Rhodora [December 

2. Phytogeographic Relations of the Characteristic Plants 
of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Reference has repeatedly been 
made to the very intimate commingling of the open pinelands and oak 
barrens with the richer woods, bottomlands and brooksides through 
much of the area. The obvious and presumably chief factor in the 
maintenance of this intimate interlocking of pine-barren and rich- 
woods or bottomland types of vegetation is the deposit of marine 
(calcareous) shells which underlies most, if not all, the country. 
Where the superficial soils air thoroughly leached the oxylophytes of 
the pine barrens and peats prevail. Where the brooks and rivers have 
cut down to the accessible lime, even though the soil, presumably on 
account of accumulated carbon-dioxide and humie acids, may give 
an acid reaction, the plants of "rich woods," "rich bottoms" and 
"calcareous soils" have their opportunity. The chemical, physical 
and biological balances are so extremely delicate and so complicated 
that it would be bold for one not a physical chemist to venture an 
evaluation of them; hut it is fairly certain that only in regions where 
a supply of calcium is readily available in the subsoils would we find 
so obvious an interlocking of the calcicolous and the oxylophyru 
types. Even the almost ubiquitous 15a Id Cypres, Tuxodium dis- 
tichum, of the swamps, swampy bottoms and dismals, occurs, accord- 
ing to Wherry (in Small's Manual), "often over calcareous subsoil"; 
but Post Oak, Quercm rtdlata, he restricts to "usually sterile and 
acid soil," although Hcxalcdris (map 18), which at our station is in 
the humus of Quercus stdlata, is, according to Wherry, a plant of 
" Rich soil." In this connection it is worth noting that Gattinger said 
of it (as Bldia aphylla) in Tennessee " Always under pines!" 1 At one 
of our two stations for C«,r.r Fnmkil of "calcareous districts," there 
is an unusual abundance of the Cranefly Orchid, Tipulario nuifoVm. 
which, according to Wherry, occurs "in acid soil." In many wooded 
swamps and bottomlands Carex typhina of "rich alluvial woods, in 
calcareous districts" closely associates with its near relative, C. squar- 
rosa of "Swampy woods, in acid soils" and with C. louisianica of 
"acid soils"; while along the Nottoway C. Grayii (map 19) of "Bicb 
alluvial woods in calcareous districts" mingles with them all in the 
shade of trees of "calcareous" or of "acid" soil without sharp differ- 
tion, I induced Mr. Weatherby to drive with me to the area and only reluctantly 



ng from a carpet of Crotalaria rotundifolia of the 



mavVu^umdinum .\hln.n* thfhlanu of" calcareous soil.' 
We, naturally, trv to reduce plant-habitats to a hunted 



i r «ist'tl Plain of Virginia. tuat %ve are "° 



)lv contrasted soils the calcicol 
plants or oth 



ofntoresharply-,^ The 



for r/r/ 



Milan. 1> A( ver found Hr.rahrtn. 

southeastern Virginia l.ut m only one i. ^J^.^ UvU ;f lia. Lov 
strata (map IS), Clrniaii* orfirolruft am ^^'^ .^ C j avto n ha< 
boggy depressions are m 
brought forward voucher 
until we collected a few plant- in out- m..*- m Oipe Henry to False 
of the sandy Hat back of the out. i < " ', , ^ vet in that 

("ape shows a repetition of scen.n h (>f /////J0 ,-/. 

whole stretch we have found onh one hmitc. ^.j,,,,.;, Undhriwrn 

longii, II. scssilis, Jvncw >»< •"'"^'.'^ ^' ecies . Damp pine wood? 

(map 57) and several other most ner 









Rhodora [December 



abitat we have luit once seen Amiuutliuun 



iana Porphyrio, the latter so conspicuous that 
we could hardly have missed it. And so on, with one habitat after 
another; over and over again they seem superficially indistinguishable 
from others where quite unique colonies of plants are found. The 
fact, that one can never tell until he actually examines every natural 
spot what rare or strictly localized plant is there, adds to the zest of 
exploration and more than counterbalances the discomforts caused by 
heat, thirst, chiggers and deer-flies. 

It is, of course, evident enough that clearing, cultivation, pig- and 
cow-pasturing and ditching have ruined much of what Banister, 
Clayton and others of two centuries ago found about them. The 
number of rarities undetected in Virginia since their day until the 
active exploration of the Coastal Plain by Grimes and those who have 
followed him is notable. Other species collected by Clayton, es- 
pecially conspicuous trees and shrubs, not known through modern 
specimens from the state, make a challenging list. They may have 
been exterminated from the flora of the state; but success in discov- 
ering many species which Clayton collected but which have been 
little if at all known in the larger herbaria of the East gives confidence 
that the other Virginian plants known to Clayton may yet be redis- 
covered in the state. In 1839, Asa Gray, purchasing in London the 
2 fl edition of the Flora Mrgimca, based by Gronovius upon John 
Clayton's collections, went through the Clayton material (now pre- 
served at the British Museum i and made annotations of the identities. 
These annotations, added to the citations of Clayton's specimens by 
Linnaeus, give us Virginia records for hundreds of species; in fact, in 
the 1 st edition of Hpreirs Plantarvm (1753) Linnaeus based 371 
species upon Virginian types (largely Clayton's). With the aid of 
Gray's notes, added to the Linnean references, we know that Clayton 
collected many of the species which are now most localized in eastern 
Virginia. These include the following: Sagittaria subulata, Sacciokpis 
striata, Eriocaulm decangulare, Toficldia racemosa, Chi sirs divaricata, 
1'onthirva ramnosa, Polygonum ghmrum, Arab-is rinjinica, SarraccnM 
flam ("Hie vulgo Side sadle flower, in Carolina Boreali Trumpet 
flower vocatur "—Clayton), Zanthoxyhua (lam-lhmilis, Ilex decidua, 
Stewartia Malachodnuhon, LvrhHgia birriprx, 1 Ilia, opsis chinenri' 



1937] Fernald -Plants of the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 
("Hydrocotyle foliis brevioribus, linearibus obtusis"), Sabntm 
candra Cynovtonvm Mitrcola ("Rubia spicata parva alba, 
Buchnera americana, Scluvnlb „ amnean'U ^ w, r.n, u*. 
grandifiorus, Tdragonothcca h.-Umthmd.s, kngm Dumi.tm,, a . 
nanthes autumnaUs. It is, therefore, not improbable thnMlu I 
ing, discovered in Virginia by Clayton, may be reins a e< < _ 
members of the flora : Smilax lanceolata, Burmanma biflora ( uu 
nia aquatica pusilla, flore purpureo P^hro . . • 
paludosa. Floret Septembri. Clayt. n. 2^ h L °" "' 
Persea Borbonia (known in Delaware), Schrankm »»' >*>W' 
mosa . . . floribus & siliquis in capitula "*™^ d ^ 
Avschynommc virginica (known in Delaware an< - « . 
««» denticulalum (typical), J/«r*A«/h« f "^^ H ^ H ,;^. /W// 
'mplicUnmo, sarpius ^ biflow,^ /^^^"^'''^^^JJ^ ,,. 



Gronovius, ed. ,s: i^, w^ iu " — -«' 

As already emphasized, the species inakir 
of the Coastal ^ *«2^2fc^:M 

uniform occurrence. Man. . fri^ia flam, Pamcuw 

arcolata, Piiiux Tiinlu, .hniipmi* mill' • )lt .; rrnr „ r va, Ryucho- 
scopariwiL Tnusacum dactyloides, Eke 

ii'trrijimitii 

Saururus , 
Qiw.tcu.9 o 



abtcoadita Macke 
oinmUiolm and f//«»''«. 



474 Rhodora [Deckmrkh 

dccurrens, Xyssa aquatint, Cornus strict a, Hydrocatyb umheliaia, 
Lcucothoe raremosu, Oxydmidrum urhoreum, I accinium xtamvieum, 
Diospyros Virginia n a, Sym ploco* tinetoria, Fra.rnius caroiiniana Mill., 
(ielsemium sempmircns, (irntiana purrifoliu, Salria lyrata, Pijcnan- 
t he mum uristufum. Bacupa acuminata, Cratiola rirgiuiana (sphacro- 
carpa), Mimulus alatus, Gerardia virgin ica (flam) and (i. purpurea, 
Galium obtusum var. filifolium (Wieg.) Fern., I'iburnum nudum, 
F.lephanfopuft nudatus and tomentosus, Kupaloriu m eapUhfolnim, 
rotundifolium and codestinum, Chrysopsis mariana, Solidago odora, 

coridifolims; Bacrharis- fml i m ifoli a , Pludu'u fnetida, (inuphalium pur- 
pureum, Hcliauihus afroruben.s, Ilclcnium fenuifldium, Cacalia atri- 

tions varyin.tr from local abundance in one or few small areas to single 

tion of the flora has the characteristics of cither a relic-flora, left over 

or a pioneering flora which has not succeeded in competition with 
more aggressive and dominating species. The cases of Eleockaris 

Lindluimeri (map 57), Juncm megace phalus, Amianthium muscae- 
toxicum, Hypoxia Lnngii, Hezoledris rpicoUx (map 18), Clematis 
achrolewa, (ientiana Porphyria and Iloustnnia teuuifolia, already 
cited, are typical for at least 300 species in eastern Virginia. In order 

Piedmont). As I at present understand the more noteworthy plants 
of the Virginian Coastal Plain they fall into seven major groups, five 
of the groups with parallel subdivisions. The species with only 1-3 
very small stations on the Coastal Plain of the state are indicated 

by an asterisk. Weed\ species, Midi as F.runrostis hirsutu, Aristidn 
oUgaufha, Cmrhrv* .spp., Fimbristqlls Bahiminiaua Saqiua decumbent, 



19371 Fernalil, -Plants of tin- Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia 

I Occurring wholly or chiefly ox the Embayed Norther 

o1 m V Co\st\i l'i \in ' t; 1v\tk\sk»ns krom it (Cape Lookout, 



lurid inn 

*Rynchospora trichop 



wipes rem., .1 [: />.,/,„„, ,u <a ,>■' 

hcidum v&r. niacin,, h«rn.. ' ■ ,"'" . n/ . n ; ' v . ir virqiniuna Y01 

Grimesn Fern. iV (.rise.. ' <"J^ " • macropodu Vex 



,un in Virginia, 
Smr/"^ (Ashe 1 



1111, \\| M Koil -, o| 1 1 .| II. , 111 Id \ II i IM , <H V.RIII- 

i plants as ■'■Sa<ptturio \V,_a!h< rhiaua Fern, imap •">), ''Triodia 
iiiprntitit (Small) IVm tV: Grisc, Vaaicuu, uialtaaiusi-cclais, 
\t,dmpn<jon tcrnarius var. glaaresna* (Scril)ii. ) Fern. A: Grisc.. 
/'.s var. (flan n> [>.<')>■ (Ell.) Hitchc, *Cyperus retrorsus var. 
ton) Fern. & Gn em. & Grisc, 



^/"-HhinlStuiie,! MtUlttlUnuaW V C i u 1 1- ( l>„llatu >i likllhi 
"J uncus majuct piiaius, Dioscorca hirtiratdix iM.vi'.'Jl), * M ala.ris Jlaridjiim 
Chapm.) Iw .. i Engelm. & Gray, 

*liuptisia alba and £. tindwm (fi. (,7/A .. Mm.lh. Tnu/m unas var. 
Inticfnlittn, 1,'hus lopallttui t\pi<al), << , ,i „ , I <■ • " - 1 tola t^tu- 
loifn Fll., /Y Ashe) Rehder, *Pyxidanthera barbu- 

Inta, FwxIhha carol iniana var. pubexceus (M. A. (Y) Fori'.., Awlcpia* liuxr- 
o/ato and var. pan pundit (Michx.) Fern.. Taicrinm anmdat* \lilorak), 
*Trichostemu Y ■ im var. pvbemium Fern. A: Grisc, 

fiu-ordia rue „//„ m obtusum 

« elongata Small and */,. giuinhdoxa 
W ;l 1 1 . . 'Curph, phnrn:< tomentosus (Michx.) T. & G. and *<Y 
(Michx.) T. & G., *Liatris grant in i folia var. lasia Fern. A: < Yisc, Solidaiju 
<>"l»rula var. putrcrnlenta (Nutt.) Chapm., & pinetorum Small and *#. 
""drain Sma - , uroauster Fern. & Grisc, ¥ Cn<ipha- 

••',, var. tfeMm (Britton) Blake and Arnica acaw/i's. 
IIA. Like II but with Colonies also ox the Appalachian ok 
Ozark Upland. *Corex Collinsii Nutt. (map 12),' "Trillium pimlltu>< 
1 >z:wk Plateaiw. Ym ,.,,-/ , .,,._ />„ //; ,/,,,,/ iJica.llei 

>;irn., .l.vr//' - ,./,,„ ,,,,,„,,_ ■ Knlmiu 

1 ern .- fr „//„/'/ ■ viduln I'oniit'll 
m ap ID (n ,7//7//,/ tttnen, I ,,/,„■ ,,/n ( Porter) 

Small Aster grandiflorus and A. dwnosws var. corid if alius and Coreopsi* 
rcrlicillaUi. 

IIP. Like II hit with isolated Colonies near or ahoit the Great 
Lakes (chiefly Lake Michigan). Puaican, ('otmrnnmamim var. 
Addixmn, (Nash) Stone, Fwircno sguarrosa, Scfer/f/ pam-illnra var. <''»'- 
o/tmawa and Cares data. Doubtless others. 

III. Ox the East Gulf Coastal Plain (eastern Louisiana and 
ll>M ^ !i ' 1 ' 1 "* -"m western Georgia or northwestern Florida) 
,v ' ilu >1 x -- Ih vx " ilA '-i- '»k the Atlantic Coastal Plain, extending 

NORTH TO Vim, IMA ,,r HIAOND. Slid, ^p(ri(- ;,.> ~ fnm, >,,oltiia, 'Tox- 
.. 

"'}}'■ I!"'"*"-'" 1 , <'"l<»»"', ;; s e i a ta Pursh (map 30), 

' '" • map 13) and P. C<m- 

para Link, Lipocarpha maculaia, *Rynchospora dodecandra Baldw., 



Ka Ashe) Saig. and "'.' 

I;;;.-;;;,,; ,;, ;!;.., ■• (Harper 

BE (Ell ' '»(''" '/''' f*ieJ^ 

Mdachodendrm! 'tfyj SpSSS 

\ ////// IK <;„n U..1 /' /'"»'/" '"^"nuU, H..UHIAN OK 1HL 

^ ; . . - ::. 

(map '_>(» :u.(l / \ -//<>//<'. l-:»i»it»ri<H» olh>»» (map •>!>, ,, 

II1H. I.1KI, III HIT WITH IS" I ^'^J " L p'!,V,,Y,^r-/A^/, /Wr»/» 



,1 " I 



J9 



Si 



*- ' Jf' 






Mai' .!!, range of Rwr i \i \i\.i\mt- u, 
>m \n\, .;; [, cus , h 
35-38 see Eup atom „ ,„ ]>,,', [{;";•)" !•'=!' 
Kvxium M^ailioVvL^'var'^'TuirMviVi -1"'' 



;sk; :;j, I^nchospobaTob- 



(Raf.) Sare 



■Min.. //. aithicu and A'. ituxpansii, *Cltnliv)ii ,, 

Crantz, *Scleria ciliata, Carcx stylotkxo, *C. crrhritlora W'ieu., * 
var. »,<W, C (jlnuc, ruts I'M and < (ollindata var. ««*/rai 
, '/a Beyr., *Z. platylepis Chapni.. A', ilitformis and *.' 
(artnieola), I and */•,'. coin prrssnni, *. 

lanrrolata Xutt., Tillandsia asm old, s, .hi urns rcprns, *./. /;o 
Michx., ./. /;///»//// Chapni., 7'n/,77^,, ,y/c,7„^/ ; *.l/c/m owe 
laurifolia, S. Walfui, *Hijpoxis stssilis [,., *//. microtdho Poll: 
1 1 o, O"* rct*a i 

1 *<?. «//cm/ Michx.. Bananichia linhhnnn 
nuginosa (Michx. i Rnhrl>. imai- 1m. /Y/-.»r. 
I Sarg., *P. Borbonia, Drosera capillar is Poir., */). 6rcr- 
."W/7/, "Sell rank id niirropluilla. *< 'rotatoria Pa. 
nt'imlifolia, Tcphrnsio yjicntu, ■Hophsu, n'llnsa, "Zornia 

'<>''• mi T cV_ (i . Rlnptrhus n train, Hiohadd 
Zanthn.njhnn ('l,ira-Ihrcni,s, "{'otiii/nhi ramosn. ( 'nidosrolas > 
Cyrilla racemijlora. Ilex romihiria, Vitis rim no var. ttoridana 
"Ascjnnn ffuprriroiilrs ( tvpical i .- II ijpiriiin,, nudi lloraia, Vi 
(p'nata and M". lonrrolata var. /■///,//,/ !( iivcne] Wrath. oY < iVisc. 
/ineare and */,. hmnvlotiim K\\., ■■h'liixia rifioso, Liohrigia I 
linearis, *l. j,Uosn Walt, and 'L. nlala K|| 



'h ; isni,s n.nniimn M. A. Curtis, Bacopa ( 
r onmm'a var. can,, folio (Michx.) Fern., 
t.) Blake (map n). ('trichina s,d,idata. 
iBosciiADV.) Chapni., (ioliun, aailhnn 



■ (jraminifolifi and 



1937J Fernald, Plants of tin- Inner Coastal Plain 



Great Lakes (chiefly Lake Michigan). Woodivardia areolata (also 
IVA), Panicum verrucosum (map 50), /'. l„,-id,n„ and /'. „„h„r,.,, /•//,„- 
e/w/.s microcarpa Torr. (also IVA), C'arex Lon^w Mackenz., l>cW 
w///o/- (also IVA). i'olijgiiln crucioto (map 51)' and flydrocotylc xntihdlnUi. 
V. On the Gulf Coastal Plain both E